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1 Presented by Dr. John C. Leavitt
Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability This presentation is a derivation of the Oral Defense I gave on my Doctoral Research Project. I plan to keep it relatively short and have moved out some content to backup charts. I added content on why I feel this is relevant to us, the members of the Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering International (AACEI). The presentation is roughly 26 content slides some we will cover lightly some in more detail. Before I begin, I would like to Thank my mentor in AACEI Glenn Butts for his guidance and help that made today possible. Presented by Dr. John C. Leavitt Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

2 Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Background Small businesses constitute a significant roll within the U.S. economy They create over half of the non-farm private gross domestic product and hire over 40% of high-tech workers such as scientists and engineers. According to Yallapragada and Bhuiyan (2011), The U.S. government has historically supported small businesses since they play a significant role within the high-tech markets; ‘Small business’ is the spark that ignites innovation times more intellectual property (patents) come from small businesses Small business therefore should continue to receive assistance in obtaining government contracts because reductions may negatively impact the economy (SBA, 2010; Senge, 2009). The U.S. Government has levied requirements to retrain and certify project and program managers on Government contracts. They are now required or strongly encouraged for many A&D government subcontractors. -Small Business is important to economic growth, often considered the engine of the US Economy (SBA, 2009a) -Small business produces by far (13-14 times) the intellectual property (patents) of larger companies per employee -Innovations is especially critical in High-Tech sectors like Aerospace & Defense -Due to historical practices of government over spending, project and program management is a required practice. -New requirements to use certified PMs to run projects and programs for government projects are evolving (NASA MITS/ ESC / ITSS etc…) -FedAquisInstit provides training for government employees to become certified -There is reciprocity agreements in place between the FAI and PMI (Davis, 2009) -Small businesses are struggling and additional burdens to bid government contracts will negatively impact their revenue and health - - The health of the Sbus is important to the health of the overall economy Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

3 Why do Small Businesses this matter to US? AACEI
Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Why do Small Businesses this matter to US? AACEI Governmental agencies are expecting programs and projects to contain costs and create functional cost estimates for small task order driven businesses to large Government contracts. Training Project Managers will help satisfy this requirement Realistic Basis of Estimates (BOE’s) for cost and schedule to help the government evaluate true contract value. Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

4 Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Problem Statement The problem statement, from the research study I conducted is as follows: More than 660,000 small businesses in the United States failed in 2009 (SBA, 2010). According to the DoD (2010), 31% of A&D contracts are at risk of not being offered to small businesses. Small businesses focusing on high-tech markets of A&D industries drive future innovation and are important to the overall health of the U.S. economy (SBA, 2009c). Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

5 Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Problem Statement The general business problem was that small businesses may not meet new federal government requirements for PM certification (NASA, 2009b). The specific problem in high-tech areas such as A&D is that proof of PM competency or certification was either required or strongly encouraged to bid new government contracts (FAI, 2007). Small businesses may be unable to afford the costs associated with new and future training or certification requirements and will risk the loss of significant government revenue opportunities (DoD, 2010). Revenue Streams is the Small Business Lifeblood- take away the revenue and the small businesses will soon fail. Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

6 Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Purpose Statement The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to identify the contributing factors of a successful project management training plan. I interviewed 20 (purposely sampled) small business executives from the aerospace & defense market of the Southeast United States. For a PM training plan designed for small businesses within the A&D market to be successful, the plan has to be easy, quickly implementable, and have a low cost (Bager, 2011; FAI, 2007; Haug, Soren & Arlbjorn, 2011). Failure of small businesses within A&D markets is a significant social concern- the impact on society if ‘Small Businesses’ fail it would be in direct conflict with the FAR established to ensure the sustainability of small businesses (FAI, 2010).  -Limited by the aerospace & defense market of the Southeast United States Failure of Small Businesses is not an option… Participants Lived experiences will help support a better PM Training plan Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

7 Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Research Question/s The overarching research question was: what contributing factors for a PM training plan will help to sustain small businesses for U.S. A&D markets? The researcher asked eight interview questions to obtain the data that fully answered the research question, such as: What level of academic degree and PM certification, or combination thereof, would be the most desirable to your organization? 8 (7 more) sub-questions like the one shown… What level of academic degree and PM certification, or combination thereof, would be the most desirable to your organization? Of the following PMI subject matter, which three do you think would add the most value to your organization’s PM goals: (a) project integration, (b) project scope control, (c) schedule control and time management, (d) cost control and management, (e) quality control, (f) project human resources, (g) project risk management, (h) project communications, (i) project procurement management, or (j) ethics? Of the following PM lessons, which two do you believe add the most value to your organization’s PM goals: (a) understanding the PMBOK, (b) how to create a successful project plan, (c) 42 processes tools and techniques demystified, or (d) how to pass the PMP exam? What contributing factors of a PM training plan would help to increase your company’s contract capture rate within the A&D market? Given your lived experiences, do you believe that PMPs could do a better job of following the established PM processes? What two attributes of a PMP-certified project manager would help your origination to be the most successful today? Given your lived experiences, what contributing factors do you believe are needed to implement a shared PMP training plan successfully for small businesses like your organization? Given your lived experiences, if a shared PMP training plan were available to your organization, what barriers do you feel would prevent its successful implementation? Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

