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Copyright 2005 www.teacheresourcenet.com1 GCSE Physical Education. Student Revision Presentations. AQA Specification A.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2005 www.teacheresourcenet.com1 GCSE Physical Education. Student Revision Presentations. AQA Specification A."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright GCSE Physical Education. Student Revision Presentations. AQA Specification A

2 Copyright Instructions. This disc contains information slides on all the major topics that you will be examined on for AQA GCSE PE. (Specification A) It can be used for: Revision. Homework. Coursework. How to use it: Either browse through each slide, using the direction arrows on your keyboard, if you want to view the whole course. Use the action buttons labelled with the topic titles on the contents slide to move directly to the required topic lead slide. Then use the action buttons on this slide to take you to the specific area you require. Each slide has a home button that will take you back to the lead slide in that topic area.

3 Copyright Contents. Body Systems Movement Health FitnessTrainingTechnology & PE Factors Affecting Performance & Participation Social & Cultural Factors Affecting Participation Sample Exam Question Answers Drugs

4 Copyright Body Systems Skeletal System Muscular System Circulatory System Respiratory System Energy Systems Nervous System Sample exam questions

5 Copyright Skeletal System The skeletal system has six main functions: Support Protection Blood production Provides shape. Point of muscular attachment. Allows movement. The skeletal system is held together by Ligaments. The skeletal system is made up of four different categories of bones. These are: Long bones. E.g. Femur (Blood production / support) Short bones. E.g. Carpals (Movement) Flat bones. E.g. Scapula (Protection) Irregular bones. E.g. Vertebrae (Muscular attachment)

6 Copyright Muscular System The muscular system is made up of many different muscles. Muscles can be classified into three categories: Voluntary (e.g. Bicep, Tricep, Hamstring) Involuntary (e.g. Gut wall) Cardiac (The heart) Muscular growth is called HYPERTROPHY A reduction in muscular size is called ATROPHY Key muscles to learn: Deltoids, Pectorals, Latissimus Dorsi, Trapezius, Bicep, Tricep, Abdominals, Gluteus Maximus, Hamstring, Quadricep, Gastrocnemius.

7 Copyright Voluntary Muscle Voluntary muscle is muscle under conscious control – this means that we have to think to contract the muscle – a message is passed from our brain via our nervous system. Voluntary muscle links with the skeletal system to cause movement. Voluntary muscle attaches to the skeletal system via tendons. Tendons are strong connective tissue. Examples Deltoids, Pectorals, Latissimus Dorsi, Trapezius, Bicep, Tricep, Abdominals, Gluteus Maximus, Hamstring, Quadricep, Gastrocnemius.

8 Copyright Involuntary Muscle Involuntary muscle works without us having to think about it. It works automatically. Involuntary muscle keeps our body functioning as it should. Examples: Gut wall, blood vessels.

9 Copyright Cardiac Muscle Cardiac muscle is only found in the heart. It is a form of involuntary muscle. It works without us having to think about it. Cardiac muscle (Heart) has to keep contracting to ensure that blood continues to be pumped around the body so that the circulatory system can deliver nutrients and take away waste. Most importantly it never tires!

10 Copyright Voluntary Muscular Contraction Voluntary muscles work by shortening or contracting. Muscular contraction can be either: Isometric – the muscle length does not change. Isotonic – the muscle length changes. If a muscle gets shorter under load (e.g. lifting a dumbell during a bicep curl) this is called a concentric contraction. If a muscle gets longer under load (e.g. lowering a dumbell during a bicep curl) this is called an eccentric contraction.

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14 Copyright Circulatory System Key Components: Heart – Muscular pump that keeps blood moving around the body. Arteries – Carry blood away from the heart. Veins – Carry blood to the heart. Capillaries – Single cell thick blood vessels allowing the transfer of nutrients / waste from the blood stream to the working sites in the body. Blood – Made up of: Red Blood Cells – Carry OXYGEN to and CARBON DIOXIDE from the working sites. White Blood Cells – Fight infection. Platelets – Help blood clotting. Plasma – Liquid that all other components of blood are in. Function: To transport vital nutrients to the working sites in the body. To remove waste products from the working sites and deliver them to the correct places for excretion from the body.

15 Copyright Circulatory System Key Information: Blood passes through the heart twice on a complete circuit of the body. As the blood travels around the body it can be felt at sites around the body. This is called a pulse. The pulse can be found in the neck (carotid), the wrist (radial) and the groin (femoral). Blood pressure is the force blood exerts on the internal walls of the blood vessels. Your maximum heart rate (mhr) can be worked out by 220 – your age. This allows your to work out thresholds of training – 60% mhr for aerobic work and 85% mhr for anaerobic work. Key terms: Heart Rate – The number of times your heart beats per minute. Resting Heart Rate – The number of times a persons heart beats at rest. Stroke Volume – The amount of blood pumped out of the heart each beat. Cardiac Output – The amount of blood pumped out of the heart each minute. (Heart Rate x Stroke Volume)

16 Copyright Circulatory System Effects of exercise on the circulatory system: Short Term: Heart rate rises, cardiac output increases, blood vessels close to the skin dilate (widen) to allow heat generated by exercise to escape Long Term: Aerobic Training Heart gets bigger, stroke volume increases & resting heart rate drops. Blood pressure drops due to more elastic blood vessels. Increased number of red blood cells produced to help deliver 0 2 & remove CO 2. Increased number of capillaries around muscles / alveoli to help blood to access working sites. Anaerobic Training Heart wall gets thicker to cope with sudden increase in blood pressure created by anaerobic training.

17 Copyright Respiratory System Key Components: Trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, alveoli, diaphragm, intercostal muscles. Function: To inhale oxygen and get it to the site of gas exchange (alveoli) allowing oxygen to the pass into the circulatory system. To exhale carbon dioxide from the lungs after it has passed from the site of gas exchange (alveoli) into which it passed from the circulatory system. Effects of exercise on the respiratory system: Short Term Breathing rate increases. Vital capacity (depth) of breathing increases. Rate of gas exchange increases. Long Term Gas exchange becomes more efficient. Vital capacity increases. Diaphragm and intercostal muscles get stronger.

18 Copyright Respiratory System Key terms: Breathing rate The number of breaths per minute. Tidal Volume The amount you breathe in & out during normal breathing. Vital Capacity The maximum amount of air that can be exhaled in one breath. Residual Volume The amount of air left in the lungs after maximum exhalation. Minute Volume The amount of air your lungs inhale & exhale per minute. Inhalation Breathing in. Exhalation Breathing out.

19 Copyright Energy Systems There are three energy systems in our body: Aerobic System GLUCOSE + OXYGEN = ENERGY + CARBON DIOXIDE+ WATER Produces unlimited energy when working below about 85% of max heart rate. Produces energy slowly. Used by marathon runners Lactic Acid System GLUCOSE = ENERGY + LACTIC ACID + OXYGEN DEBT Produces lots of energy quickly. Will last up to 2 minutes. Partial breakdown of molecules during the reaction creates oxygen debt. (symptom: heavy panting) Oxygen must be taken in to completely breakdown the glucose molecules and return the body to a balanced state. (homeostasis) Used by 400m / 800m runners. ATP/PC System PHOSPHOCREATINE = PHOSPHATE + CREATINE + ENERGY Produces lots of energy very quickly. Only lasts up to 10 seconds. Phosphocreatine molecules are broken down to create energy. Used by 100m runners.

20 Copyright Nervous System The nervous system transmits information to parts of our body. The information travels as small electrical impulses along nerves. The main organ in the CNS (central nervous system) is the spinal cord. All information passing along the CNS passes through the spinal cord. Athletes need the CNS to function effectively so that they can control the parts of the body that they wish to move.

