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Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Presented by Dr. John C. Leavitt.

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Presentation on theme: "Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Presented by Dr. John C. Leavitt."— Presentation transcript:

1 Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Presented by Dr. John C. Leavitt

2 Background Small businesses constitute a significant roll within the U.S. economy They create over half of the non-farm private gross domestic product and hire over 40% of high-tech workers such as scientists and engineers. According to Yallapragada and Bhuiyan (2011), The U.S. government has historically supported small businesses since they play a significant role within the high-tech markets; Small business is the spark that ignites innovation times more intellectual property (patents) come from small businesses Small business therefore should continue to receive assistance in obtaining government contracts because reductions may negatively impact the economy (SBA, 2010; Senge, 2009). The U.S. Government has levied requirements to retrain and certify project and program managers on Government contracts. They are now required or strongly encouraged for many A&D government subcontractors. 2

3 Why do Small Businesses this matter to US? AACEI Governmental agencies are expecting programs and projects to contain costs and create functional cost estimates for small task order driven businesses to large Government contracts. Training Project Managers will help satisfy this requirement –Realistic Basis of Estimates (BOEs) for cost and schedule to help the government evaluate true contract value. 3

4 Problem Statement The problem statement, from the research study I conducted is as follows: More than 660,000 small businesses in the United States failed in 2009 (SBA, 2010). According to the DoD (2010), 31% of A&D contracts are at risk of not being offered to small businesses. –Small businesses focusing on high-tech markets of A&D industries drive future innovation and are important to the overall health of the U.S. economy (SBA, 2009c). 4

5 Problem Statement The general business problem was that small businesses may not meet new federal government requirements for PM certification (NASA, 2009b). The specific problem in high-tech areas such as A&D is that proof of PM competency or certification was either required or strongly encouraged to bid new government contracts (FAI, 2007). –Small businesses may be unable to afford the costs associated with new and future training or certification requirements and will risk the loss of significant government revenue opportunities (DoD, 2010). 5

6 Purpose Statement The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to identify the contributing factors of a successful project management training plan. I interviewed 20 (purposely sampled) small business executives from the aerospace & defense market of the Southeast United States. For a PM training plan designed for small businesses within the A&D market to be successful, the plan has to be easy, quickly implementable, and have a low cost (Bager, 2011; FAI, 2007; Haug, Soren & Arlbjorn, 2011). Failure of small businesses within A&D markets is a significant social concern- the impact on society if Small Businesses fail it would be in direct conflict with the FAR established to ensure the sustainability of small businesses (FAI, 2010). 6

7 Research Question/s The overarching research question was: what contributing factors for a PM training plan will help to sustain small businesses for U.S. A&D markets? The researcher asked eight interview questions to obtain the data that fully answered the research question, such as: What level of academic degree and PM certification, or combination thereof, would be the most desirable to your organization? 7

8 Conceptual Framework for qualitative studies (looked at several-came back to TLT) transforming, or transformational, theory (Favored by PMI) –First introduced by James McGregor Burns in 1978 task oriented leadership –Bales, 1950 (Task Driven good for managing process not leading teams) theory of constraints (Identify the constraints, resolve or re-org) –The Goal Goldratt & Cox, 1992 (Rhee, Cho, & Bae, 2010) Weakest link ideology Transformational Leadership is concerned with not only performance but the development of followers to their fullest potential from within (Nichols, 2008).. The PMI stresses teamwork and the use of high-performing work teams within the PMBOK. Transformational leadership ensures that leadership will broaden and elevate the followers interests by stirring them to look beyond their own interests for the good of the team or the project (Andersen, Dysvik, & Anne, 2009). 8

9 Literature Reviewed an overview Historical (prior to 2007)Business management or education documents Government/Aerospace- related documents PM or program management-related documents Books511 Journals800 Magazines000 Webpages or online documents 010 Total1321 Current Business management or education documents Government/ aerospace-related documents Project/program management-related documents Books (46)1124*11 Journals (86)53528 Magazines (1)001 Dissertations (4)202 Webpages or Gov online documents (23)111*11 Total Peer Reviewed Current Business management or education documents Government/ aerospace-related documents Project/program management-related documents Books (36)621*9 Journals (86)53528 Magazines (0)000 Dissertations (4)202 Webpages or Gov online documents (14)07*7 Total Table 1 Breakdown of Historical Documents Reviewed Table 2 Breakdown of 160 Current Documents Reviewed Table 3 Breakdown of Current Peer- Reviewed Documents (140 or approximately 88%) 9