8 Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Conceptual Framework for qualitative studies (looked at several-came back to TLT) transforming, or transformational, theory (Favored by PMI) First introduced by James McGregor Burns in 1978 task oriented leadership Bales, 1950 (Task Driven good for managing process not leading teams) theory of constraints (Identify the constraints, resolve or re-org) “The Goal” Goldratt & Cox, 1992 (Rhee, Cho, & Bae, 2010) Weakest link ideology “Transformational Leadership is concerned with not only performance but the development of followers to their fullest potential” from within (Nichols, 2008).. The PMI stresses teamwork and the use of high-performing work teams within the PMBOK. Transformational leadership ensures that leadership will broaden and elevate the followers’ interests by stirring them to look beyond their own interests for the good of the team or the project (Andersen, Dysvik, & Anne, 2009). The subject of PM demands knowledge of leadership styles and management styles so that a project manager can apply a particular leadership style and management style to a given scenario with expected outcomes (PMI, 2008a). Within the literature, the styles that have surfaced as keys to economic success through implementation of PM are transforming, or transformational, theory (Gladwin, Kennelly, & Krause, 1995); task-oriented leadership style (Bales, 1950); theory of constraints (Kendall, 2010); and several other leadership styles that the PMI (2008a) considers as an overarching theory of modern project management leadership. PMI generally believe that although many leadership styles have merit and should be studied, transformational leaders tend to be concerned not just with performance but also the development of project teams to their fullest potential (Nichols, 2008). Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

9 Literature Reviewed an overview
Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Literature Reviewed an overview Historical (prior to 2007) Business management or education documents Government/Aerospace-related documents PM or program management-related documents Books 5 1 Journals 8 Magazines Webpages or online documents Total 13 2 Table 1 Breakdown of Historical Documents Reviewed Current Business management or education documents Government/ aerospace-related documents Project/program management-related documents Books (46) 11 24* Journals (86) 53 5 28 Magazines (1) 1 Dissertations (4) 2 Webpages or Gov online documents (23) 11* Total 67 40 Table 2 Breakdown of 160 Current Documents Reviewed Table 1: Journals (eight) were the preferred source, comprising 50% of the historical documents. Books (seven) comprised 44% (five from notable education and research authors [Bales, Burns, Campbell & Stanley, Maxwell, Moustakas]). There were two historical government books, one specifically for a quotation from President Richard M. Nixon, and one government (Source selection document) or approximately 13%. Finally, a historical PM book or approximately 6%, was researched, the government extension for the PMBOK from 2006. To contrast Tables 1 and 2: Historical documents comprised approximately 9% (16) of the total documents reviewed. Within Table 1, most of the historical documents were journals (8/16), - over 81% that centered on business management or educational documents. Table 2, Shows the breakdown of current docs-the spread of document types to be more evenly distributed. Business, management, or educational documents were the most prevalent comprising almost half of the 160 current documents. Government and aerospace-related documents made up the lowest number about 25%, and government documents such as regulations, reports or testimonies. PM documents made up more than 33% (53/160) of the total and mostly comprised of PM industry journals. So although I used historical documents mostly for educational research methods and business management. The current documents research was distributed more equally for all topics. Table 3: Approximately 88% (140) of the 160 current documents were relevant to the topic and were current (i.e., from ). Of the 140 current documents, 86 were industry journals. Peer Reviewed Current Business management or education documents Government/ aerospace-related documents Project/program management-related documents Books (36) 6 21* 9 Journals (86) 53 5 28 Magazines (0) Dissertations (4) 2 Webpages or Gov online documents (14) 7* 7 Total 61 33 46 Table 3 Breakdown of Current Peer-Reviewed Documents (140 or approximately 88%) Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