21 Copyright Sample exam questions – Body Systems Name four functions of the skeleton. (4) Name two bones found in the arm. (2) Name the three type of muscle found in the body. (3) Explain the function of tendons. (1) Explain the function of ligaments. (1) Answers

22 Copyright Sample exam questions – Body Systems State two places in the body where a pulse can be located. (2) State and explain the long term effects of aerobic training on the circulatory system. (5) State and explain the short term effects of exercise on the respiratory system. (5) Answers

23 Copyright Movement What is a joint? Types of movement Types of joint & their actions How movement occurs Sample exam questions

24 Copyright A Joint A joint is where two or more bones meet. Joints can be classified into three categories: Freely moveable. (e.g. Knee) Slightly moveable. (e.g. Vertebral column) Fixed. (e.g. Plates of the cranium) Key terms: Cartilage – tough, flexible, slippery tissue found at the end of bones. Shock absorber. Joint – Where two or more bones meet. Ligament – Tough elastic fibre joining bone to bone. Tendon – Tough inelastic fibre joining muscle to bone. Synovial Fluid – Lubricating, shock absorbing liquid found in freely moveable joints

25 Copyright Types of Movement Abduction The movement of a limb away from the central line of the body. (abduct – to take away) Adduction The movement of a limb towards the central line of the body. (add – adding to the body) Flexion Reducing the angle at a joint. (Bending) Extension Increasing the angle at a joint. (Straightening) Rotation The limb or body part moves in a circular motion.

26 Copyright Types of Synovial Joints & Their Actions. TYPES OF SYNOVIAL JOINT EXAMPLES FROM THE BODY MOVEMENTSSPORTING EXAMPLE HINGEKnee Elbow Finger Flexion Extension Preparing for (F) and kicking a ball (E). BALL & SOCKETShoulder Hip Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction Rotation Rowing- pulling (F) Rowing – recovery (E) Side step (Ab) Breaststroke arms (Ad) Front crawl arms. (R) CONDYLOIDWristFlexion Extension Rotation Badminton smash preparation (F) Badminton smash execution (E) Badminton drop shot (R) PIVOTNeckRotationFront crawl breathing (R)

27 Copyright How Movement Occurs Bones and muscles link to cause movement. Muscles are attached to bones via TENDONS. Muscles are attached at both ends to bone. Muscles must be attached across a joint to allow movement to occur at that joint. Muscles cause movement by CONTRACTING. This means that to cause movement in two ways TWO MUSCLES are needed. The muscle that causes the movement is called the AGONIST or PRIME MOVER. The muscle that causes movement in the other direction relaxes and is called the ANTAGONIST. Small muscles that assist movement are called SYNERGISTS. The point of muscular attachment that stays still is called the ORIGIN. The point of muscular contraction that moves (towards the origin) is called the INSERTION.

28 Copyright How Movement Occurs MOVEMENTBONESMUSCLESAGONISTANTAGONISTSPORTING EXAMPLE FLEXION AT THE KNEE Femur Tibia Fibula Hamstring Quadricep HamstringQuadricepPreparing to kick a ball. EXTENSION AT THE KNEE Femur Tibia Fibula Hamstring Quadricep HamstringKicking a ball. FLEXION AT THE ELBOW Humerus Radius Ulna Bicep Tricep BicepTricepPreparing to throw a ball. EXTENSION AT THE ELBOW Humerus Radius Ulna Bicep Tricep BicepThrowing a ball.

29 Copyright Sample exam questions – Movement What is a joint? (2) Name the three types of joint found in the human body. (3) State the function of ligaments. (2) State the functions of tendons. (2) What is the function of synovial fluid in a freely movable joint? (2) What is the function of cartilage in a freely moveable joint? (2) Answers

30 Copyright Sample exam questions – Movement Using a sporting example e.g. throwing or kicking state how bones and muscles link to cause movement. (5) Answers

31 Copyright Health What is health? Physical well being Mental well being Social well being Diet Somatotype Sample exam questions

32 Copyright What is health? Health is a complete state of physical, social and mental well being. (World Health Organisation)

33 Copyright What does that actually mean? Physical well being is the bodys systems working well and the absence of illness and injury.

34 Copyright What does that actually mean? Mental well being is being happy with yourself and not overly emotional or stressed.

35 Copyright What does that actually mean? Social well being is having the support of friends and family and an awareness of my role in society.

36 Copyright What is a balanced diet? A balanced diet consists of seven components: 1. Carbohydrates. 2. Fats. 3. Protein. 4. Water. 5. Vitamins. 6. Minerals. 7. Fibre.

37 Copyright Carbohydrates. Function: To provide energy. Short term energy from simple carbohydrates. Short term energy from simple carbohydrates. Long term energy from complex carbohydrates. Long term energy from complex carbohydrates. Stored as glycogen in the liver and muscle tissue. Sources: Simple: Sugars. Complex: Starches – bread, pasta, rice, potatoes.

38 Copyright Fats. Function: To provide stores of energy for long term release and stored under the skin and around major organs to provide insulation. There are two types: 1.Saturated. 2.Unsaturated. Sources: Saturated: animal fats e.g. butter, whole milk, eggs. Unsaturated: vegetable fats e.g. olive oil, avocado, nuts.

39 Copyright Protein. Function: To allow growth and repair of the bodys tissues. Breaks down into amino acids that are restructured into muscle protein. Sources: Fish, chicken, lean red meat and soya. Also in dairy products but these have a high fat content!

40 Copyright Water. Function: To allow the body to maintain a constant temperature. To allow cells to function effectively. Sources: The recommended intake of water is 8 glasses per day – for athletes that are training or on hot days this must increase.

41 Copyright Vitamins. Function: Vitamin A: Healthy skin, good night vision. Vitamin B: Helps brain function & fertility. Vitamin C: Prevents scurvy. Vitamin D: Strong bones. Sources: Vitamin A: Milk, butter, fish. Vitamin B: Cereals. Vitamin C: Citrus fruit and vegetables. Vitamin D: Milk, fish, eggs, sunshine. or

42 Copyright Minerals. Function: Iron: Helps blood function and concentration. Calcium: Helps the formation of healthy teeth and bones. Sources: Iron: Liver, green vegetables, cereal. Calcium: Milk, cheese.

43 Copyright Fibre. Function: To aid digestion and excretion by giving the gut wall something to push on. Sources: Fresh fruit and vegetables.

44 Copyright A Balanced Diet Usually a person will eat a diet that is composed of approximately 60% carbohydrate, 15% protein and 25% fat. Sports people will adapt this to their own needs. An endurance athlete will eat a high carbohydrate for long lasting energy and a power athlete may eat a high protein diet to enable muscular repair.

45 Copyright A Balanced Diet A balanced diet should provide all the nutrients that your body requires for its daily tasks. The more active you are the greater the energy intake you will need. Women and men have different daily calorific requirements. Women and men have different daily calorific requirements. Men can usually consume 2500kcals per day without gaining weight. Men can usually consume 2500kcals per day without gaining weight. Women can usually consume 2000kcals per day without gaining weight. Women can usually consume 2000kcals per day without gaining weight.

46 Copyright Physical Activity and Diet. How do we maintain energy stores? Eat a high carbohydrate meal at least two hours before exercise. Eat a high carbohydrate meal at least two hours before exercise. Do not take a glucose drink or snack before performance – it actually reduces energy stores more quickly. Do not take a glucose drink or snack before performance – it actually reduces energy stores more quickly. If you are performing or training for a long period of time (40 minutes +) sipping a glucose drink during will help maintain performance. If you are performing or training for a long period of time (40 minutes +) sipping a glucose drink during will help maintain performance. Replace lost carbohydrate stores with a carbohydrate rich meal after exercise. Replace lost carbohydrate stores with a carbohydrate rich meal after exercise.

47 Copyright Physical Activity and Diet. Fluid loss is a major problem for athletes during training and performance. Studies have shown that marathon runners can lose 6 – 10% of bodyweight during a race. Studies have shown that marathon runners can lose 6 – 10% of bodyweight during a race. This means up to 7 litres of liquid lost from the body. This means up to 7 litres of liquid lost from the body. Dehydration can cause up to a 33% decrease in performance. (British Journal of Sports Science ) Dehydration can cause up to a 33% decrease in performance. (British Journal of Sports Science )

48 Copyright Physical Activity and Diet. How does an athlete lose liquid during performance? Sweat Sweat The athletes body temperature rises and then produces sweat to help control the temperature. Water vapour on the breath Water vapour on the breath The athlete has to breathe both faster and more deeply to provide oxygen to the working muscles. This means the amount of water lost as vapour on the breath increases.