10 Method/Design chosen helped add new insights I considered many methods to test or quantify whether the stakeholders were aware of options for low-cost training available to them. A single-shot case study was considered. However, as Campbell and Stanley (1963) pointed out, Such studies have such a total absence of control as to be of almost no scientific value (p. 6). In the end, I used a qualitative method, and phenomenological designed approach. The use of open-ended interview questions was appropriate to collect data that took into account the essence of the lived (human) experience; in addition, the data supported the knowledge obtained from the literature review (Creswell, 2009; Turner, 2010)-provided valuable insight into the needs and perceived value of PMP certification training. 10

11 Population and sample size The researcher employed a combination of criterion sampling and purposeful sampling, as defined by Suri (2011). –The specific criteria for selection was to hold a current position of leadership in a small business operating within the SE-US & within the A&D market. –Purposeful sampling was to invite participants from within the A&D market in the Southeastern United States. The established sample size of 20 for the interviews was considered an appropriate sample size for a qualitative study (Mason, 2009). –The sample size was relational to the depth required (Marshall, 1996). 11

12 Data Collection/Organization Techniques and Tools Employed 1. The researcher sent out over 150 invitations to participate 2. Selected participants completed a letter of Informed Consent 3. Telephone interviews were scheduled 4. The researcher recorded all interviews on both analogue and digital recording systems 5. The researcher coded and transcribed the interviews 6. The researcher used MS Word, MS Excel spreadsheets and NVivo v.9 software to sort, manipulate and store the coded data used to identify emergent themes through the IPA method I have secured soft copies of the resultant data on two sets of CD-ROMs and have placed them in a personal safety deposit box where they will remain for 5 years 12

13 Analysis of the Data The use of Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) IPA was the primary method of analysis used. –Except for the coding of participants names and identifying information, the coding or annotating the insights of the participants responses, used a bottom-up method generating the coding from the data rather than applying a pre-existing code set to the resultant data –Using IPA required the researcher to gain insights into the meaning of the participants responses and then interpret those insights without changing the significance or connotation of the respondents response (Smith, Flowers, & Larkin, 2009) –Grouping took place by counting of participants who seemed to agree or trend together to align participant responses into a specific group or theme (Fade, 2004). –Cross-validation and triangulation was then used to validate the groupings and themes found using the NVivo v.9 (QSR International, 2011) software (Kikooma, 2010). 13

14 After IRB approval a pilot study was employed To ensure the validity of the interview instrument, the interview questions were piloted with five participants –This pilot followed the interview procedure and provided feedback about the clarity and answerability of the questions to ensure scholarly content The researcher discussed the feedback from the pilot study participants with the study chair –would incorporate instructions that the participants could ask the researcher to slow down and/or repeat a question at any time Since, only a minor instructional adjustment was made as a result of the pilot study, therefore, resubmission to the IRB was not required 14

15 Research Accomplished Initial Findings The research showed me that if the PM training plan was to be implemented successfully, it had to be easy, be implemented relatively quick and be low cost (FAI, 2007; Department of Interior, 2008) As expected, participants expressed concerns about future governmental regulation and took a keen interest in identifying key factors for the success of a PM training plan written to help their organizations to prepare for the future –The executives identified the most important components needed to support their businesses; such as which knowledge areas within the PMBOK are valued the most by them (i.e., scope, schedule, and cost); (PMI TripConst/Kerzner Iron Tri<) the attributes of PMPs whom they might hire, and the overall strategy of success factors and potential barriers to ensure successful implementation 15