10 Method/Design chosen helped add new insights
Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP Method/Design chosen helped add new insights 3/31/2017 I considered many methods to test or quantify whether the stakeholders were aware of options for low-cost training available to them. A single-shot case study was considered. However, as Campbell and Stanley (1963) pointed out, “Such studies have such a total absence of control as to be of almost no scientific value” (p. 6). In the end, I used a qualitative method, and phenomenological designed approach. The use of open-ended interview questions was appropriate to collect data that took into account the essence of the lived (human) experience; in addition, the data supported the knowledge obtained from the literature review (Creswell, 2009; Turner, 2010)-provided valuable insight into the needs and perceived value of PMP certification training. Quantitative methods were considered, but in keeping with (Creswell, 2009; Moustakas, 1994) they were deemed irrelevant when attempting to capture and elaborate on experiential knowledge especially in an area that has limited supporting literature. The Key to the successful completion of this study will be an assessment of the stakeholders’ understanding through their individual lived experiences of the overall need for PM training and/or certification to remain sustainable. Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

11 Population and sample size
Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Population and sample size The researcher employed a combination of criterion sampling and purposeful sampling, as defined by Suri (2011). The specific criteria for selection was to hold a current position of leadership in a small business operating within the SE-US & within the A&D market. Purposeful sampling was to invite participants from within the A&D market in the Southeastern United States. The established sample size of 20 for the interviews was considered an appropriate sample size for a qualitative study (Mason, 2009). The sample size was relational to the depth required (Marshall, 1996). The sample size is relational to the depth required (Marshall, 1996). Mason (2009) commented, “There is a point of diminishing return to a qualitative sample—as the study goes on more data does not necessarily lead to more information” (p. 3). Mason drew from such notable authors as Creswell, Green, and Thorogood when he stated that “the experience of most qualitative researchers is that in interview studies little that is new comes out of transcripts after you have interviewed 20 or so people” (p. 4). Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

12 Data Collection/Organization Techniques and Tools Employed
Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Data Collection/Organization Techniques and Tools Employed 1. The researcher sent out over 150 invitations to participate 2. Selected participants completed a letter of Informed Consent 3. Telephone interviews were scheduled 4. The researcher recorded all interviews on both analogue and digital recording systems 5. The researcher coded and transcribed the interviews 6. The researcher used MS Word, MS Excel spreadsheets and NVivo v.9 software to sort, manipulate and store the coded data used to identify emergent themes through the IPA method I have secured soft copies of the resultant data on two sets of CD-ROMs and have placed them in a personal safety deposit box where they will remain for 5 years So in short, the research data was derived from interviews that were recorded. Software (MS Word, Excel) and Nvivo v. 9 was used as tools to manipulate and store the data. The data collection process was nearly identical for the pilot study of 5 participants to the final interviews of the research data participants - except that - the pilot study participants were asked if the questions were clear and to provide feedback questions and the interview process. Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

13 Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Analysis of the Data The use of Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) IPA was the primary method of analysis used. Except for the coding of participants names and identifying information, the coding or annotating the insights of the participant’s responses, used a bottom-up method generating the coding from the data rather than applying a pre-existing code set to the resultant data Using IPA required the researcher to gain insights into the meaning of the participants responses and then interpret those insights without changing the significance or connotation of the respondents’ response (Smith, Flowers, & Larkin, 2009) Grouping took place by counting of participants who seemed to agree or trend together to align participant responses into a specific group or theme (Fade, 2004). Cross-validation and triangulation was then used to validate the groupings and themes found using the NVivo v.9 (QSR International, 2011) software (Kikooma, 2010). Multiple analysis techniques were considered Grounded Theory Grounded theory is considered asymptotic, therefore the theory may be modified with additional data because of its propositional nature. You basically match data based on a proposed notion that the study is grounded upon. Analytic Induction The method calls for the development of a hypothetic statement through a single case (Ratcliff, 1994), and then the use of additional cases to support or refute the hypothesis. Quasistatistics Best used with survey data - Through quasistatistics, researchers can derive simplistic correlations using numbers as applied to qualitative data - Use of standardized practices such as survey instruments with Likert scales improves the reliability of the correlations developed through quasistatistics. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) With the method being qualitative and phenomenological, and dealing with transformational-based PM training, I felt that IPA would yield the best results. For use with learned experiences of participants and the need for the ability to interpret subjective responses – then develop groups and themes from the coded data - IPA was the most logical choice… Once the clusters began taking shape, I was able to identify themes that could support the one overarching research question. Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

14 After IRB approval a pilot study was employed
Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 After IRB approval a pilot study was employed To ensure the validity of the interview instrument, the interview questions were piloted with five participants This pilot followed the interview procedure and provided feedback about the clarity and answerability of the questions to ensure scholarly content The researcher discussed the feedback from the pilot study participants with the study chair would incorporate instructions that the participants could ask the researcher to slow down and/or repeat a question at any time Since, only a minor instructional adjustment was made as a result of the pilot study, therefore, resubmission to the IRB was not required Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