49 Copyright Physical Activity and Diet. What are the effects of dehydration on the athlete? Lack of concentration. Lack of concentration. Loss of important electrolytes such as sodium and chloride. Loss of important electrolytes such as sodium and chloride. Endurance reduces. Endurance reduces. Body temperature rises possibly leading to heat exhaustion. Body temperature rises possibly leading to heat exhaustion. More susceptible to fatigue. More susceptible to fatigue.

50 Copyright Physical Activity and Diet. How can the effects of dehydration be avoided? Regularly sipping liquid during sporting activity. Regularly sipping liquid during sporting activity. Not waiting until thirsty – its too late, dehydration has already occurred! Not waiting until thirsty – its too late, dehydration has already occurred! Ensuring that two hours before performance your body is fully hydrated. Ensuring that two hours before performance your body is fully hydrated. After performance you replace lost fluids with a drink containing electrolytes. After performance you replace lost fluids with a drink containing electrolytes.

51 Copyright Somatotype. This refers to a persons body type. Somatotyping measures a persons body build in terms of fat, muscle and linearity (height) on a scale of is a low score and 7 is a high score. There are three main types of somatotype: Endomorph. Endomorph. Mesomorph. Mesomorph. Ectomorph. Ectomorph. Athletes all tend to have a high degree of mesomorph as they require large amounts of muscle.

52 Copyright Endomorph. Characteristics: Fatty upper arms. Fatty upper arms. Thin wrists. Thin wrists. Wide hips. Wide hips. Narrow shoulders. Narrow shoulders. Fatty thighs Fatty thighs Suitable Sports: Sumo wrestling, prop forward in rugby.

53 Copyright Mesomorph. Characteristics: Large head. Large head. Broad shoulders. Broad shoulders. Strong forearms and thighs. Strong forearms and thighs. Narrow hips. Narrow hips. Suitable Sports: All sports, especially sprinting, rugby and rowing

54 Copyright Ectomorph. Characteristics: Narrow face and high forehead. Narrow face and high forehead. Narrow shoulders. Narrow shoulders. Thin narrow chest and abdomen. Thin narrow chest and abdomen. Slim hips. Slim hips. Suitable Sports: High jump, basketball, netball.

55 Copyright Sample exam questions - Health What are the three components of health? (3) Carbohydrate is one part of a balanced diet, name two others. (2) What is dehydration? (1) State two ways in which an athlete could ensure that they do not get dehydrated. (2) Mesomorph is one somatotype, name two others. (2) Which type of sport would suit an athlete with mesomorph and ectomorph mix of body types? (1) Answers

56 Copyright Fitness What is fitness? Aspects of fitness – General Aspects of fitness – Specific Testing fitness Sample exam questions

57 Copyright What is Fitness? The ability to meet the demands of your environment and lifestyle and still have energy left for emergencies. Fitness can be broken down into two areas: General General Specific Specific

58 Copyright Types of Fitness. GENERAL fitness is made up of 5 factors: Speed. Speed. Strength. Strength. Stamina. Stamina. Suppleness. Suppleness. Somatotype. Somatotype. All people require some combination of all these factors.

59 Copyright Speed. The ability to move the body or parts of the body from one place to another in the shortest possible time. Needed by: Games players. Games players. Sprinters. Sprinters. Someone who is running late. Someone who is running late.

60 Copyright Strength. The amount of force muscles can exert against a resistance. Muscular strength can be divided into 3 types: 1.Static. 2.Explosive. 3.Dynamic.

61 Copyright Static Strength. This is the application of maximum force against an immovable object. Used in tug of war and a rugby scrum. Muscles do not change length. (isometric contraction)

62 Copyright Explosive Strength. This is the maximum amount of force used in one movement. i.e. Power. Muscle length changes. (isotonic contraction) Used by sprinters, throwers, jumpers and weightlifters.

63 Copyright Dynamic Strength. This is the repeated application of force (muscular endurance). Muscle length changes. (isotonic contraction) Used in running, cycling, rowing.

64 Copyright Stamina. The ability of the body to continue working for long periods of time. Needed by: Long distance runners. Long distance runners. Labourers. Labourers. Indications of someone who has good stamina will include: A low resting heart rate. A low resting heart rate. A large vital capacity. A large vital capacity.

65 Copyright Suppleness. Another word for suppleness is flexibility. Both can be defined as: The range of movement around a joint. Greater movement = greater suppleness. Needed by: Gymnasts. Gymnasts. Someone picking something up from the floor. Someone picking something up from the floor.

66 Copyright Types of Fitness. SPECIFIC fitness is made up from the following factors: Agility. Agility. Balance. Balance. Power. Power. Coordination. Coordination. Timing. Timing. Reaction Time. Reaction Time. People have differing requirements from this list depending on their lifestyle or chosen sporting activity.

67 Copyright Specific Fitness - Agility. The ability to change direction at speed. Needed by: Games Players. Games Players. Gymnasts. Gymnasts. Rock climbers. Rock climbers.

68 Copyright Specific Fitness - Balance. The ability to stay upright or in equilibrium. The ability to stay upright or in equilibrium. Needed by: Gymnasts. Gymnasts. Games Players. Games Players. Surfers. Surfers.

69 Copyright Specific Fitness - Power. The maximum amount of force that can be applied in one movement. The maximum amount of force that can be applied in one movement. Needed by: Rugby Players. Rugby Players. Weightlifters. Weightlifters. Throwers. Throwers.

70 Copyright Specific Fitness - Coordination. The ability to synchronise movements of different body parts in response to the requirements of the activity. The ability to synchronise movements of different body parts in response to the requirements of the activity. Needed by: Racquet sports players. Racquet sports players. Gymnasts. Gymnasts. Games players. Games players.

71 Copyright Specific Fitness - Timing. The ability to act at precisely the right moment. The ability to act at precisely the right moment. Needed by: Games players. Games players. Gymnasts. Gymnasts. Sailors. Sailors. Athletes. Athletes.

72 Copyright Specific Fitness - Reaction Time. The time it takes for the body to respond to a stimulus. The time it takes for the body to respond to a stimulus. Needed by: Sprinters. Sprinters. Racing drivers. Racing drivers. Racquet sports players. Racquet sports players. Goalkeepers. Goalkeepers.

73 Copyright Testing Fitness. Fitness testing is designed to be able to measure aspects of both general and specific fitness. Once levels of fitness have been established it is easier for people to train appropriately for their needs. This is why when testing fitness we need to be as accurate as possible and take care to administer tests correctly.

74 Copyright Testing Fitness. Fitness tests can be either maximal or submaximal. Maximal tests take place at around maximum heart rate (220-age) or push the athlete being tested to their maximum capacity. (1 rep max lift in the gym.) Submaximal tests take place below the athletes maximum thresholds and then calculations are used to create fitness scores. (Harvard step test.)

75 Copyright Measuring General Fitness. Aspects of general fitness can be measured using the following fitness tests: Aspect.Test. Speed. 30m sprint. Strength. 3 rep max. Stamina. Bleep test / Harvard step test. Suppleness. Sit and reach. Somatotype. Skinfold Caliper.

76 Copyright Measuring specific fitness. Aspects of specific fitness can be measured in the following ways: Aspect.Test. Agility.Illinios. Balance. Stork Stand. Power. Vertical Jump. Coordination. Ball Bounce. Timing.- Reaction Time. Ruler Drop.

