Grammar Basics The Academic Skills Center is good…but not that good! We cant make up for a student ignoring 12 years of English grammar! But…we can show you some of the worst grammar offenders and show you how to make peace with the worst of them!
Even if you learn all the rules… There are more exceptions to the rules than there are rules. (Which means you need to know how to use the Penguin Handbook!!)
Verbs and Pronouns Two irritating parts of speech are the…
A perfect example of state of being… Be still and know that I am God.
BASIC VERB FORMS Base Form3 rd Person Singular Past TensePast Participle (ed added to verb) Present Participle (ing added to verbs) jumpjumpsjumped jumping wishwisheswished wishing P.S. Wouldnt it be nice if all past tense and past participle verbs were all alike?
Verbs need therapy! They are transitive, intransitive, shifty in tense and are moody with indicative, imperative and subjective moods.
Moody Verbs Indicative moodImperative moodSubjunctive mood State factsMake commandsExpresses wishes Hypothetical situations OpinionsGive adviceRequests with that clauses QuestionsMake requestsSuggestions Ex. The Penguin is a good reference book to use. Ex. Use your Penguin! Ex. If you were to use your Penguin, you would be better at solving grammar problems.
Unfortunately… In fact, some verbs need more fiber because they are not regular!
Confusing Pairs are Lie or lay? Set or sit? Raise or rise?
Really Wild Verb… Verb to be Base formPast tensePast Participle (I) am (You) are (He) is (I) was (You) were (He) was (I have) been (You have) been (He has) been (They have been
Get off my Case, said the Pronoun to the Verb! Pronouns that are subjects are Subjective. Pronouns that are objects are Objective. Pronouns that show ownership are Possessive. Ex. I let him use my laptop, but he lent it to her, and I havent seen it or them since.
Pronouns are evil. They are personal, possessive, demonstrative, indefinite, relative, interrogative, reflexive and reciprocal!
Some psycho pronoun problems. Is it you and me or you and I? Us or we before nouns? Who or whom? Whoever or whomever? Pronouns in comparisons using than or as? Possessive pronouns before ing? Ex.. You or your making the team? Do collective nouns use singular or plural pronouns? Pronouns with antecedents … singular or plural?
Since pronouns replace or refer to nouns, they must agree in number and gender. If the noun is male, the pronoun has to be male. If the noun is singular, the pronoun has to be singular. If one is used as a subject, then the pronoun(s) should be he or she. (Better not to use one.
Vague Pronoun References A pronoun can refer to more than one noun and it gets confusing. Ex. The coach rushed past the injured player to yell at the referee. She was hit in the face by a stray elbow. Does the she refer to the coach, the player or the referee?
More confusing pronouns to avoid. Any Either More Most Every Each They Everybody Anybody Everything Neither None Somebody Something This That These Those Some
One good way to avoid pronoun problems? Stronger, better, more specific writing uses nouns instead of pronouns.
Unless you have a photographic memory…you cannot memorize all the rules and all the exceptions to the rules.
And now…after this G2G… You know what to do about it!!
More G2G 10.14.09 II. Back to Basics A. Basic structure of college writing (from Chapters 2, 3) B. Different types of college writing (from Chapters 6-9) C. Using effective style and language (from Chapters 27+) 11.11.09 III. Research A. Use databases, Web sources, print sources (from Chapters 16+) B. Documentation and citation (from Chapters 23a) C. Differences in MLA and APA styles (from Chapters 23+)