15 Research Accomplished Initial Findings
Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Research Accomplished Initial Findings The research showed me that if the PM training plan was to be implemented successfully, it had to be easy, be implemented relatively quick and be low cost (FAI, 2007; Department of Interior, 2008) As expected, participants expressed concerns about future governmental regulation and took a keen interest in identifying key factors for the success of a PM training plan written to help their organizations to prepare for the future The executives identified the most important components needed to support their businesses; such as which knowledge areas within the PMBOK are valued the most by them (i.e., scope, schedule, and cost); (PMI TripConst/Kerzner Iron Tri<) the attributes of PMPs whom they might hire, and the overall strategy of success factors and potential barriers to ensure successful implementation Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

16 Presentation of the Findings Primary Theme
Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Presentation of the Findings Primary Theme One overarching research question guided this study: What contributing factors for a PM training plan will help to sustain small businesses for U.S. A&D markets The interview responses definitely furthered the knowledge gained from the literature review The questions were designed to identify contributing factors for a successful PM training plan implementation Costs, was a driving concern-whether from increases in benefit costs or from the costs of training, Costs can significantly hamper the ability of small businesses to remain solvent (SBA, 2009c). The interview responses provided valuable insights into what the executives of small businesses considered valuable and what barriers they saw to the implementation of a PM training plan These subthemes became evident through the use of the IPA method Granted this study was based on training PMI methods and used the PMP as the example certification but in reality, the process is the same for any organizational certification. There were some answers that devalued the PMP, stating that some PMPs do not have the necessary experience to obtain the certification and that the PMP is becoming watered down as a reference point Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