77 Copyright Sample exam questions - Fitness What is fitness? (2) State two components of general fitness. (2) State two components of specific fitness. (2) State and explain an example of an athlete that would use dynamic strength. (2) State and explain an example of an athlete that would use explosive strength. (2) State a fitness test that could be used for measuring stamina. (1) Answers

78 Copyright Training Principles of training Methods of training Sample exam questions

79 Copyright Principles of Training. There are five key principles of training: S pecificity P rogression O verload R eversibility T edium

80 Copyright Specificity E.g. Lance Armstrong will train specifically for cycling. Much of his training will take place on a bike, replicating the type of activity that he performs during a race. Lance Armstrong will focus on training the major muscle groups used when cycling; quads, hamstrings, gastrocnemius & soleus. Training for a specific sport, training in a specific way or training a specific body part to function in a particular way. Training for a specific sport, training in a specific way or training a specific body part to function in a particular way.

81 Copyright Progression Gradually increasing the load placed upon your body to allow continual improvement to your body to occur. If an athlete always trained at the same intensity then little benefit would be gained once the body had adapted to the increased training load. If an athlete always trained at the same intensity then little benefit would be gained once the body had adapted to the increased training load. To allow continual improvement to be made training must be made gradually more difficult. To allow continual improvement to be made training must be made gradually more difficult. This is why an athlete who has been training regularly for a long period of time will have a harder training programme than an untrained person who has just joined a gym. This is why an athlete who has been training regularly for a long period of time will have a harder training programme than an untrained person who has just joined a gym.

82 Copyright Overload Placing extra demands on the body so it has to work harder than normal, thus allowing the body to adapt (improve) to the loads placed upon it. Overload is based on thresholds of training and the F.I.D. principle. Overload is based on thresholds of training and the F.I.D. principle.

83 Copyright Thresholds of Training Anaerobic Zone Aerobic Zone Zone of no benefit 60% MHR M.H.R. = 220 – age 85% MHR Heart gets bigger. RHR drops. Blood volume increases. More capillaries around muscles. Heart wall gets thicker. Blood vessels gain elasticity. Long term benefits of training:

84 Copyright Frequency The number of times a person trains each week. The more often a person trains, the more often their body is stressed. The more often a person trains, the more often their body is stressed. This leads to a quicker gain in fitness. This leads to a quicker gain in fitness. The general population should exercise at least 3 times per week. The general population should exercise at least 3 times per week. Top athletes need to train more frequently than this. Top athletes need to train more frequently than this. Recovery is also important; not enough recovery time will lead to overtraining and overuse injuries. Recovery is also important; not enough recovery time will lead to overtraining and overuse injuries.

85 Copyright Intensity How hard the exercise is. Pulse rate is a good indicator of the intensity of exercise. 60% – 85% (m.h.r.) is the ideal training zone, the fitter the person the higher in this zone they should train. To help monitor this people can use heart rate monitors. Weight trainers also use percentage calculations to work out their training thresholds. They work out their maximum lifting weight on each exercise. 70% of this is then lifted to improve strength. 30% of this is then lifted to improve endurance.

86 Copyright Duration The length of the training session. The length of training session is linked to the type exercise / improvement that the athlete requires. The length of training session is linked to the type exercise / improvement that the athlete requires. A sprinter may train in many short bursts of 10 – 30 seconds over an hour. A sprinter may train in many short bursts of 10 – 30 seconds over an hour. A marathon runner may train continuously for 1.5 – 2 hours at a time. A marathon runner may train continuously for 1.5 – 2 hours at a time. For general health benefits people should aim to train for at least 20 minutes, after completing a warm up, with their heart rate in the training zone. For general health benefits people should aim to train for at least 20 minutes, after completing a warm up, with their heart rate in the training zone.

87 Copyright Reversibility Benefits gained by training are easily lost. If an athlete does not train then the benefits that they have worked hard to create will be lost. To maintain the benefits created by training the body still needs to be overloaded. Endurance is lost three times quicker than it is gained. Keywords: Atrophy – Reduction in muscle size through lack of training. Hypertrophy – Increase in muscle size due to the effects of training.

88 Copyright Tedium If exercise is boring, people will not want to take part –leading to reversibility. Exercise / training should be varied to maintain interest. Exercise / training should be varied to maintain interest. Small achievable goals should be set to give a sense of progress / achievement. Small achievable goals should be set to give a sense of progress / achievement. Training with a partner or team mates is a good way to avoid tedium. Training with a partner or team mates is a good way to avoid tedium.

89 Copyright Forms of Training - Circuit A series of different exercises completed using different parts of the body, working on each exercise for a specified amount of time Circuit training can be adapted to work on many different aspects of fitness; strength, speed, stamina, flexibility. The circuit should be organised so muscles are not worked on consecutive stations. Benefits Easy to accommodate large numbers of people, keeps training varied, can work more than 1 aspect of fitness at a time, individual targets can be met. Limitations Requires a degree of space, not really suitable for training on your own, circuit activities need to be varied to avoid tedium. Dips Squat thrusts Shuttles Skipping Press ups Crunches Back raisesStar jumps

90 Copyright Forms of Training - Interval Periods of work interspersed with periods of rest. Interval can either be long or short interval training. Completed as sets and reps. Short interval develops the ability to apply maximum effort. The periods of work are very short – 15 seconds and the periods of rest relatively long – up to 2 minutes. Suitable for sprinters. Long interval develops the ability to apply sub maximal effort over longer periods of time. The periods of work are longer – up to 3 minutes and the periods of rest get longer as the periods of work get longer. Suitable for athletes that need to repeatedly apply sub maximal effort – games players. Benefits Easy to organise, very sports specific. Limitations Varying abilities difficult to cope with, difficult to easily set individual targets.

91 Copyright Forms of Training - Weight The use of weights to provide resistance to allow training benefits to occur. Can be either fixed weights or free weights. Athletes can develop strength, endurance and power using weight training. Athletes train using a system of sets and reps. Sets The number of times a group of repetitions is completed. Reps The number of times an exercise is repeated in one go. Strength = 70% of 3 lift max x low reps (8-12) Endurance = 30% of 3 lift max x high reps (15-50) Power = Strength x Speed (Same as strength but a fast lifting action.)

92 Copyright Fixed Weights Also known as weights machines, the weight can only follow a pre defined range of movement. Benefits Safe, easily used alone, develop correct lifting position, isolate agonist (muscle causing movement) well. Limitations Do not develop synergist (stabilising) muscles, maximum amount of weight is pre defined limiting their use for well conditioned athletes.

93 Copyright Free Weights Weights that are not encased in a machine, are free to move anywhere, no pre defined range of movement. Benefits Easy to add more weight, develops synergist (stabilising) muscles as well as agonist, (muscle causing movement) greater range of possible exercises. Limitations Greater risk of injury due to incorrect lifting technique, requires at least two other people to acts as spotters when using heavy weights.

94 Copyright Forms of Training - Fartlek A form of exercise that varies overload by varying the speed and effort that is applied by the participant. Occurs over a period of time (about 45mins, minimum 20mins) when an athlete will vary the intensity (heart rate) at which they are exercising. Occurs over a period of time (about 45mins, minimum 20mins) when an athlete will vary the intensity (heart rate) at which they are exercising. It develops both the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems. It develops both the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems. Ideal for games players. Ideal for games players.Benefits Easy to organise, varied training activities, varied training outcomes, works all three energy systems, can be adapted to different situations. Limitations Needs careful planning, can need large amounts of space / varied terrain.

95 Copyright Forms of Training - Continuous Regular rhythmic contractions of large muscle groups. Used to build endurance. Used to build endurance. Works the aerobic energy system. Works the aerobic energy system. Athletes operate between 60% and 80% of max heart rate. Athletes operate between 60% and 80% of max heart rate. Minimum length of exercise time is 20 minutes. Minimum length of exercise time is 20 minutes. Ideal for endurance athletes (5000m+) and people wishing to improve general health & fitness. Ideal for endurance athletes (5000m+) and people wishing to improve general health & fitness.Benefits Easy to do, builds fitness quickly, can be adapted to different situations / equipment. Limitations Can become boring.

