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Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik.

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Presentation on theme: "Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik."— Presentation transcript:

1 Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik – 422222, India

2 © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. SEP-S08071-CP1-04 Introduction Programmes and Courses SEP –S08071-CP1-UN1

3 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Credits Academic Inputs by Sonali Alkari Faculty YCMOU Nagpur Centre, Faculty LAD college P.G. D of Biotechnology Research officer Ankur Seeds Pvt Ltd sonalisa_alkari@yahoo.co.in Sonalisaal@rediffmail.com

4 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.4 How to Use This Resource Counselor at each study center should use this presentation to deliver lecture of 40-60 minutes during Face-To-Face counseling. Discussion about students difficulties or tutorial with assignments should follow the lecture for about 40-60 minutes. Handouts (with 6 slides on each A4 size page) of this presentation should be provided to each student. Each student should discuss on the discussion forum all the terms which could not be understood. This will improve his writing skills and enhance knowledge level about topics, which shall be immensely useful for end exam. Appear several times, for all the Self-Tests, available for this course. Student can use handouts for last minutes preparation just before end exam.

5 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.5 Learning Objectives After studying this module, you should be able to: Describe operating system Discuss Unix Describe Linux Discuss windows

6 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Operating System-1 An 'operating system' (commonly abbreviated OS and O/S) is the software component of a computer system that is responsible for the management and coordination of activities and the sharing of the resources of the computer. The operating system acts as a host for applications that are run on the machine. As a host, one of the purposes of an operating system is to handle the details of the operation of the hardware. This relieves application programs from having to manage these details and makes it easier to write applications. 6

7 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Operating System-2 Almost all computers, including handheld computers, desktop computers, supercomputers, and even video game consoles, use an operating system of some type. Some of the oldest models may however use an embedded operating system, that may be contained on a compact disk or other data storage device. Operating systems offer a number of services to application programs and users. Applications access these services through application programming interfaces (APIs) or system calls. 7

8 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Operating System-3 By invoking these interfaces, the application can request a service from the operating system, pass parameters, and receive the results of the operation. Users may also interact with the operating system with some kind a software user interface (UI) like typing commands by using command line interface (CLI) or using a graphical user interface (GUI, commonly pronounced gooey). For hand-held and desktop computers, the user interface is generally considered part of the operating system. 8

9 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Operating System-4 On large multi-user systems like Unix and Unix- like systems, the user interface is generally implemented as an application program that runs outside the operating system. Common contemporary operating systems include Microsoft Windows, Mac OS, Linux and Solaris. Microsoft Windows has a significant majority of market share in the desktop and notebook computer markets, while servers generally run on Linux or other Unix-like systems. Embedded device markets are split amongst several operating systems. 9

10 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Operating System-5 An operating system is a collection of technologies which are designed to allow the computer to perform certain functions. These technologies may or may not be present in every operating system, and there are often differences in how they are implemented. However as stated above most modern operating systems are derived from common design ancestors, and are therefore basically similar. 10

11 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Unix-1 Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX, sometimes also written as UNIX with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs, including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, and Joe Ossanna. Today's Unix systems are split into various branches, developed over time by AT&T as well as various commercial vendors and non-profit organizations. Unix operating systems are widely used in both servers and workstations. Unix was designed to be portable, multi-tasking and multi-user in a time-sharing configuration. 11

12 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Unix-2 The Unix environment and the client-server program model were essential elements in the development of the Internet and the reshaping of computing as centered in networks rather than in individual computers. Unix systems are characterized by various concepts: the use of plain text for storing data; a hierarchical file system; treating devices and certain types of inter-process communication (IPC) as files. Under Unix, the "operating system" consists of many of these utilities along with the master control program, the kernel. 12

13 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Unix-3 The kernel provides services to start and stop programs, handle the file system and other common "low level" tasks that most programs share, and, perhaps most importantly, schedules access to hardware to avoid conflicts if two programs try to access the same resource or device simultaneously. To mediate such access, the kernel was given special rights on the system, leading to the division between user-space and kernel-space. The microkernel concept was introduced in an effort to reverse the trend towards larger kernels and return to a system in which most tasks were completed by smaller utilities. 13