17 Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Identification of Ten Subthemes linked to literature reviewed and participant responses Each subtheme directly linked to the literature as well as the executives responses. 10 subthemes were derived from the interview responses. Some related directly to the interview questions, and others were derived from the answers to several questions. This crossover was possible because IPA relates meaning to groups and the presentation of the data in a multitude of views that helped group subthemes. Educational minimums and recommended degrees for PMPs Knowledge areas of the PMBOK most valued Top Two of Four most valuable PM lessons to small business executives PM training helping contract capture Value of the PMP certification Attributes executives want of a PMP The value of PM experience to the small business executive Contributing Factors for successful training plan implementation Most prevalent barriers preventing a successful training plan implementation Senior management buy-in, how important is it for success I would like to go into some detail on each subtheme: ST-1: Fourteen (70%) of the executives believe that a 4-year bachelor’s degree was the minimum acceptable level and regarded the PMP as something they would recommend in combination with the academic degree. Only six participants (30%) believe that a degree and four participants (20%) believe that experience alone was sufficient. ST2: Subtheme 2 was directly related to Interview Question 2 and the participants’ selections of the top three of nine knowledge areas or ethics that have a higher value to small businesses and should have more time spent on during PM training. The highest numerical score from the participants was Project Scope Control (13), followed closely by Schedule Control and Time Management (12), and Cost Control and Management (12). Therefore, PM training should emphasize these knowledge areas. This agreed with the literature reviewed and are known as the triple constraint (Kerzner, 2010; PMI 2008a) ST3: “How to create a successful project plan” was valued the highest by 19 respondents. Four of the participants (20% of the overall respondents), remarked that they expected their project managers to wear many hats; therefore, the importance of the project plan in any training curriculum was considered paramount (Crow, 2010). Kerzner (2010) exposed the value of a well thought-out project plan. The second choice was (b) knowledge of the PMBOK (10), which ranked slightly higher (10 vs. 9) than (c) the 42 processes tools and techniques demystified (9). Most PM training instructors have agreed that understanding the PMBOK was necessary to pass the PMP ST4: The participants gave diverse answers that the researcher grouped into two areas, namely, requirements definition and requirements extraction, and the use of PM efficiencies to lower the cost of proposal bids, thereby giving a better price to win government contracts (Sanghera, 2007) ST5: Question 5 tended to be answered as more binary (yes/no) because not all participants elaborated on why they believe that PMPs would or would not outperform non-PMPs. This elaboration did, however, surface in the more detailed explanations provided for Questions 1, 6, 7, and 8. This subtheme took into account all of the participant comments in dealing with the expectations of the value of PMPs to small businesses. Much of the expectation tracked with the opinions of the PMI (2008a, 2009) expressed within the PMBOK. The direct answers to Interview Question 5 showed that 18 (90%) of the participants answered that PMPs were valued and that PMPs could do a better job than non-PMPs of following established PM processes (PMI, 2008a). Participant 11: “PMP, yeah, that is probably going to improve their capability and do a better job because they have now applied structure to their wealth of experience.” Participant 19: “I think PMPs can do that PMPs can do a better job of following the processes, and I do value PMPs as they add a lot of value to any organization.” Participant 2: “Oh, absolutely, every one [PMPs] can always do better.” ST6: Subtheme 6, although directly related to Interview Question 6, also included inferences from other answers that helped provide a more holistic picture of what the participants would be looking for when hiring certified PMPs. The skills of the personnel making up a project team are critical to the teams success, and should be diverse but relevant to the teams stated purpose (Kuruppuarachchi, 2009). The researcher grouped the answers from the interview recordings into 10 categories. The most requested attributes were experience (6), (I expected this because as a hiring manager, it was what I look for in the industry); the ability to control cost and schedule (4); success driven (3); technical ability breadth and depth; (3) and open and honest communications (3). The two next highly ranked attributes were understands requirements (2) and someone who holds the Microsoft Project Plan software certification (2). Advanced educational degrees, flexibility, and assertiveness and knowledgeable were ranked lower but were recognized as adding value to the organization. ST7: Subtheme 7 was a compilation of the number of times during the interview the participants referenced valuing experience and, at times, valuing experience over academic degrees. In two cases, the participants referenced demonstrated successful experience was important for a PM to add a higher value to their organization. In one case, specific experience in fully understanding Microsoft Project or another project-planning tool, was the choice; and in one other case, the participant preferred experience on the specific contract being bid on (incumbent employee). Six of the 20 participants valued experience over a degree when the choice was available. The government often requires a specific degree be written in the job description for project managers. The conclusion for this subtheme was that even though the customer at times (i.e., the government) prefers certifications and degrees, the participants, as representatives of small businesses, wanted relevant experience to be part of the requirements. ST8: As seen in Table 11, cost was the first concern for success; in other words, the plan had to be implemented at a low cost. Tied with cost was ensuring a reduced schedule impact, specifically, the use of lunch-and-learn sessions multiple times each week to avoid affecting productive hours (Leavitt, 2008). The next two concerns, were having online classes and senior management buy-in, these concerns were focused toward small business success (Crow, 2010; Sanghera, 2007). ST9: Subtheme 9 related generally to Interview Question 8 but took general comments from other discussion questions when related directly to a barrier. For instance, during a discussion about the factors contributing to success, Participant 11 stated, “Probably [the] biggest barrier deals with how to pay for it. Small business typically do not have infrastructure or do not have indirect funding necessary to implement decent training plan.” the highest ranking barriers to success were cost (10), followed closely by time or schedule (9). Location of the training (4) and individuals’ commitment to obtaining their PMP were tied (4) and just ahead of the need for management commitment (3). When discussing costs, the participants stated the government or prime contractor should assume the cost of the training because they were levying the requirements. Two of the participants stated that they would consider offering to split the costs with the employees, but not take on the entire burden themselves. ST10: Management Buy-In - Subtheme 10 was a compilation of interview responses that were frequent enough to become a subtheme to highlight the concern as appropriate. Some examples of the responses follow for the purpose of context: “Management demonstrates that interested enough in that sort of thing [PMP Training] to the people willing to get involved in a program like that. So sort of leadership by example thing is required.” “Commitment from executive leadership another words processes and programs like these need to be implemented from the top down and the individuals need to understand the value of the training.” “To implement successfully is to have acceptance from senior leadership.” “I am concerned over management resistance there will be managers that will be opposed to any PMP initiative, this must be addressed.” “A commitment in senior management towards implementing and performing the training is required.” “A commitment in needed on management’s for a program like this; success will come if they allocate the time for the employees to train [PMP training].” Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

18 Application to Professional Practice
Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Application to Professional Practice Collection of the lived experiences of the participating executives identified the contributing factors for a successful PM training plan Once the study has been published, I expect to modify a PM training plan with the knowledge gained from this study The resultant training plan, will be made available to the small businesses within the SE-US A&D market The plans optional curricula when tailored to the types, size, and abilities of a small business will drive success. The plan WILL IDENTIFY PMI local training resources train the trainer, and other methods that might provide successful PM training. Once the training plan becomes available, small businesses would be able to conduct shared training or follow specific plans that will provide their employees with globally accepted PMI certifications such as the PMP. I believe Estrin in her 2009 book entitled Closing the innovation gap would agree that: Training more project managers may help small businesses continue to win government contracts, and the additional organizational capabilities and structure will gain efficiencies, help minimize waste, maximize profits for the owners, and possibly help the recovery of the U.S. economy Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

