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Ergonomics in a Mobile Working Environment JEROME J. CONGLETON, PHD, PE, CPE JULY 12, 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Ergonomics in a Mobile Working Environment JEROME J. CONGLETON, PHD, PE, CPE JULY 12, 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ergonomics in a Mobile Working Environment JEROME J. CONGLETON, PHD, PE, CPE JULY 12, 2011

2 State of Todays Workforce 157.5 million persons worked in the US during 2008 73.1% of men of all men in the workforce work, 61.3% of women of all women in the workforce work Health stats 67% of adults in the US are overweight or obese 23.6 million people7.8% of the populationhave diabetes. Diagnosed: 17.9 million people Undiagnosed: 5.7 million people 12% of adults in the US have diagnosed Heart Disease Over 30% of people under 55 suffer from high blood pressure 37.13% adults in the US have high cholesterol >= 200 mg/dL Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics http://www.bls.gov/CPS/ American Society for Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery Average time off/leave/absence 5.3 million days lost in small business in 2007 Small firms average absenteeism – 6 days Absenteeism from work costs small business >$1 billion per year National average is 8 days. Small firm average is 6 days. Medium firm average is 8 days. Large firm average is 10 days. Back pain and stress are the biggest contributors

3 Workforce (Generational) The civilian labor force is projected to by 12.8 million, or 8.5%, to 164.2 million over the 2006- 2016 period. The primary working age group, between 25 and 54 years of age, is projected to from 68.4% of the labor force in 2006 to 64.6 % by 2016. Workers 55 and older are projected to from 16.8% to 22.7% of the labor force between 2006 and 2016. The aging of the baby boom generation will cause not only an in the oldest age category but a in the percentage of younger workers. Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2007

4 Profile of a Generational Workforce Currently there are four generations in the workforce: Veterans: born between 1922 and 1945 Baby Boomers: born from 1946 to 1964 Generation Xers: born from 1965 to 1980 Generation Yers: born between 1981 and 2000 K. Columbia, Addressing Generational Diversity, Special to Newspapers & Technology

5 Aging It is projected that in 2010 the population will grow to 40 million and by 2030 the 65+ population could grow to some 72 million Americans. The life expectancy of an individual who reaches the age of 65 will have an average life expectancy of an additional 18.7 years. By 2030, more than 1/4th of the older population is expected to have an undergraduate degree. U.S. Bureau of Census, Current Population Survey (CPS), Annual Social and Economic Survey File, March 2006.

6 Obesity In 2005 approximately 1.6 billion adults were overweight and at least 400 million adults were obese around the world; while 20 million children under the age of 5 were overweight globally. A In 2006, 66% of Americans were overweight or obese. Obesity became the number 2 killer of Americans with 400,000 deaths. It was second only to smoking at 450,000 deaths. A The number of morbidly obese adults in the U.S. exceeds four million and is continuing to grow more rapidly than any other weight category. Source: World Health Report, 2002. World Health Organization (WHO). Accessed at: www.who.int/peh/burden/globalestim.htm WHERE TO FIND THE RIGHT STUFFwww.who.int/peh/burden/globalestim.htm M. Benden, Stand to Lose, Weight Loss Secrets for Office Workers, 2008, 8

7 Obesity In a report by The Conference Board it was found that obese employees cost U.S. private employers approximately $45 billion annually in medical expenditures and loss. Obese worker will lose 13 times more days of work from work-related injury or illness than a non-obese worker; obese workers file twice the number of workers compensation claims and have seven times higher medical costs from those claims. Source: Consumer Affairs. 2008. Obesity A More Costly Workplace Health Issue Than Smoking. M. Benden, Stand to Lose, Weight Loss Secrets for Office Workers, 2008, 91