14 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Unix-4 The Unix system is composed of several components that are normally packaged together. By including in addition to the kernel of an operating system the development environment, libraries, documents, and the portable, modifiable source-code for all of these components, Unix was a self-contained software system. This was one of the key reasons it emerged as an important teaching and learning tool and has had such a broad influence. 14

15 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Unix-5 The original V7 UNIX distribution, consisting of copies of all of the compiled binaries plus all of the source code and documentation occupied less than 10MB, and arrived on a single 9-track magnetic tape. The printed documentation, typeset from the on-line sources, was contained in two volumes. 15

16 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Versions of UNIX There are many different versions of UNIX. Until a few years ago, there were two main versions: the line of UNIX releases that started at AT&T (the latest is System V Release 4), and another line from the University of California at Berkeley (the latest version is BSD 4.4). Some other major commercial versions include SunOS, Solaris, SCO UNIX, AIX, HP/UX, and ULTRIX. The freely available versions include Linux and FreeBSD. Many versions of UNIX, including System V Release 4, merge earlier AT&T releases with BSD features. The recent POSIX standard for UNIX-like operating systems defines a single interface to UNIX. 16

17 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Linux-1 Linux is a Unix-like computer operating systems which use the Linux kernel. Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free software and open source development; source code can be freely modified, used, and redistributed by anyone. Linux is predominantly known for its use in servers, although it is installed on a wide variety of computer hardware, ranging from embedded devices and mobile phones to supercomputers. Its popularity as a desktop/laptop operating system is growing due to the rise of netbooks and the Ubuntu distribution of the operating system. 17

18 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Linux-2 The name "Linux" comes from the Linux kernel, originally written in 1991 by Linus Torvalds. The system's utilities and libraries usually come from the GNU operating system, announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. Linux is a modular Unix-like operating system. Linux uses a monolithic kernel, the Linux kernel, which handles process control, networking, and peripheral and file system access. Device drivers are integrated directly with the kernel. Linux can be controlled by one or more of a text- based command line interface (CLI), graphical user interface (GUI). 18

19 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Linux-3 Most Linux distributions support dozens of programming languages. The most common collection of utilities for building both Linux applications and operating system programs is found within the GNU toolchain, which includes the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) and the GNU build system. Amongst others, GCC provides compilers for Ada, C, C++, Java, and Fortran. The Linux kernel itself is written to be compiled with GCC. Proprietary compilers for Linux include the Intel C++ Compiler and IBM XL C/C++ Compiler. 19

20 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Linux-4 Most distributions also include support for Perl, Ruby, Python and other dynamic languages. A number of Java Virtual Machines and development kits run on Linux, including the original Sun Microsystems JVM (HotSpot), and IBM's J2SE RE, as well as many open-source projects like Kaffe. The two main frameworks for developing graphical applications are those of GNOME and KDE. These projects are based on the GTK+ and Qt widget toolkits, respectively. Both support a wide variety of languages. 20

21 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Linux-5 General purpose use on desktops and servers, distributions may be specialized for different purposes including: computer architecture support, embedded systems, stability, security, localization to a specific region or language, targeting of specific user groups, support for real-time applications, or commitment to a given desktop environment. Furthermore, some distributions deliberately include only free software. Currently, over three hundred distributions are actively developed, with about a dozen distributions being most popular for general-purpose use. 21

22 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Linux Distributions-1 Distributions are organized into sections by the major distribution they are based on, or the package management system they are based around. Debian-based: Debian is a distribution that emphasizes free software. It is supported on many hardware platforms. Debian and distributions based on it use the.deb package format and the dpkg package manager. Ubuntu-based: Ubuntu is a distribution based on Debian. Both have different release schedules; Debian's release cycle is about 1.5 years and Ubuntu's 6 months. Ubuntu's packages are downloaded from Debian, re-packaged with Ubuntu version numbers and integrated to the system with Ubuntu-specific patches as needed. Ubuntu supports about 4 computer architectures, Debian about 10. Ubuntu has two maintenance lines (stable, in development), Debian has several suites (stable, testing, unstable, experimental). 22