96 Copyright Forms of Training - Endurance Endurance – the ability to keep going for long periods of time. Endurance training requires regular rhythmic contraction of major muscle groups (slow twitch), at a constant pulse rate, over a long period of time. Suitable activities: Jogging, cycling, swimming, rowing, stepping, x trainer, aerobics Frequency Frequency At least 3 sessions per week. Intensity Intensity Athletes that wish to improve endurance operate between 60% & 80% of their maximum heart rate. (220 – age) Duration An athlete would exercise for at least 20 minutes (building fitness) but possibly up to 2 hours. (ultra endurance events) An athlete would exercise for at least 20 minutes (building fitness) but possibly up to 2 hours. (ultra endurance events) Aerobic Energy System

97 Copyright Forms of Training - Speed The ability to move the body or parts of the body from one place to another in the shortest possible time. Speed training requires vigorous bursts of muscular contraction (fast twitch) over short periods of time. Suitable activities: Short & Long interval training, resistance training, acceleration sprints. Frequency At least 3 times per week. At least 3 times per week.Intensity Between 85% mhr and maximum heart rate. Between 85% mhr and maximum heart rate.Duration If working at 85%mhr speed training will not last longer than 3 minutes. If working maximally the training will last no longer than 1 minute. These training loads will be repeated so the actual session could last up to ½ an hour. If working at 85%mhr speed training will not last longer than 3 minutes. If working maximally the training will last no longer than 1 minute. These training loads will be repeated so the actual session could last up to ½ an hour. Anaerobic Energy System – ATP/PC & Lactic Acid System

98 Copyright Forms of Training - Strength The ability to apply maximum force to an object. Strength training requires few regular muscular contractions applying maximum effort over a short period of time. Suitable activities: Resistance training either using fixed or free weights or body weight resistance training. Frequency Maximum number of sessions on each muscle group - 3 times per week. Maximum number of sessions on each muscle group - 3 times per week.Intensity Athletes should lift 70% of their 3 rep max to develop strength. Athletes should lift 70% of their 3 rep max to develop strength.Duration Athletes should complete between 3 & 5 sets of between 8 & 12 repetitions. Athletes should complete between 3 & 5 sets of between 8 & 12 repetitions. Anaerobic Energy System - ATP/PC & Lactic Acid System

99 Copyright Threshold Training Threshold training is based on finding out a persons maximum level of performance and then working at certain levels of this maximum to develop particular aspects of fitness. Threshold training can be used to develop all aspects of fitness. Aerobic and anaerobic training zones are based on a persons maximum heart rate. Aerobic and anaerobic training zones are based on a persons maximum heart rate. Weight training is based upon a persons ability to complete 3 rep max lifts Weight training is based upon a persons ability to complete 3 rep max lifts PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation) flexibility training is based upon finding the threshold of a persons flexibility and then using muscular contraction to extend this range of movement. PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation) flexibility training is based upon finding the threshold of a persons flexibility and then using muscular contraction to extend this range of movement.

100 Copyright Threshold Training – Resistance A weight trainer needs to find out the maximum weight that they can lift 3 times for each exercise that they want to perform. (3 rep max) They will then use this figure to calculate the training thresholds for strength (70%) and endurance (30%). Examples Aim: Increase strength using the bench press exercise. 3 rep max: 100kg. Required lifting weight (70%): 70kg. Actual exercise: 3 sets of 8 reps lifting 70kg Aim: Increase strength using the bench press exercise. 3 rep max: 100kg. Required lifting weight (30%): 30kg. Actual exercise: 3 sets of 15 reps lifting 30 kg.

101 Copyright Flexibility Training Flexibility is the range of movement around a joint. There are 3 main ways of developing flexibility: Static stretching. Static stretching. Ballistic stretching. Ballistic stretching. PNF stretching. PNF stretching.

102 Copyright Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation. P.N.F. Stretching P.N.F. stands for Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation. P.N.F. stands for Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation. This type of stretching is very good for increasing flexibility. This type of stretching is very good for increasing flexibility. The athlete takes the limb to the point at which resistance is felt. The athlete takes the limb to the point at which resistance is felt. They then complete an isometric contraction (muscle length does not change) against an immovable object, usually a partner. They then complete an isometric contraction (muscle length does not change) against an immovable object, usually a partner. They then repeat this process (second and third time the muscle is able to stretch further) until their own limit is reached. They then repeat this process (second and third time the muscle is able to stretch further) until their own limit is reached.

103 Copyright Ballistic Stretching Also called dynamic or active stretching. Also called dynamic or active stretching. This involves the athlete moving the limb through an extreme range of movement, once it is in a stretched position. This involves the athlete moving the limb through an extreme range of movement, once it is in a stretched position. The athlete uses jerky movements to try to increase flexibility at the joint. The athlete uses jerky movements to try to increase flexibility at the joint. This method is only suitable for people who are already flexible. This method is only suitable for people who are already flexible. This method has risks for injury. This method has risks for injury.

104 Copyright Static Stretching Also called passive stretching. Also called passive stretching. The muscle is taken to its maximum range and then held for between 10 and 45 seconds. The muscle is taken to its maximum range and then held for between 10 and 45 seconds. The longer the stretch is held the greater chance of an increase in flexibility. The longer the stretch is held the greater chance of an increase in flexibility. Less risk of injury than ballistic stretching. Less risk of injury than ballistic stretching. Provides prevention and relief from muscle / joint pain. Provides prevention and relief from muscle / joint pain.

105 Copyright Sample exam questions - Training Name the five principles of training. (5) Explain how FID contributes to overload. (3) What is specificity? (1) What is reversibility? (1) What training method could an athlete use to develop endurance? (1) At what heart rate would an athlete work at to develop endurance? (1) Answers

106 Copyright Sample exam questions - Training What are the benefits of using free weights rather than fixed weights? (2) What type of athlete would benefit from Fartlek training? (1) Which type of training is most effective at improving flexibility? (1) What is interval training? (3) Answers

107 Copyright Drugs A drug is a chemical substance that alters the bodys performance in some way. Drugs can be used positively and negatively in sport. Using drugs that are allowed is positive. It helps to keep an athlete healthy. E.g. Paracetamol Using drugs that are banned is negative. This is the athlete trying to gain an unfair advantage. (cheating) E.g. Anabolic Steroids

108 Copyright Categories of banned drugs & their uses. Stimulants - Ephedrine Designed to speed up the nervous system. Creates extra alertness. Used by games players to be more up for a match. Anabolic Steroids - Nandralone Used to increase muscular mass & speed up training recovery. Used by sprinters & weightlifters. Can cause aggression & infertility. Diuretics Used to increase the speed of water loss. Used by jockeys & boxers to make a weight. Causes dehydration. Narcotic Analgesics - Morphine Kills pain. Used by athletes to kill pain to allow further competition or training. Blood Doping An athlete trains at altitude causing more red blood cells to be made. Blood is then removed and frozen. The body recovers and makes more blood. Prior to competition the blood is thawed out & reinjected. Creates improved endurance due to more red blood cells able to carry more oxygen. Used by marathon runners / endurance athletes. Hormones – Testosterone. Used to encourage muscular growth. Used by sprinters & weightlifters.

109 Copyright Sample exam questions - Drugs Name two types of banned drug. (2) Which type of athlete may use anabolic steroids? (1) What would they hope to gain by using them? (2) What is blood doping and what type of athlete would use it? (4) Answers

110 Copyright Factors Affecting Performance & Participation Schools Sports clubs Age Gender Leisure time Sample exam style questions

111 Copyright Schools PE is a compulsory subject in schools in the UK. PE is a compulsory subject in schools in the UK. PE is a core subject of the National Curriculum. PE is a core subject of the National Curriculum. PE is taught by specialist teachers in secondary schools but some primary teachers are not PE specialists. PE is taught by specialist teachers in secondary schools but some primary teachers are not PE specialists. Children have to follow certain areas of activity in each of the key stages. Children have to follow certain areas of activity in each of the key stages. Activities can be chosen from these areas; games, gymnastics, dance, athletics, swimming and outdoor and adventurous activities. Activities can be chosen from these areas; games, gymnastics, dance, athletics, swimming and outdoor and adventurous activities. The focus of the national curriculum is; developing skills, applying skills in an activity, analysing performance and developing health & fitness. The focus of the national curriculum is; developing skills, applying skills in an activity, analysing performance and developing health & fitness.