8 Obesity In a report by The Conference Board it was found that obese employees cost U.S. private employers approximately $45 billion annually in medical expenditures and loss. Obese worker will lose 13 times more days of work from work-related injury or illness than a non-obese worker; obese workers file twice the number of workers compensation claims and have seven times higher medical costs from those claims. Source: Consumer Affairs. 2008. Obesity A More Costly Workplace Health Issue Than Smoking. M. Benden, Stand to Lose, Weight Loss Secrets for Office Workers, 2008, 91

9 Obesity and Technology Change the Office Worker and the Work Since 1960, computers have allowed increased task work without interruption to occur at the primary office workstation. At the same time, the worker has become increasingly obese. Both factors are significant to the design and layout of office furniture. This chart shows the percentage of Obesity in U.S. Adults vs. Time A Source: M. Benden, Stand to Lose, Weight Loss Secrets for Office Workers, 2008, 10

10 Recent Obesity Trends 19602007Change Average Male Weight166 lbs191 lbs 14% Average Female Weight140 lbs164 lbs 20% Percentage of overweight adults in the United States

11 Definition of Ergonomics Ergonomics: The study of the work to prevent and control injury and illness while improving wellness, productivity, quality, marketing, customer service, delivery and reducing turnover and costs.

12 Anthropometric Design Design for the RANGE Adjustable car seat – leg and arm length, seated eye height Headset – (head diameter) Wristwatch band – (wrist circumference)

13 Elbow Rest Height (Standing) Safe Lifting Height Design for the RANGE

14 Anthropometric Design Design for the EXTREME Height - design clearance for tall people Reach - design to be reached by short people Design for the AVERAGE Public seating - designed to accommodate the median of the population in use

15 Anthropometric Demonstration Knuckle Height (Standing) Elbow Rest Height (Standing) Hand Length/Grip Span Functional Reach Strength Hand Dynamometer Demonstration

16 Astronaut Sleeping in Zero-G Environment

17 Why Sit/Stand? Why Sit? Less Fatigue Knee, hip back, ankle Stability Data entry Mousing Use of Foot Controls Group communication – meetings, etc. Why Stand? Cover Large Areas Use Larger Forces Promote Blood Flow and Postural Changes Better Respiration and Reaction Alertness Burn More Calories Lower Pressure in Low Back Discs by Up to 40%

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20 Sitting & Standing

21 Stand/Sit Concept By standing for 2 hours throughout an average workday, you can burn 280 extra calories. In one year, that converts to roughly 20 pounds of weight loss. Results vary depending on body shape and metabolism. Raising desk heights from 30 to 40 and raising the chair to stool height allows users to easily and freely stand up to work periodically. A keyboard tray and monitor arm are also essential if an electric height adjustable desk is not available. Additionally, the extra 10 of storage under the 40 desk results in a 33% gain in cubic storage.

22 Health Benefits of Standing

23

24

25 Sit-Stand Workstations

26 Sitting & Standing

27 StandUp

28 Back Board Chair

29 Todays Sit-Stand Workstations Productivity up to 17% Figures reflect employees comfort or lack of discomfort Figures reflect employees awareness of their own control over their wellness Positive Employee Feedback Appreciate the ability to adjust workstation to their specific needs Enjoy the opportunity to stand Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Proceedings, 1994

30 Todays Sit-Stand Workstations The workstations of today are adjusted to a standing position an average of 3.6 times/day 23% standing and 77% sitting Discomfort ratings over 26% Work-related injury/illness by 28% Lost-time by 82% Associated costs by 95% Human Factors & Ergonomics Society Proceedings, 1994

31 Facilities Benefits Benefits of the FIXED height 40 workstation No power requirements Much simpler construction cost More storage underneath No cord damage or management issues Faster install, simple maintenance. No pinch points from moving parts One simple keyboard mechanism can cover the 5 th - 95 th seated and standing heights.