19 Implications for Social Change
Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Implications for Social Change I think that the 2010 report to the president by the SBA makes it clear that: By assisting small businesses increase their sustainability job growth and overall economic health maybe positively impacted and improved; Ensuring small business sustainability demonstrates social responsibility Provide lesser expensive options to small businesses for PM training Assist small businesses within High-Tech sectors from loss of revenue due to inability to bid future jobs Helping small businesses could be good for the employees, the organizations and owners, the even U.S. government agencies imposing the requirement to use certified project managers, most importantly the U.S. economy in general (Davis 2009; GAO T: Defense acquisitions: Fundamental, 2008). Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

20 Recommendations Call for action
Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Recommendations Call for action The intent of this study was to : inform small businesses within the A&D market of new government contracting requirements, Gather information designed to model a PM training plan, Ensure success of the plan by developing factors that contribute to success as well as address barriers to success through curriculum and program options. I plan to disseminate the findings to small businesses supporting the A&D market of the southeastern United States through ProQuest publishing and offer the results to the PMI for discussion at the PMI World Congress in 2013 I also plan to attend the NASA PM Challenge of 2013 (NASA, 2009a, 2012). The plan when completed will provide a scalable and flexible PM training program that can be tailored to fit the needs of small businesses within the A&D market. I expect I will need 6-months to complete the new revision of the training plan… The training plan I had developed previously (Located in the studies appendix A and referenced as Leavitt, 2008) will require modification to incorporate the critical factor of success derived from the study. The plan when completed will provide a scalable and flexible PM training program that can be tailored to fit the needs of small businesses within the A&D market. I expect I will need 6-months to complete the new revision of the training plan… Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

21 Recommendations Call for action
Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Recommendations Call for action The PM and Cost Estimation community need to use one clear vernacular for Government proposals PM training includes multiple reviews of the PMI glossary of terms to ensure that there is a common framework to build from Understanding the DoD M Cost Analysis Guidance and Procedures C3 Cost Terms, Definitions, and Relationship to Life-Cycle Costs, Work Breakdown Structures, and Appropriations Information shown from DAU ACQuipedia-public domain Many contracting organizations today take shortcuts to write the story but not fully understand the guidance that is available within the AACEi materials, Governmental Guidance, PMI materials or other relevant organizations. By taking the time to (even by force) educate, the PM’s working for contracting organizations, their proposals should become more standardized and make cost evaluations easier to complete. Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

22 Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 DoD M I point to my own shortcomings by stating: I worked as a consultant for multiple government contractors developing technical scenarios and producing Basis of Estimates for proposals that went into multiple agencies well before I understood the actual flow documented in the DOD M. The government wants & needs better more consistent proposals from contracting organizations including small businesses so educating them to better understand the project management methodologies will help them write a more consistent proposal. https://dap.dau.mil/acquipedia/Pages/ArticleDetails.aspx?aid=8e8f5bf3-f517-4e98-8c07-80bb8670a830 Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

23 Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Estimate method changes as programs progresses (projects progressively elaborate) What do I mean by projects progressively elaborate - You get smarter as you go, just as in life, so update your methods as you update your knowledge base https://dap.dau.mil/acquipedia/Pages/ArticleDetails.aspx?aid=8e8f5bf3-f517-4e98-8c07-80bb8670a830 Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

24 Develop scope and requirements
Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 The PMI PMBOK Develop scope and requirements Develop schedule estimates that are resource based Develop budgets from rates multiplied to resources Does your estimating method change once in process? Of course if you use rolling wave planning or just take the time to update your estimate to complete How did you develop your schedule estimates Analogously Parametrically Bottom-Up (Engineering Estimate ) Estimating by Actual Costs (extrapolation) PMI has 42 individual processes across five process groups that span 9 knowledge areas The processes build upon one another but by far, more processes are in the PLANNING Process Group than any other (20) almost half of the 42. Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

