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Technology Implementation: Created by: Brock Sonia Michael Nancy Note: To exit the program, press the esc key on your keyboard Through Curriculum Enhancement,

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Presentation on theme: "Technology Implementation: Created by: Brock Sonia Michael Nancy Note: To exit the program, press the esc key on your keyboard Through Curriculum Enhancement,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Technology Implementation: Created by: Brock Sonia Michael Nancy Note: To exit the program, press the esc key on your keyboard Through Curriculum Enhancement, Professional Development, Innovative Technology Assessment and Student Involvement

2 Table of Contents General Introduction --Technology Implementation (Brock) Introduction Purposes/Objectives Implementation Limitations Technology Implementation Through Professional Development (Sonia) Introduction Purposes/Objectives Implementation Resources Limitations Technology Implementation – Implications for Planning and Assessment (Matthew) Introduction Purposes/Objectives Implementation Resource Requirements Evaluation Limitations Technology Implementation Through Student Involvement (Nancy) Introduction Purposes/Objectives Implementation Testimonials Resource Requirements What the research says Limitations Additional Information (All) Ensuring Equitable Access Assessment Overlapping Issues Fast Facts (the Digital Divide) Conclusions Internet Web Links References

3 Curriculum Enhancement– Introduction Technology Education Students should learn about, understand, and use technology to enrich their lives, expand academic opportunities, and provide critical employment skills for entering the workforce of global economy. Using Education Technology School districts and school leadership must support federal programs that help train teachers and other school personnel in the use of technology tools to improve teaching and learning. Fact: Statistics released by the U.S. Department of Education in April 2000 found that less than 35% of teachers felt they were well prepared or very well prepared to use technology effectively.

4 Curriculum Enhancement– Purposes/Objectives Creating a high school environment that provides opportunities to effectively use technology in the classroom The National Education Association (NEA) identifies three important aspects to the use of technology in education Technology Education Using Education Technology Access to Equipment Shared Leadership In Cultivating Leadership in Schools (2001), Donaldson presents a leadership model that suggests that an organization can act to accomplish goals more successfully than individuals alone. With advances in technology occurring at a phenomenal rate, successful leaders will take advantage of all learning opportunities. Students, teachers, and volunteers a like may take leadership roles while exploring technological programs. Teaching with technology Successful teachers recognize that technology mediums are merely tools that can increase student learning. With effective training and resources, teachers can utilize technology as a resource to supplement student learning, and energize a classroom.

5 Curriculum Enhancement– Implementation There are two major approaches to using media and technology in schools. First, students can learn from technology, and second, they can learn with technology. Learning from is often referred to as instructional television, computer-based instruction, or integrated learning systems. Learning with technology is referred to in terms such as cognitive tools and constructivist learning environments. Source: In the Classroom: After developing a learning climate that supports technology, the responsibility of using the technology effectively resides with the classroom teachers. How teachers implement the use of technology is their classroom determines how positive the effect technology will have on student learning. The next step... With the added pressure of budget cuts and impatient school boards, successful principals will follow two steps in addition to the NEA guidelines. Gather information about successful programs at similar schools and use those programs as models. Develop an assessment plan to determine if technology strategies are working within the school.

6 Curriculum Enhancement– Limitations Resources- Creating lesson plans that use technology mandates that students have access to the appropriate equipment. This equipment (hardware or software) is not always available or working properly. Teachers must remain flexible with plans. The Internet is the greatest information resource in the history of man. However, it also presents risks of exposure to inappropriate and inaccurate content. A professor at Southern Colorado University found that only 27% of the Web sites used by middle and high school students in his study used for research were considered reliable sources of information. (source: ) Everyone in agreement? While most parties currently support the technology boom in schools, there remain skeptics. In an Atlantic Monthly article entitled The Computer Delusion began with the following sentence: There is no good evidence that most uses of computers significantly improve teaching and learning, yet school districts are cutting programs- music, art, physical education - that enrich children s lives to make room for this dubious nostrum … (Oppenheimer, 1999, p.45).