32 Worker Benefits Major Ergo benefits including : blood flow respiration and alertness risk of injury calorie burn to fight weight gain in adverse postural changes from poor seating A workstation and work environment DESIGNED for computer users, not modified for computer users Significant cost over adjustable sit/stand stations Design depths for easy viewing of a Flat Panel Monitor Maintenance and Repair Productivity Collaboration and Interaction

33 Standing Fatigue: Strategies to Eliminate and/or Significantly Reduce Sit more Use anti-fatigue mats Use foot rails Wear good athletic cross training shoes Use gel inserts in good athletic cross training type shoes. Remember you may need to get shoes ½ to 1 size larger

34 Sitting Fatigue: Strategies to Eliminate and/or Significantly Reduce Stand more or even better move/walk Use sit/stand workstations Use good ergonomic chairs Change postures even while sitting from slightly reclined to sit/stand

35 N tune Video

36 What Does the Future Hold? Computers that know you? Nanotechnology? Biometrics for all types of access? Retinal Scans Finger Prints Voice Activation Smart furniture that adjusts to your needs just by walking into the room? What about 10 GHz computers, holograms or heads-up displays? The problem with the future is there are so many of them - Anonymous Future Magazine 1999

37 The Future Office Eugeroics pills for wakefullness, and cognitive enhancement will replace coffee and other stimulants. Pocket library with flexible ink screens that will have the feel of a newspaper or magazine without paper. Staples with RFID to track important documents Transparent monitors on windows on thin electroluminescent films called organic light emitting diodes or OLEDs. Smart pens that release the correct liquid depending on the surface. Cordless power charging for ALL portable devices

38 The Future Office Smart phones that record meetings on your calendar as you discuss them with co-workers R&D approval trials via VR evaluations rather than physical prototypes VR filing cabinets to eliminate paper and watch yourself remove a file from a draw that only exists in a computer.

39 Future Office Trends Over 600,000 laptop thefts occurred in 2004, totaling an estimated $720 million in hardware losses and $5.4 billion in theft of proprietary information. – Safeware Insurance, 2004 The chances of a laptop being stolen are 1 in 10. – Gartner Group, 2002 A laptop is stolen every 53 seconds in the USA. – Symantec Notebooks accounted for 50.9 percent of personal computers bought at retail in 2005, while desktops accounted for 49.1 percent. In 2004, notebooks accounted for only 43 percent of U.S. retail sales, while desktops accounted for 57 percent according to a report from Current Analysis. – CNET News, 2006

40 Site Based Office Ergonomics Wall-less Executive Brain Storming Rooms Group Areas Intel replaced 80% of desktops with IBM ThinkPad to be used with external mouse and keyboard with desk mounted camel.

41 Netbooks, Notebooks & Laptops Designed for portability not use for long periods of time Keyboard and monitor are attached so adjustment/positioning is difficult Screen is smaller than desktop Can slip and move during use Heat Encourages poor working posture Prolonged use results in neck, low back and arm pain

42 Ergonomic Solutions Netbooks, Notebooks & Laptops Utilize neutral posture while working Use External Keyboard Allows for ergonomic positioning Use External Mouse Distributes motion over a wider area Use a Stand Addresses musculoskeletal and vision ergonomics Can be placed on lap or flat surface Non-skid bottom Lightweight and portable Use an Ergonomic Carrying Bag/Backpack Purpose designed Several compartments, handle, and wide shoulder strap Only carry items that you need

43 Cell Phones Cradling of phone between ear and shoulder results in discomfort and pain in shoulder and neck Distraction while talking or texting can cause accidents Cognitive Visual Physical

44 270 Million Cell Phones 400,000 accidents related to cell phones 200,000 accidents caused by texting $5.2 million in direct economic loss per fatal crash 97% Americans support a ban 44 Facts

45 Is hands-free the solution? 3 types of distraction Visual Physical Cognitive Fact: research shows no difference between hands-free and handheld 37% reduction in spatial awareness 45 Solution?