112 Copyright Schools and Participation Schools increase participation in physical activity because PE is compulsory for everyone of school age. Schools increase participation in physical activity because PE is compulsory for everyone of school age. Enthusiastic teachers act as positive role models and encourage pupils to willingly participate and make PE an enjoyable activity. Enthusiastic teachers act as positive role models and encourage pupils to willingly participate and make PE an enjoyable activity. Effective teachers of PE ensure that all people can join in the activities because the tasks set are adapted to different ability levels. Effective teachers of PE ensure that all people can join in the activities because the tasks set are adapted to different ability levels.

113 Copyright Schools and Extra Curricular Clubs Teachers often offer extra activities that take place outside normal lesson times. E.g. lunch times or after school. Teachers often offer extra activities that take place outside normal lesson times. E.g. lunch times or after school. Teachers and school staff run these on a voluntary basis. Teachers and school staff run these on a voluntary basis. Students attend clubs that interest them, it is not compulsory. Students attend clubs that interest them, it is not compulsory. Schools clubs tend to be free if they are run by the teachers or school staff. Schools clubs tend to be free if they are run by the teachers or school staff. These clubs provide more opportunity (greater number of hours) for students to participate in physical activity. These clubs provide more opportunity (greater number of hours) for students to participate in physical activity. Students can attend just to participate (recreation) or to take part in competitive activity (sport). Students can attend just to participate (recreation) or to take part in competitive activity (sport).

114 Copyright Sports Clubs Sports clubs tend to focus on a specific activity. E.g. A netball club. Sports clubs tend to focus on a specific activity. E.g. A netball club. People tend to be interested in the activity before they join the club. People tend to be interested in the activity before they join the club. Coaches at clubs now need to be qualified and clubs need to be very safety conscious. Coaches at clubs now need to be qualified and clubs need to be very safety conscious. The standard of performance at clubs tends to be higher as people receive specialist coaching and people dedicate time to improving their own performance. (Training) The standard of performance at clubs tends to be higher as people receive specialist coaching and people dedicate time to improving their own performance. (Training)

115 Copyright Age Different age groups tend to focus on different aspects of performance. As people age their muscular mass undergoes atrophy and their skeleton becomes more fragile. Older people therefore undertake more gentle exercise to inhibit the deterioration of their body systems.SLOW Thirties and forties is a time when people try to maintain participation for health benefits. STEADY Late teenage years and early twenties is a time when many people try to achieve the highest standard of performance possible. GO Children aged 11 – 15 develop their knowledge and performance in particular activities. STEADY Young children (2 – 10) focus on developing basic skills and patterns of movement applicable to a wide range of activities. READY

116 Copyright Gender Modern physical activity should be an equal and inclusive experience. However sometimes this is not the case. Sometimes clubs may only have enough facilities for single sex activities. There may not be enough interest in an activity for a particular sex. Many sports are available to both sexes but generally they are played separately. Some exceptions include; mixed hockey, tennis, equestrianism. To encourage equal participation between the sexes clubs are offered funding to organise female specific activities. To encourage female participation ladies only sessions are organised in leisure centres, sometimes with subsidised (cheaper) entry costs and also creche facilities are provided. E.g. Ladies swimming at a certain time or mother & toddler activity sessions.

117 Copyright Leisure Time Leisure time is the time a person has left over when they have fulfilled all of their commitments for that day. These commitments can include working, eating and chores. Leisure time is a time when a person can make a free choice about what they wish to do. Leisure time has increased for many people in recent years. This can be put down to several factors: More automated working. (Technology) More automated working. (Technology) More labour saving devices. (washing machines etc.) More labour saving devices. (washing machines etc.) Longer life expectancy. Longer life expectancy. More affluent (rich) society. More affluent (rich) society. As people have more leisure time it means that the leisure industry has grown to be able to meet the demand for leisure activities.

118 Copyright Sample exam questions – Factors Affecting Performance & Participation How do schools increase participation in physical activity? (4) What benefits do organised sports clubs offer over a school extra curricular club? (4) Why do people now have more time to participate in leisure activities? (4) Answers

119 Copyright Sample exam questions – Factors Affecting Performance & Participation How does a persons style of participation differ as they get older? (4) What measures are taken to ensure that sport and physical activity are able to be accessed by both men and women? (4) Answers

120 Copyright Social & Cultural Factors Affecting Participation Sponsorship & Endorsement Funding Media Hosting International Events Particular Events in Olympic History Cultural issues Sample exam questions

121 Copyright Sponsorship & Endorsement Sponsorship is the provision of money, goods or services in return for the displaying of a logo or the use of image rights when trying to sell a product. It is a commercial agreement, the sponsor gets advertising and association with sport and the person who is sponsored gets financial reward, free equipment or services. Example: Emirates Airlines sponsor Chelsea Football Club. Endorsement is a sportsperson allowing their name to be associated with a product to try to help sell it. They give it their seal of approval. People usually receive a fee or royalties in this type of agreement. Example: David Beckhams clothing line.

122 Copyright Funding Funding is when money is given by an organisation (usually the government via DCMS (Department of Culture Media & Sport) or National Lottery) to support sporting development without any commercial interest. Sport England is the main body responsible for distributing funding in England to help developing sporting opportunity. Funding usually tries to develop places (facilities) for people to participate in physical activity or to give people the opportunity to take part in more physical activity (participation) by paying for coaching.

123 Copyright Media The main forms of media are: TYPES OF MEDIA NewspaperTVRadioInternetMagazine Mobile Phone All forms of media have one purpose: Communication of information to an audience

124 Copyright Functions of media in a sporting context. Media has several key functions within the world of sport. Informing – e.g. news programmes. This type of programme tells people what has gone on. Educating – e.g. documentary programmes or student revision programmes. This type of programme develops knowledge in the audience. Entertaining – e.g. programmes to allow people to enjoy their leisure time. This type of programme provides excitement for an audience without actually having to participate. Advertising – e.g. adverts between programmes or at live events. This is a key aspect of modern sport as commercial sponsorship provides the money for sport to develop and evolve and the securing of this sponsorship relies upon media coverage.

125 Copyright The effects on sport of media coverage can be divided into positive and negative factors. Positive: Greater influx of money into the sport. More coverage brings more sponsorship. Increased awareness of a sport, leading to more participants. Sports develop to become more exciting e.g. back pass rule in football. New events created for media purposes e.g. giant slalom skiing. Negative: Media companies influence scheduling times to maximise TV audiences. E.g. Premiership kick off times. Media companies influence timings of the activity. E.g. American Football now divided into quarters to allow more advertising. Attendance at live events drops. Saturation coverage creates boredom about a sport. Sports lose popularity due to little media coverage. Media and Sport

126 Copyright Hosting International Events Countries work very hard to secure the right to host international sporting events such as: The Olympic Games The World Cup The Commonwealth Games

127 Copyright Hosting International Events There are considerable advantages to hosting international events. These include: Better sporting facilities that can be used after the event has finished. Better sporting facilities that can be used after the event has finished. More jobs for the people in the host country. More jobs for the people in the host country. More wealth for businesses in the host country. More wealth for businesses in the host country. Improved transport systems. Improved transport systems. Good publicity for the host country. Good publicity for the host country. The athletes act as role models and encourage people in the host country to participate in more physical activity. The athletes act as role models and encourage people in the host country to participate in more physical activity.

128 Copyright Hosting International Events There can be some disadvantages to hosting an international sporting event: It requires a large amount of money to pay for facilities when they are being built and countries may not get back their investment if the event is not a success. It requires a large amount of money to pay for facilities when they are being built and countries may not get back their investment if the event is not a success. Political groups can use the event to draw attention to a particular issue, sometimes with violent results. Political groups can use the event to draw attention to a particular issue, sometimes with violent results. Once the event has finished some jobs will be lost. Once the event has finished some jobs will be lost. Some sporting facilities may not be used much after the event has finished. Some sporting facilities may not be used much after the event has finished.