7 Professional Development– Introduction Thanks to generous contributions from businesses, schools are acquiring computer hardware at a rapid pace. The upkeep of educational technology has likewise taken over a considerable portion of school districts budgets. But with all the money being spent on hardware, software, and wiring, schools have forgotten to invest in the most important part of educational technology, the human infrastructure.

8 Professional Development– Purposes/Objectives Identification of the major shortfalls within teacher technology training must be identified so that.. Successful teacher technology training practices can be analyzed and.. Solutions to teacher technology training problems can be proposed

9 Professional Development– Implementation In 1999, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) surveyed teachers about their use of education technology in their classrooms and schools. It found that although half of the teachers who had computers or Internet available in their schools and used them for classroom instruction, only one-third of those reported feeling well or very well prepared to use them as such (U.S. Department of Education, 2000). Ironically, the less experienced teachers reported that they felt well or very well prepared to use educational technology with greater frequency than their more experienced colleagues. Most teachers in the well prepared category cited independent learning, college or graduate work, followed by professional development activities, had prepared them to use technology. (U.S. Department of Education, 2000) Lack of quality professional development opportunities is often cited for lack of technology competency. When training is offered, very seldom is follow-up support provided to show how to integrate the new skills into the curriculum (Mouza, ). The types of activities most often offered during technology training professional development are: training on software applications, the use of the Internet, and the use of computers and basic computing (U.S. Department of Education, 2002). Technology-oriented professional development was available for 91 % of teachers in schools with low minority enrollments (6-20 %) compared availability for 81% of teachers in schools with 50% or higher minority enrollment (Ibid). Continued …

10 Professional Development– Implementation (cont.) In order for quality technology-oriented professional development to take place the focus needs to be more than skill-based training. Technology integration training must also be provided. (Mouza, ) Effective technology training involves multiple support levels in which colleagues and administrators, along with the training professional provide support to the teacher- in-training. (Mouza, ) Effective technology training is organized around real classroom situations and provides outside resources as well as in-classroom- assistance while teachers attempt to implement the new practices. (Mouza, ) Professional development requires time and money, both of which district Technology coordinators are realizing are even more important than the hardware. (Miller, 1997) The federal Office of Technology Assessment suggests that 30 percent of the nation s education technology spending should be devoted to teacher training. Likewise, State Departments of Education are requiring districts to spend at least 30 percent of technology budget on training. (Miller, 1997) Federal technology grant programs are requiring applicants to include a training aspect in their grant proposals. (Miller, 1997)

11 Professional Development– Resources Regional education laboratories and regional technical assistance centers funded by the U.S. Department of Education provide direct training, advice or referrals. The International Society for Technology Education works with districts and education agencies to help them develop technology-oriented professional development activities. ISTE also sponsors the Academy for Technology Leadership, training designed for district technology coordinators and other administrators. Train the trainers programs train groups of teachers who are then sent out to train other teachers. One district s nationally recognized technology implementation model has a training component which includes a commitment to give mentor teachers a year away from their classrooms in order to train other teachers. For-profit companies such as Tele-Communications, Inc. – one of the nation s largest cable television companies, also has an educational technology training subsidiary called ETC – education, training and communications. (Miller, 1997)

12 Professional Development– Limitations Budget restrictions Time away from the classroom for initial and follow-up training. Adequate time for teachers to discuss technology issues and how to integrate technology use into the curriculum. Technology support staff and/or technology coordinator is needed.

13 Planning & Assessment– Introduction

14 Planning & Assessment– Purposes/Objectives Develop a list of basic technology competencies for students and include them as part of high school graduation requirement. Include computer programming courses in district curriculum. Include sample assignments as part of curriculum for every course.