46 Risk of Accidents 46 Relative Likelihood of Accident

47 CELLULAR PHONES AND FATAL TRAFFIC COLLISIONS: Analysis employed data from 223,137 traffic accidents occurring between 1992 and 1995. Statistically adjusting for other collision variables (age, gender, alcohol use, speed, inattention and driving left of center), an approximate nine-fold increased risk was found for a fatality given the use of a cellular phone. An approximate two-fold increased risk for a fatality was found given the presence of a cellular phone in the vehicle. Accid. Anal. and Prev., Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 519–524, 1998 © 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

48 TEXTING TEENAGE DRIVERS: Conclusion: Most teens surveyed reported having talked or read or sent a text message using a cell phone while driving. Somewhat less than half engaged in one of these behaviors the last time they drove. However, many teens reported using strategies to reduce this risk and in certain instances, cell phone nonuse was the normative behavior. Better measurement of the extent and nature of phone use while driving is needed. http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713 456148

49 Inventors: Dr. Mark Benden and Dr. Rainer Fink Inhibits cell phone use by drivers Wireless communication between car and phone Cell Phone Inhibitor 49 Battery Shuts Off V > 0 OBD2

50 Automobile Ergonomics Hands free and head up Heads up displays Direct connection Power source Work space NSF I/UCR Center in Ergonomics Texas A&M University, S. Hudock, Dissertation 1998 Mobile Desk Mobile Solutions Roadmaster Mobile Desk for Cars

51 What is Telematics? Diagnostics Communication Market size 10 million fleet trucks on US roads 18 Wheelers 51 Telematics

52 Compatible with existing equipment Allows safe communication with drivers 52 License the Technology

53 Mobile Telephones, Distracted Attention, and Pedestrian Safety Mobile phone users crossed unsafely into oncoming traffic significantly more than did either of the other groups. For pedestrians as with drivers, cognitive distraction from mobile phone use reduces situation awareness, increases unsafe behavior, putting pedestrians at greater risk for accidents, and crime victimization. Accident Analysis and Prevention 40 (2008) 69–75

54 Use hands free headset Hands free devices required by law in many states Some target truckers, bus drivers and school zones Alternate between ears if hands free headset is not an option Store frequently dialed numbers in memory Reduce amount of time spent on the phone Ergonomic Solutions Cell Phones

55 PDAs Allows for more productivity when away from computer Screen to view text is small Keyboard and area to enter text arent very large Repetitive motion (typing) can cause hand or wrist pain Distraction while talking or texting can cause accidents

56 Select appropriate size and weight for use Learn shortcuts to avoid repetitive motions Use external keyboard Allows for entry of information by typing on standard keyboard Add a screen magnifier Ergonomic Solutions PDAs

57 Tablets Can slip and move if you dont hold it Difficult to see if not held at an angle causing poor visibility Can get extension of wrist depending upon work surface Musculoskeletal or vision ergonomics depending on where you set the tablet can occur

58 Ergonomic Solutions Tablets Use a multitask tray with the tablet Can achieve positive, negative or flat angle Heat resistant Non-skid bottom Use External Keyboard Allows for ergonomic positioning Use External Mouse Distributes motion over a wider area Use a Stand Addresses musculoskeletal and vision ergonomics Can be placed on lap or flat surface Non-skid bottom Lightweight and portable

59 Portable Workstation Adjusts to a sitting height of 23 or a standing height of 46 Adjustable angle for laptop work surface Document & mouse work surface Rolling cart meeting carry-on luggage requirements Organizer pockets and document files Based on anthropometric data NSF I/UCR Center in Ergonomics Texas A&M University, M. Craig, Thesis 1997

60 Closed Opened computer GO

61 Jerome J. Congleton, PhD, PE, CPE Co-Director of the Ergonomics Center Professor of Ergonomics and Safety Engineering Strength & Conditioning Performance Coach Texas A&M University System Health Science Center School of Rural Public Health Mail Stop 1266 College Station, TX 77843-1266 Office:(979) 845-5574 Fax :(979) 845-0885 E-mail:ergo@tamu.edu Websites: http://www.tamhsc.edu/


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