16 Presentation of the Findings Primary Theme One overarching research question guided this study: What contributing factors for a PM training plan will help to sustain small businesses for U.S. A&D markets –The interview responses definitely furthered the knowledge gained from the literature review –The questions were designed to identify contributing factors for a successful PM training plan implementation –Costs, was a driving concern-whether from increases in benefit costs or from the costs of training, Costs can significantly hamper the ability of small businesses to remain solvent (SBA, 2009c). 16

17 Identification of Ten Subthemes linked to literature reviewed and participant responses Educational minimums and recommended degrees for PMPs Knowledge areas of the PMBOK most valued Top Two of Four most valuable PM lessons to small business executives PM training helping contract capture Value of the PMP certificationAttributes executives want of a PMP The value of PM experience to the small business executive Contributing Factors for successful training plan implementation Most prevalent barriers preventing a successful training plan implementation Senior management buy-in, how important is it for success Each subtheme directly linked to the literature as well as the executives responses. 10 subthemes were derived from the interview responses. Some related directly to the interview questions, and others were derived from the answers to several questions. This crossover was possible because IPA relates meaning to groups and the presentation of the data in a multitude of views that helped group subthemes. 17

18 Application to Professional Practice Collection of the lived experiences of the participating executives identified the contributing factors for a successful PM training plan Once the study has been published, I expect to modify a PM training plan with the knowledge gained from this study The resultant training plan, will be made available to the small businesses within the SE-US A&D market –The plans optional curricula when tailored to the types, size, and abilities of a small business will drive success. –The plan WILL IDENTIFY PMI local training resources train the trainer, and other methods that might provide successful PM training. 18

19 Implications for Social Change I think that the 2010 report to the president by the SBA makes it clear that: By assisting small businesses increase their sustainability job growth and overall economic health maybe positively impacted and improved; Ensuring small business sustainability demonstrates social responsibility Provide lesser expensive options to small businesses for PM training Assist small businesses within High-Tech sectors from loss of revenue due to inability to bid future jobs Helping small businesses could be good for the employees, the organizations and owners, the even U.S. government agencies imposing the requirement to use certified project managers, most importantly the U.S. economy in general (Davis 2009; GAO T: Defense acquisitions: Fundamental, 2008). 19

20 Recommendations Call for action The intent of this study was to : inform small businesses within the A&D market of new government contracting requirements, Gather information designed to model a PM training plan, Ensure success of the plan by developing factors that contribute to success as well as address barriers to success through curriculum and program options. –I plan to disseminate the findings to small businesses supporting the A&D market of the southeastern United States through ProQuest publishing and offer the results to the PMI for discussion at the PMI World Congress in 2013 –I also plan to attend the NASA PM Challenge of 2013 (NASA, 2009a, 2012). –The plan when completed will provide a scalable and flexible PM training program that can be tailored to fit the needs of small businesses within the A&D market. –I expect I will need 6-months to complete the new revision of the training plan… 20

21 The PM and Cost Estimation community need to use one clear vernacular for Government proposals –PM training includes multiple reviews of the PMI glossary of terms to ensure that there is a common framework to build from –Understanding the DoD M Cost Analysis Guidance and Procedures C3 Cost Terms, Definitions, and Relationship to Life-Cycle Costs, Work Breakdown Structures, and Appropriations –Information shown from DAU ACQuipedia-public domain 21 Recommendations Call for action

22 DoD M 22 x?aid=8e8f5bf3-f517-4e98-8c07-80bb8670a830

23 Estimate method changes as programs progresses (projects progressively elaborate) 23 x?aid=8e8f5bf3-f517-4e98-8c07-80bb8670a830

24 The PMI PMBOK Develop scope and requirements Develop schedule estimates that are resource based Develop budgets from rates multiplied to resources Does your estimating method change once in process? –Of course if you use rolling wave planning or just take the time to update your estimate to complete 24