129 Copyright Particular Events in the Olympic Games history. There have been some very important events that have occurred in the history of the Olympic games. As the games have become more popular, more people have watched. In turn this has meant that the Olympic games have been used by people to express political opinions and viewpoints.

130 Copyright – Berlin. Jesse Owens won 4 gold medals in Berlin. Jesse Owens won 4 gold medals in Berlin. He was a black American athlete. He was a black American athlete. The games were hosted by Adolf Hitlers third Reich – they hoped for Aryan winners. (blond hair, blue eyes.) The games were hosted by Adolf Hitlers third Reich – they hoped for Aryan winners. (blond hair, blue eyes.) Adolf Hitler refused to acknowledge Owens because of his race. Adolf Hitler refused to acknowledge Owens because of his race.

131 Copyright Jesse Owens – 1936.

132 Copyright – Mexico City. American athletes, Tommie Smith and John Carlos chose the winners podium to bring awareness to the civil rights struggle in the USA. They wanted racial equality in a time when black people were considered second rate citizens. Their message of defiance was broadcast on live TV across the world.

133 Copyright – Munich. Terrorists from the black September terrorist group took hostage members of the Israeli Olympic team in the athletes village. Their aim was to publicise the struggle for power on the West Bank. In the attempt to rescue them 11 athletes lost their lives.

134 Copyright – Montreal. These games were supposed to be the biggest and best ever seen. These games were supposed to be the biggest and best ever seen. Sadly corruption and bad planning meant that the games were surrounded in controversy. Sadly corruption and bad planning meant that the games were surrounded in controversy. The city overspent massively and the Olympic games caused a huge debt of over $1 billion to be created. The city overspent massively and the Olympic games caused a huge debt of over $1 billion to be created. Citizens of Montreal are still paying the debt off via their annual taxes! Citizens of Montreal are still paying the debt off via their annual taxes!

135 Copyright – Moscow. The USA refused to send their team to Moscow in protest against the communist political system that governed the Soviet Union at the time and also because the Soviet Union had just invaded Afghanistan.

136 Copyright – Los Angeles. This was the first Olympic games to be paid for entirely with commercial money. Organisers sold TV rights, advertising outside the stadiums and endorsed products for a $235 million profit. The first professional athletes competed with the reintroduction of tennis. Since this date the games started to change towards the spectacle we see today. Steve Redgrave won his first gold medal!

137 Copyright – Seoul. Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson became the first man to run 100m in under 9.8 seconds – 9.79s – a world record! Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson became the first man to run 100m in under 9.8 seconds – 9.79s – a world record! He later became the first gold medallist to be stripped of his gold medal after testing positive for anabolic steroids! He later became the first gold medallist to be stripped of his gold medal after testing positive for anabolic steroids!

138 Copyright – Sydney. This was termed the most successful Olympics ever! This event set the standard for all games to follow – the new facilities were amazing and the spectacle was second to none. It cost 2.4billion dollars to stage! 10 key commercial partners contributed $50million each to associate their products with the Olympic games. Steve Redgrave wins his 5 th gold medal! – The longest period anyone has ever won consecutive gold medals (20 years!)

139 Copyright Cultural Issues Culture and tradition has a large impact on sporting participation. Parents influence children in their participation trends. If parents are active and interested in sport then it is likely that their children will be encouraged to participate in sport also. Parents may encourage a child towards the traditional activity for that family rather than the activity that the child most enjoys or is good at! Peer groups have a large influence on participation. If in a group of friends a majority all enjoy a particular activity then it is likely that the others in that social circle will also participate in the popular activity. Negatively, if a peer group has a large number of people who do not enjoy physical activity then it is unlikely that the rest of the group will either!

140 Copyright Sample exam questions – Social & Cultural Factors. Name two advantages to the sponsor of sponsoring a professional sports performer. (2) Name two advantages to the athlete from being sponsored by a commercial company. (2) Name two sources of potential funding for sport in England. (2) State two forms of media. (2) Entertainment is one function of media, state two others. (2) Answers

141 Copyright Sample exam questions – Social & Cultural Factors. State and explain two negative influences of media on sport. (4) State and explain two positive influences of media on sport. (4) Answers

142 Copyright Sample exam questions – Social & Cultural Factors. State and explain the advantages of a country hosting a major international competition such as the olympic games. (5) State and explain the disadvantages of a country hosting a major international competition such as the olympic games. (5) Answers

143 Copyright Technology & PE ICT Judging Sample exam questions.

144 Copyright ICT Information Communication Technology has helped students in PE analyse performance, record performances and learn in new ways. The main forms of ICT used in PE lessons are: TV. TV. Video camera. Video camera. Digital camera. Digital camera. Laptop computer. Laptop computer. All of these devices enables easy storage of data and pictures so that they can be viewed at a later point. ICT has allowed us to analyse performance in greater detail due to slow motion replay and motion analysis software.

145 Copyright Judging. Judging. Sports are now starting to rely on TV and radio to assist in the officiating of sports. As sports has become such big business an accurate decision from the official is vital for performers. A wrong decision can cost a great deal of money. Sports now use an additional umpire to review multi angle TV footage to assist the primary official in making their decision. E.g. TV footage in rugby. Assistant officials are linked via personal radios to the primary official to allow them to effectively communicate during a sporting event.

146 Copyright Sample exam questions – ICT in PE State two advantages to using a video camera for analysing performance. (2) Explain how using ICT would help a PE teacher enhance their teaching of a lesson. (3) Give two examples of how ICT is helping sporting officials make the correct decisions at important fixtures. (2) Answers

147 Copyright Sample Exam Questions Answers Return to Contents Page

148 Copyright Sample exam answers – Body Systems Name four functions of the skeleton. (4) Support, protection, blood production, muscular attachment, movement, shape. Name two bones found in the arm. (2) Humerus, radius, ulna. Name the three type of muscle found in the body. (3) Voluntary, involuntary, cardiac. Explain the function of tendons. (1) Join muscle to bone. Explain the function of ligaments. (1) Join bone to bone. Questions

149 Copyright Sample exam answers – Body Systems State two places in the body where a pulse can be located. (2) Neck (carotid), wrist (radial), groin (femoral) State and explain the long term effects of aerobic training on the circulatory system. (5) Heart gets bigger (hypertrophy) so stroke volume increases & resting heart rate drops. Blood pressure drops due to blood vessels becoming more elastic after being regularly stretched during exercise. Increased number of red blood cells produced to help deliver 0 2 & remove CO 2. Increased number of capillaries around muscles / alveoli to help blood to access working sites. State and explain the short term effects of exercise on the respiratory system. (5) Breathing rate and vital capacity (depth) of breathing increases to allow more O 2 to be delivered to the working sites to allow energy creation to occur. Breathing rate and vital capacity (depth) of breathing increases to allow more CO 2 to be removed from the working sites. Rate of gas exchange increases to provide 0 2 to the circulatory system and to remove CO 2 from it. Questions

150 Copyright Sample exam answers – Movement What is a joint? (2) Where two or more bones meet. Name the three types of joint found in the human body. (3) Freely moveable, slightly moveable, fixed State the function of ligaments. (2) To join bone to bone. State the functions of tendons. (2) To join muscle to bone. What is the function of synovial fluid in a freely movable joint? (2) To lubricate the joint and to absorb some shock. What is the function of cartilage in a freely moveable joint? (2) To allow bones to slide over each other easily and to absorb shock. Questions