23 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Linux Distributions-2 RPM-based: Red Hat Linux and SUSE Linux were the original major distributions that used the RPM file format, which is today used in several package management systems. Both of these later divided into commercial and community-supported distributions. Red Hat Linux divided into a community- supported distribution sponsored by Red Hat called Fedora, and a commercially supported distribution called Red Hat Enterprise Linux. 23

24 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Where to get Linux Find the distribution you are interested in by using the form to the left. Each distribution has a link to a list of locations where it can be downloaded. Linux books, many of which contain a free CD- ROM Vendors selling Linux on CD-ROMs Vendors selling computers pre-installed with Linux Linux kernal source code 24

25 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Microsoft Windows-1 Microsoft Windows is a series of software operating systems and graphical user interfaces produced by Microsoft. Microsoft first introduced an operating environment named Windows in November 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced previously. At the 2004 IDC Directions conference, it was stated that Windows had approximately 90% of the client operating system market. 25

26 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Microsoft Windows-2 The most recent client version of Windows is Windows Vista; the most recent server version is Windows Server 2008. Microsoft has stopped releasing updates and hotfixes for many old Windows operating systems, including all versions of Windows 9x and earlier versions of Windows NT. Windows versions prior to XP are no longer supported, with the exception of Windows 2000. Windows XP versions prior to SP2 are no longer supported either. Also, support for Windows XP 64-bit Edition ended after the release of the more recent Windows XP Professional x64 Edition. 26

27 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Microsoft Windows-3 The term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft (MS) operating system (OS) products. These products are generally categorized as follows: 16-bit operating environments: The early versions of Windows were often thought of as just graphical user interfaces, mostly because they ran on top of MS-DOS and used it for file system services. However, even the earliest 16-bit Windows versions already assumed many typical operating system functions, notably, having their own executable file format and providing their own device drivers (timer, graphics, printer, mouse, keyboard and sound) for applications. 27

28 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Microsoft Windows-4 Hybrid 16/32-bit operating environments: Windows/386 introduced a 32-bit protected mode kernel and virtual machine monitor. For the duration of a Windows session, it created one or more virtual 8086 environments and provided device virtualization for the video card, keyboard, mouse, timer and interrupt controller inside each of them. The user-visible consequence was that it became possible to preemptively multitask multiple MS-DOS environments in separate windows, although graphical MS-DOS applications required full screen mode. 28

29 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Microsoft Windows-5 32-bit operating systems: The NT family of Windows systems was fashioned and marketed for higher reliability business use, and was unencumbered by any Microsoft DOS patrimony. The first release was MS Windows NT 3.1 (1993, numbered "3.1" to match the consumer Windows version, which was followed by NT 3.5 (1994), NT 3.51 (1995), NT 4.0 (1996), and Windows 2000 (2000). NT 4.0 was the first in this line to implement the "Windows 95" user interface (and the first to include Windows 95s built-in 32-bit runtimes). 29

30 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Microsoft Windows-6 Microsoft then moved to combine their consumer and business operating systems with Windows XP, coming in both home and professional versions. Windows Server 2003, released a year and a half after Windows XP, brought Windows Server up to date with MS Windows XP. After a lengthy development process, Windows Vista was released toward the end of 2006, and its server counterpart, Windows Server 2008 was released in early 2008. Windows CE, Microsofts offering in the mobile and embedded markets, is also a true 32-bit operating system that offers various services for all sub- operating workstations. 30

31 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Microsoft Windows-7 64-bit operating systems: Windows NT included support for several different platforms before the x86-based personal computer became dominant in the professional world. Versions of NT from 3.1 to 4.0 variously supported PowerPC, DEC Alpha and MIPS R4000, some of which were 64-bit processors, although the operating system treated them as 32-bit processors. 31