25 42 Processes within the PMBOK
Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 42 Processes within the PMBOK Initiating Process Group Planning Process Group Executing Process Group Monitoring and Control Process Group Closing Process Group Project Integration Management Develop Project Charter Dev Preliminary Project Scope Statement Develop Project Mgmt Plan Direct and Manage Project Execution Monitor & Control Project Work Integrated Change Control Close Project Project Scope Management Scope Planning Scope Definition Create WBS Scope Verification Scope Control Project Time Management Activity Definition Activity Sequencing Activity Resource Estimating Activity Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control Project Cost Mgmt Cost Estimating Cost Budgeting Cost Control Project Quality Mgmt Quality Planning Perform Quality Assurance Perform Quality Control Project Human Resource Management Human Resource Planning Acquire Project Team Develop project Team Manage Project Team Project Communication Communications Planning Information Distribution Performance Reporting Manage Stakeholders Project Risk Management Risk Mgmt Planning Risk Identification Qualitative Risk Analysis Quantitative Risk Analysis Risk Response Planning Risk Monitoring and Control Project Procurement Management Plan Purchases and Acquisitions Plan Contracting Request Seller Responses Select Sellers Contract Administration Contract Closure Reproduced from PMBOK 4th Ed. Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

26 Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Education is the key… It is my belief that education in project management processes and methods will produce better results for small businesses writing winning proposals that can be more consistent Low cost PM training education on skills that develop good risk informed basis of estimates is the key As my conclusion slide will attribute, I believe in education… I teach at three Universities not because I make allot of money teaching, but because I may help someone build a business, that business may employ a multitude of people – each of us can contribute, never stop learning, mentoring and passing on information to the next generation of project / program managers and related personnel, the job you help create may be your grandchild's… Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

27 Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Conclusions The qualitative interview data collected helped to refine, and clarify, the literature reviewed. I agree with the SBA -Government should not enact additional barriers that restrict small businesses, especially within the high-tech sector, because it could have such a negative impact not only on the growth of small businesses but also on recovery of the entire economy (SBA, 2010). The results allowed the researcher to identify contributing factors that can help guide a PM training plan to focus specifically on the needs of small businesses. The research will help me and will help others manipulate the planned curriculum to support the flexible needs of small businesses A small business has differing needs than a Boeing or Lockheed Martin… This research, if explored further, will add to the body of knowledge relevant to Project Management scholars and business practitioners. If only 1% of the small businesses at risk achieve efficiencies derived from this research, society will gain a significant benefit. Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

28 Invitation for comments
Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Invitation for comments Questions? Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

29 Moved Charts from Oral Defense
Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Moved Charts from Oral Defense Holding place for charts moved. Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

30 Gathering and Organizing Research Data
Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Gathering and Organizing Research Data SKIP for AACEi Over 150 invitations were sent out to obtain 20 participants Telephone interviews of 20 small business executives that met the selection guidelines were completed using two audio recorders - one digital (researchers laptop using Audacity software), and one analogue (cassette deck) to capture the participant responses. Dragon SW did not work-Instituted the backup plan I Manually transcribed participant responses into MS Word -the files were then coded to protect the anonymity of the participants. Resultant files used to populate both MS Excel spreadsheets as well as the NVivo software tool where further data coding and mapping took place. To obtain 20 participant I was prepared to solicit up to 40 pre-qualified (SE, A&D, Exec of Sbus) participants. Over 150 invitations were sent out to obtain 20 participants The manual transcription as a result of the Dragon software not working as planned added over a week to my schedule. The software tools that DID get employed were MS Word and Excel Spreadsheets and Nvivo, vs. 9 which turned out to be quite helpful while performing IPA as a result of its feature set (word count – natural and autocoding – grouping and sorting). Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

31 Recommendations Further Study
Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Recommendations Further Study Skip for AACEi The researcher recommends further study to ascertain whether the assumptions, limitations, and delimitations applied to this study would hold true for other high-tech markets I would also recommend to study other regions within the United States, and nonrelated small business markets, and even nonprofit organizations that may not yet be feeling the effects of government regulatory interference but simply want to improve business practices and gain the efficiencies that PM training may offer (Atamian & VanZante, 2010). specific disadvantaged categories could produce additional guidance for a more closely aligned PM training program to the target organizations’ needs. Future study that contains specific disadvantaged categories could produce additional guidance for a more closely aligned PM training program to the target organizations’ needs. Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

32 Reflections Skip for AACEi
Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 Reflections Skip for AACEi Reliance throughout the interview process on technology was a hindrance to a timely conclusion. Short don’t over-rely on technology! Had the researcher not made backup recordings on an analog voice recorder, three of the interviews would have been lost or repeated by necessity. Although I felt the first study should be Qual-Phen; A mixed methods study performed in the future might provide a more complete final product, and is recommended to augment the knowledge gleaned from this study. This study provided the researcher with significant new knowledge that will shape developing a solid PM training plan. Expand on the technology problems Dragon Software-not worked as hoped-too long to train voices Caused significant manual effort for transcription Need for multiple recording methods Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