25 42 Processes within the PMBOK 25 Initiating Process Group Planning Process Group Executing Process Group Monitoring and Control Process Group Closing Process Group Project Integration Management Develop Project Charter Dev Preliminary Project Scope Statement Develop Project Mgmt PlanDirect and Manage Project Execution Monitor & Control Project Work Integrated Change Control Close Project Project Scope ManagementScope Planning Scope Definition Create WBS Scope Verification Scope Control Project Time ManagementActivity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Resource Estimating Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control Project Cost MgmtCost Estimating Cost Budgeting Cost Control Project Quality MgmtQuality PlanningPerform Quality AssurancePerform Quality Control Project Human Resource Management Human Resource PlanningAcquire Project Team Develop project Team Manage Project Team Project Communication Management Communications PlanningInformation DistributionPerformance Reporting Manage Stakeholders Project Risk ManagementRisk Mgmt Planning Risk Identification Qualitative Risk Analysis Quantitative Risk Analysis Risk Response Planning Risk Monitoring and Control Project Procurement Management Plan Purchases and Acquisitions Plan Contracting Request Seller Responses Select Sellers Contract AdministrationContract Closure Reproduced from PMBOK 4 th Ed.

26 Education is the key… It is my belief that education in project management processes and methods will produce better results for small businesses writing winning proposals that can be more consistent Low cost PM training education on skills that develop good risk informed basis of estimates is the key 26

27 Conclusions The qualitative interview data collected helped to refine, and clarify, the literature reviewed. –I agree with the SBA -Government should not enact additional barriers that restrict small businesses, especially within the high-tech sector, because it could have such a negative impact not only on the growth of small businesses but also on recovery of the entire economy (SBA, 2010). –The results allowed the researcher to identify contributing factors that can help guide a PM training plan to focus specifically on the needs of small businesses. – The research will help me and will help others manipulate the planned curriculum to support the flexible needs of small businesses A small business has differing needs than a Boeing or Lockheed Martin… This research, if explored further, will add to the body of knowledge relevant to Project Management scholars and business practitioners. If only 1% of the small businesses at risk achieve efficiencies derived from this research, society will gain a significant benefit. 27

28 Invitation for comments Questions? 28

29 Moved Charts from Oral Defense Holding place for charts moved. 29

30 Gathering and Organizing Research Data Over 150 invitations were sent out to obtain 20 participants Telephone interviews of 20 small business executives that met the selection guidelines were completed using two audio recorders - one digital (researchers laptop using Audacity software), and one analogue (cassette deck) to capture the participant responses. Dragon SW did not work-Instituted the backup plan I Manually transcribed participant responses into MS Word -the files were then coded to protect the anonymity of the participants. Resultant files used to populate both MS Excel spreadsheets as well as the NVivo software tool where further data coding and mapping took place. 30 SKIP for AACEi

31 Recommendations Further Study The researcher recommends further study to ascertain whether the assumptions, limitations, and delimitations applied to this study would hold true for other high-tech markets I would also recommend to study other regions within the United States, and nonrelated small business markets, and even nonprofit organizations that may not yet be feeling the effects of government regulatory interference but simply want to improve business practices and gain the efficiencies that PM training may offer (Atamian & VanZante, 2010). specific disadvantaged categories could produce additional guidance for a more closely aligned PM training program to the target organizations needs. 31 Skip for AACEi

32 Reflections Reliance throughout the interview process on technology was a hindrance to a timely conclusion. Short dont over-rely on technology! –Had the researcher not made backup recordings on an analog voice recorder, three of the interviews would have been lost or repeated by necessity. Although I felt the first study should be Qual-Phen; A mixed methods study performed in the future might provide a more complete final product, and is recommended to augment the knowledge gleaned from this study. This study provided the researcher with significant new knowledge that will shape developing a solid PM training plan. 32 Skip for AACEi

33 References Andersen, E. S., Dysvik, A., & Anne, L. V. (2009). Organizational rationality and project management. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 2, doi: / Atamian, R., & VanZante, N. R. (2010). Continuing education: A vital ingredient of the 'success plan' for small business. Journal of Business & Economics Research, 8(3), Retrieved from Bager, T. (2011). The camp model for entrepreneurship teaching. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 7, doi: /s Bales, R. E. (1950). Interaction process analysis: A method for the study of small groups. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York, NY: Harper and Row. Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Davis, C. (2009). Federal Acquisitions Institute: Letter of understanding with Project Management Institute. Retrieved from signed pdf GAO T: Defense acquisitions: Fundamental changes are needed to improve weapon program outcomes. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Federal Financial Management, Government Information, Federal Services, and International Security, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate, 110th Cong. (2008) (testimony of Michael J. Sullivan). Retrieved from Grantham, L. (2008). Adoption of leadership mandated project management standards, methods and training in a global enterprise. Retrieved from ProQuest database. (UMI No ). 33