32 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Windows NT-1 Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. It was originally designed to be a powerful high-level- language-based, processor-independent, multiprocessing, multiuser operating system with features comparable to Unix. It was intended to complement consumer versions of Windows that were based on MS-DOS. NT was the first fully 32-bit version of Windows, whereas its consumer-oriented counterparts, Windows 3.1x and Windows 9x, were 16-bit/32-bit hybrids. 32

33 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Windows NT-2 Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista, Windows Home Server, and Windows Server 2008 are based upon the Windows NT system, although they are not branded as Windows NT. A main design goal of NT was hardware and software portability. Versions of NT were available for a variety of processor architectures, namely Intel IA-32, AMD64, MIPS R4000, Alpha, PowerPC, and Itanium. Broad software compatibility was achieved with support for several API; primary Win32 API and limited support for POSIX and OS/2 APIs. 33

34 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Windows NT-3 Partial MS-DOS compatibility was achieved via an integrated DOS Virtual Machine. For secure multiuser server solutions, NT supported per-object (file, function, and role) access control lists allowing a rich set of security permissions to be applied to systems and services. NT supported Windows network protocols, inheriting the previous OS/2 LAN Manager networking, as well as Unix's TCP/IP networking (for which Microsoft would implement a TCP/IP stack derived from the BSD Unix stack). 34

35 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Windows NT-4 Windows NT 3.1 was the first version of Windows to utilize 32-bit "flat" virtual memory addressing on 32-bit processors. Its companion product, Windows 3.1, used segmented addressing and switches from 16- bit to 32-bit addressing in pages. Windows NT 3.1 featured a core kernel providing a system API, running in supervisor mode, and a set of user-space environments with their own APIs which included the new Win32 environment, an OS/2 1.3 text-mode environment and a POSIX environment. 35

36 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Windows NT-5 In Windows NT 3.x, several I/O driver subsystems, such as video and printing, were user-mode subsystems. In Windows NT 4, the video, server and printer spooler subsystems were integrated into the kernel. Windows NT's first GUI was strongly influenced by (and programmatically compatible with) that from Windows 3.1; Windows NT 4's interface was redesigned to match that of the brand new Windows 95, moving from the Program Manager to the Start Menu/Taskbar design. 36

37 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. What You Learn-1… An operating system is a collection of technologies which are designed to allow the computer to perform certain functions. These technologies may or may not be present in every operating system, and there are often differences in how they are implemented. However as stated above most modern operating systems are derived from common design ancestors, and are therefore basically similar. Unix is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs.

38 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. What You Learn-2… Major versions of Unix include unix developed at AT&T and University of California and other commerical version includes SunOS, Solaris, SCO UNIX, AIX, HP/UX, and ULTRIX. Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free software and open source development; source code can be freely modified, used, and redistributed by anyone. Linux has Debian-based, Ubuntu-based and RPM based distrubution. Microsoft Windows is a series of software operating systems and graphical user interfaces produced by Microsoft.

39 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Critical Thinking Questions oDescribe operating system ? o. Describe Linux in details. oDescribe Unix in details. oWrite a note on windows. 39

40 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Hints For Critical Thinking Question oAn operating system is a collection of technologies which are designed to allow the computer to perform certain functions. oPrinciple and technology used in and different distribution of Linux operating system oPrinciple and technology used in and different distribution of Unix operating system oPrinciple and technology used in and different distribution of windows operating system 40

41 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Study Tips www.en.wikipedia.org Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Wikipedia the free encyclopedia

42 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Study Tips:1 Book1 Title: Security Warrior Author: Cyrus Peikari, Anton Chuvakin Publisher: O'Reilly Media, Inc. Book2 Title: Fundamentals of computers Author: V. Rajaraman Publisher: Prentice~Hall of India

43 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. Study Tips:2 Book3 Title: Fundamental of computers Hardware Author: M.S.Bhatia Publishers: Khanna book publishing Book4 Title: Bioinformatics Author: C.V. Murthy. Publishers: Himalaya PublishingHouse, India

44 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2008, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved. End of the Presentation Thank You


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