33 Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 References Andersen, E. S., Dysvik, A., & Anne, L. V. (2009). Organizational rationality and project management. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 2, doi: / Atamian, R., & VanZante, N. R. (2010). Continuing education: A vital ingredient of the 'success plan' for small business. Journal of Business & Economics Research, 8(3), Retrieved from Bager, T. (2011). The camp model for entrepreneurship teaching. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 7, doi: /s Bales, R. E. (1950). Interaction process analysis: A method for the study of small groups. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York, NY: Harper and Row. Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Davis, C. (2009). Federal Acquisitions Institute: Letter of understanding with Project Management Institute. Retrieved from signed pdf GAO T: Defense acquisitions: Fundamental changes are needed to improve weapon program outcomes. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Federal Financial Management, Government Information, Federal Services, and International Security, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate, 110th Cong. (2008) (testimony of Michael J. Sullivan). Retrieved from Grantham, L. (2008). Adoption of leadership mandated project management standards, methods and training in a global enterprise. Retrieved from ProQuest database. (UMI No ). Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

34 Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 References Haug, A., Soren, G. P., & Arlbjorn, J. S. (2011). It readiness in small and medium-sized enterprises. Industrial Management Data Systems, 111, doi: / Mason, M. (2010). Sample size and saturation in PhD studies using qualitative interviews. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 11(3). Retrieved from National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2009a). About NASA. doi: / National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2009b). KSC engineering services contract. Retrieved from https://www.fbo.gov/ National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2012). NASA project management challenge. Retrieved from Nichols, T. W. (2008). Authentic transformational leadership and implicit leadership theories (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest database. (AAT ) Project Management Institute. (2008a). A guide to the project management body of knowledge (4th ed.). New Town Square, PA: Author. Rhee, S., Cho, N. W., & Bae, H. (2010). Increasing the efficiency of business processes using a theory of constraints. Information Systems Frontiers, 12, doi: /s Senge, P. (2009). The necessary revolution. Leader To Leader: 2009(51), doi: /ltl.314 Small Business Administration. (2009c) The small business economy: A report to the president. Retrieved from pdf Small Business Administration. (2010) The small business economy: A report to the president. Retrieved from pdf Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

35 Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 References Suri, H. (2011). Purposeful sampling in qualitative research synthesis. Qualitative Research Journal, 11, doi: /QRJ Turner, D. (2010). Qualitative interview design: A practical guide for novice investigators. Qualitative Report, 15(3), Retrieved from U.S. Department of Defense. (2010). Department of Defense program goals and statistics. Retrieved from U.S. Federal Acquisition Institute. (2007). Federal Acquisition Institute: Federal working group program and project manager certification recommendations Jan. 17, Retrieved from Report%20FAC-PPM%20certification.pdf U.S. Federal Acquisition Institute. (2010). Federal Acquisition Institute: Guide to acquisition-related academic programs and courses Jan Retrieved from Yallapragada, R., & Bhuiyan, M. (2011). Small business entrepreneurships in the United States. Journal of Applied Business Research, 27(6),  Retrieved from Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

36 Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 BACKUP CHARTS The following references in Backup References may be called upon during the narration of the Oral Defense. Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

37 Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 BACKUP - References Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (1963). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Crow, A. (2010). The PMP exam: How to pass on your first try (4th ed.). Kennesaw, GA: Velociteach. Estrin, J. (2009). Closing the innovation gap, reigniting the spark of creativity in a global economy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Gladwin, T. N., Kennelly, J. J., & Krause, T. S. (1995). Shifting paradigms for sustainable development: Implications for management theory and research. Academy of Management Review, 20, doi: /258959 Kerzner, H. (2010). Project management best practices: Achieving global excellence. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons. Kuruppuarachchi, P. R. (2009), Virtual team concepts in projects: A case study. Project Management Journal, 40(2). 19–33. doi: /pmj.20110 Leavitt, J. C. (2008). USTDC proposal for project management training and certification: ASRC Aerospace-current programs of record. Retrieved from https://ice.asrcfederal.com/ Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. National Aeronautics Space Administration. (2009c). Marshal information technology services. Retrieved from https://www.fbo.gov/ Project Management Institute. (2009). Practice standard for project risk management. New Town Square, PA: Author. Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students

38 Training Project Managers in Small Aerospace Businesses to Increase Sustainability Dr. John C. Leavitt DBA-PMP-PgMP 3/31/2017 BACKUP - References Sanghera, P. (2007). PgMP: Program management professional exam study guide. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley. Small Business Administration. (2009a). Frequently asked questions: Advocacy the voice of small business in government. Retrieved from sbfaq.pdf Walden University Oral Defense Presentation for DBA students


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