34 References Haug, A., Soren, G. P., & Arlbjorn, J. S. (2011). It readiness in small and medium-sized enterprises. Industrial Management Data Systems, 111, doi: / Mason, M. (2010). Sample size and saturation in PhD studies using qualitative interviews. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 11(3). Retrieved from National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2009a). About NASA. doi: / National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2009b). KSC engineering services contract. Retrieved from National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2012). NASA project management challenge. Retrieved from Nichols, T. W. (2008). Authentic transformational leadership and implicit leadership theories (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest database. (AAT ) Project Management Institute. (2008a). A guide to the project management body of knowledge (4th ed.). New Town Square, PA: Author. Rhee, S., Cho, N. W., & Bae, H. (2010). Increasing the efficiency of business processes using a theory of constraints. Information Systems Frontiers, 12, doi: /s Senge, P. (2009). The necessary revolution. Leader To Leader: 2009(51), doi: /ltl.314 Small Business Administration. (2009c) The small business economy: A report to the president. Retrieved from pdf Small Business Administration. (2010) The small business economy: A report to the president. Retrieved from pdf 34

35 References Suri, H. (2011). Purposeful sampling in qualitative research synthesis. Qualitative Research Journal, 11, doi: /QRJ Turner, D. (2010). Qualitative interview design: A practical guide for novice investigators. Qualitative Report, 15(3), Retrieved from U.S. Department of Defense. (2010). Department of Defense program goals and statistics. Retrieved from U.S. Federal Acquisition Institute. (2007). Federal Acquisition Institute: Federal working group program and project manager certification recommendations Jan. 17, Retrieved from Report%20FAC-PPM%20certification.pdf U.S. Federal Acquisition Institute. (2010). Federal Acquisition Institute: Guide to acquisition-related academic programs and courses Jan Retrieved from Yallapragada, R., & Bhuiyan, M. (2011). Small business entrepreneurships in the United States. Journal of Applied Business Research, 27(6), Retrieved from U.S. Federal Acquisition Institute. (2010). Federal Acquisition Institute: Guide to acquisition-related academic programs and courses Jan Retrieved from Yallapragada, R., & Bhuiyan, M. (2011). Small business entrepreneurships in the United States. Journal of Applied Business Research, 27(6), Retrieved from 35

36 BACKUP CHARTS The following references in Backup References may be called upon during the narration of the Oral Defense. 36

37 BACKUP - References Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (1963). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Crow, A. (2010). The PMP exam: How to pass on your first try (4th ed.). Kennesaw, GA: Velociteach. Estrin, J. (2009). Closing the innovation gap, reigniting the spark of creativity in a global economy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Gladwin, T. N., Kennelly, J. J., & Krause, T. S. (1995). Shifting paradigms for sustainable development: Implications for management theory and research. Academy of Management Review, 20, doi: / Kerzner, H. (2010). Project management best practices: Achieving global excellence. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons. Kuruppuarachchi, P. R. (2009), Virtual team concepts in projects: A case study. Project Management Journal, 40(2). 19–33. doi: /pmj Leavitt, J. C. (2008). USTDC proposal for project management training and certification: ASRC Aerospace- current programs of record. Retrieved from Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. National Aeronautics Space Administration. (2009c). Marshal information technology services. Retrieved from Project Management Institute. (2009). Practice standard for project risk management. New Town Square, PA: Author. 37

38 BACKUP - References Sanghera, P. (2007). PgMP: Program management professional exam study guide. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley. Small Business Administration. (2009a). Frequently asked questions: Advocacy the voice of small business in government. Retrieved from sbfaq.pdf 38

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