151 Copyright Sample exam answers – Movement Using a sporting example e.g. throwing or kicking state how bones and muscles link to cause movement. (5) To go to the Kicking answer click here Throwing. The bones are joined at the elbow by ligaments. The muscles are attached across the elbow by tendons. A muscle causes movement by contracting. Throwing requires the arm to be moved in two directions so two muscles are needed. These are the bicep and tricep. To create flexion at the elbow in readiness for the throw the bicep is the agonist and undergoes an isotonic concentric contraction. (gets shorter) The tricep is the antagonist and relaxes to allow flexion to occur. To create extension at the elbow to allow the object to be thrown the tricep becomes the agonist, undergoing an isotonic concentric contraction. (gets shorter) The bicep is the antagonist and relaxes to allow extension to occur. Questions

152 Copyright Sample exam answers – Movement Using a sporting example e.g. throwing or kicking state how bones and muscles link to cause movement. (5) To go to the Throwing answer click here Kicking. The bones are joined at the knee by ligaments. The muscles are attached across the knee by tendons. A muscle causes movement by contracting. Kicking requires the leg to be moved in two directions so two muscles are needed. These are the quadricep and hamstring. To create flexion at the knee in readiness for the kick the hamstring is the agonist and undergoes an isotonic concentric contraction. (gets shorter) The quadricep is the antagonist and relaxes to allow flexion to occur. To create extension at the knee to allow the object to be kicked the quadricep becomes the agonist, undergoing an isotonic concentric contraction. (gets shorter) The hamstring is the antagonist and relaxes to allow extension to occur. Questions

153 Copyright Sample exam answers - Health What are the three components of health? (3) Physical well being, social well being and mental well being. Carbohydrate is one part of a balanced diet, name two others. (2) Water, protein, fibre, fat, vitamins, minerals. What is dehydration? (1) When a persons body loses enough water to stop it working properly. State two ways in which an athlete could ensure that they do not get dehydrated. (2) Drinking before the activity starts and regularly sipping liquid during. Mesomorph is one somatotype, name two others. (2) Ectomorph, Endomorph. Which type of sport would suit an athlete with mesomorph and ectomorph mix of body types? (1) High jump, basketball, netball, 2 nd row rugby. Questions

154 Copyright Sample exam answers - Fitness What is fitness? (2) The ability to meet the demands of your environment and still have energy left for emergencies. State two components of general fitness. (2) Speed, strength, stamina, suppleness, somatotype. State two components of specific fitness. (2) Power, reaction time, agility, balance, timing. State and explain an example of an athlete that would use dynamic strength. (2) A cyclist; requires repeated muscular contractions to power the bike. State and explain an example of an athlete that would use explosive strength. (2) A weightlifter; applies maximum force to the weight quickly to lift it up. State a fitness test that could be used for measuring stamina. (1) Bleep test, harvard step test, cooper test. Questions

155 Copyright Sample exam answers - Training Name the five principles of training. (5) Specificity, progression, overload, reversibility, tedium. Explain how FID contributes to overload. (3) Frequency is working more often, Intensity is how hard you are working, Duration is how long you are working. All of these are needed to make your body work harder than normal. What is specificity? (1) Training a particular body part, in a particular way for a particular activity. What is reversibility? (1) If you stop training you will lose the benefits. What training method could an athlete use to develop endurance? (1) Continuous At what heart rate would an athlete work at to develop endurance? (1) 60% of max heart rate (MHR). MHR = 220 – age. Questions

156 Copyright Sample exam answers - Training What are the benefits of using free weights rather than fixed weights? (2) Free weights develop synergist muscles as well as the targeted agonist. What type of athlete would benefit from Fartlek training? (1) A games player as it replicates the movements of a game. Which type of training is most effective at improving flexibility? (1) PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation) stretching. What is interval training? (3) Periods of work broken up with periods of rest. Short intervals develop top speed and long intervals develop speed endurance. Suitable training for sprinters and games players Questions

157 Copyright Sample exam answers - Drugs Name two types of banned drug. (2) Stimulants, anabolic steroids, diuretics, narcotic analgesics, blood doping. Which type of athlete may use anabolic steroids? (1) An athlete wanting to build muscle e.g. sprinter or weightlifter. What would they hope to gain by using them? (2) An increase in muscular mass and quicker recovery between training sessions. What is blood doping and what type of athlete would use it? (4) An athlete trains at altitude causing more red blood cells to be made. Blood is then removed and frozen. The body recovers and makes more blood. Prior to competition the blood is thawed out & reinjected. Creates improved endurance due to more red blood cells able to carry more oxygen. Used by marathon runners / endurance athletes. Questions

158 Copyright Sample exam answers – Factors Affecting Performance & Participation How do schools increase participation in physical activity? (4) PE is compulsory, activities are suited to individual needs, teachers act as positive role models, offer extra curricular clubs. What benefits do organised sports clubs offer over a school extra curricular club? (4) More specialist, qualified coaches, skill level will be higher, more competitive opportunities. Why do people now have more time to participate in leisure activities? (4) More automated working, more labour saving devices, longer life expectancy, more affluent (rich) society. Questions

159 Copyright Sample exam answers – Factors Affecting Performance & Participation How does a persons style of participation differ as they get older? (4) Very young – concentrate on basic skills, late childhood – developing knowledge about an activity, 20s & 30s – highest possible level of performance, 40s & 50s more gentle for health benefits, over 50s – gentle to minimise the affects of ageing on the body. What measures are taken to ensure that sport and physical activity are able to be accessed by both men and women? (4) Women only sessions. Subsidised entry costs. Creche facilities provided. Funding offered to develop female sport. Questions

160 Copyright Sample exam answers – Social & Cultural Factors. Name two advantages to the sponsor of sponsoring a professional sports performer. (2) Publicity, association with sport, selling products due to association with sports star. Name two advantages to the athlete from being sponsored by a commercial company. (2) Money, free equipment, free services. Name two sources of potential funding for sport in England. (2) The government (DCMS) and the national lottery. State two forms of media. (2) TV, radio, internet, books, magazines, newspapers Entertainment is one function of media, state two others. (2) Informing, instructing, advertising. Questions

161 Copyright Sample exam answerss – Social & Cultural Factors. State and explain two negative influences of media on sport. (4) TV companies dictate the start times of major sporting events to coincide with peak TV audiences. This means that some events are broadcast in the middle of the night if there is much interest from the USA. TV companies do this as they have paid so much money for TV rights. The media can concentrate too much on a performers private life. This puts too much pressure on them and they are sometimes unable to perform. State and explain two positive influences of media on sport. (4) The sale of TV rights creates a great deal of money. This money can then be used to develop the sport and improve facilities. Publicity of a sport can encourage more people to attempt an activity. Once people try an activity they may find that they like it and then continue with it. This increases participation. Questions

162 Copyright Sample exam answers – Social & Cultural Factors. State and explain the advantages of a country hosting a major international competition such as the olympic games. (5) A country will have to develop new facilities for the event, this will lead to their being more and better quality facilities for sport in the host country. Visitors to the country will create wealth for the host country by buying goods and services when they visit. This makes businesses more profitable. TV viewers will see the country and may choose to visit, again boosting the host countries economy. State and explain the disadvantages of a country hosting a major international competition such as the olympic games. (5) A great deal of money needs to be invested before the event to build the facilities, if the event is unsuccessful this money could be lost. Once specialist facilities are built there may be little use for them after the event has finished. An example would be a velodrome. Political organisations could try to use the event to draw attention to a particular cause. This may make the country seem unsafe and put potential visitors off. Questions

163 Copyright Sample exam answers – ICT in PE State two advantages to using a video camera for analysing performance. (2) Performances can be recorded and then watched over and over again. Performances can be slowed down to focus in on a particular part of a persons performance. Explain how using ICT would help a PE teacher enhance their teaching of a lesson. (3) A teacher would be able to record childrens work to show them at a later point. The teacher would also be able to use pictures or video footage to help children improve their work. The teacher would also be able to assess their work more effectively. Give two examples of how ICT is helping sporting officials make the correct decisions at important fixtures. (2) TV replays are being used to decide if a ball crossed a line. E.g. Scoring a try in rugby union. The officials are in contact via radio link so that assistant officials can help the primary umpire make a decision. Digital cameras are used to decide who won athletics races such as the 100m. Questions


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