15 Planning & Assessment– Implementation Make It Happen-- Ways Principals Can Promote the Use of Technology School provided addresses for teachers, staff and students. Communicate with staff and parents using whenever possible. School Web Site Developed and Updated Regularly. Establish Technology Competency Committee comprised of administrators, teachers, and students to develop and promote the use of technology in the high school. Professional Development Programs on Technology Available to Teachers. Submit grant requests to help with the cost of new computers and computer software. Lead By Example - be aware of the technology competencies and comfortable using technology in the everyday operations of the high school. Data - Driven Decision Making: Use of data and resources available to evaluate and analyze school capacity and readiness for implementation of various programs. Instructional Strategies Use of the internet to design lessons appropriate for all learners. Use of books on tape for students with dyslexia and other learning disabilities. Incorporate videos as part of lesson plans in the humanities and social sciences. Regular class trips to the school media center in all classes. Interactive white boards in the classroom. Use of geometer sketch pad in math classes. Web sites for each course that contain assignments, links and a course outline. Continued …

16 Planning & Assessment– Implementation (cont.) Basic Technology Competencies Use formulas when creating a spreadsheet. Insert a picture into a word document. Use various search engines on the Internet to locate information. Build a database. Create a web site. Use various forms of multimedia to present information. Computer Courses Introduction to Computer Programming AP Computer Science JAVA Info Systems Sample Assignments U.S. History classes participating in a Model United Nations Program with other students throughout the world using the Internet. Calculus classes using a TI 89 graphing calculator to study volumes of solids of revolution. Video Production classes using an animation program to build a movie.

17 Planning & Assessment– Resource Requirements Learning Environments Television, Computer, VCR or DVD player, Focus Box and Internet Access in EVERY classroom. Graphing Calculators and Overhead Projection Screens available for math teachers. Electronic scales, high strength microscopes and probes in all science labs. New tools for industrial arts and home economics classes. Digital Cameras for Photography Classes. Up to date computer labs located throughout the building. communication with students, teachers, parents and school staff. Distance Learning Professional Development. A sample of student work from a history course introducing the unit on the Italian Renaissance. Students took their own faces and using photo-editing software, placed themselves into the paintings. Students researched the painters and paintings and as a final project made Mother s Day cards from their work. The project was team taught between the art teacher, TLC student, and history teacher.

18 Planning & Assessment– Evaluation Evaluation of Student Performance Use of Electronic Portfolio to evaluate and assess student understanding of basic computer competencies. Videos, Web sites and Power Point presentations employed as alternate forms of assessing student progress. Use of New Anti-Plagiarism Software to detect student work that may not be authentic. Student course registration, progress reports and report cards available online. Evaluation of Teachers Classroom visitations recorded and evaluation reports done using laptop computers. Objectives and lesson plans ed to administrator or downloaded from class web site beforehand. Use of Technology in the Classroom encouraged and noted in review of teachers. Specific goals involving the increased integration of technology set for all teachers. Basic Technology Competencies developed for teachers. Mastery of Technology Competencies rewarded with stipend and use of laptop computer. Evaluation of Principals Basic Technology Competencies developed for administrators. Number of students and teachers who have demonstrated a mastery of the competencies. Attend Professional Development Workshops on the Integration of Technology into a high school.

19 Planning & Assessment– Limitations Lack of resources including but not limited to equipment, personnel and funds. Staff resistance. Student use of the internet to plagiarize papers and other projects. Administrative Issues That Effect the Integration of Technology Got a GLITCH on your computer???

20 Student Leadership – Introduction The introduction of complex technological infrastructure is leading many schools to create new roles for students not only as managers of the technology but also as teachers and mentors to other members of the school community. Students learn how to serve as teachers of technology for other members of the school community. In addition to making the community a richer and smarter place technologically, the students are learning about the teaching and learning process itself and becoming better learners in general. (This work is part of Vanguard for Learning, a research project funded by the National Science Foundation and sponsored by the Department of Defense Education Activity.) The Technology Leadership Community (TLC) class formalizes and supports many ways in which students can contribute to their school environment in new roles. Students-as-teachers can assist the school community in disseminating technology knowledge while enabling those students to examine their own learning styles. When a student teaches others, he learns the dynamics of teaching and learning and becomes a better learner. Two of the most critical elements being taught during the class are: Problem-Solving – teachers are encouraged to give students a challenge and have the students work through the problem-solving process while developing a teaching lesson to be presented to others Metacognative Thinking – Thinking about thinking – specific ways to get students to think about how and why they think (see web links page for links to more information)

21 Student Leadership– Purposes/Objectives Technology Leadership Programs The goal is to create a cadre of technologically and pedagogically trained students who can give quality workshops and mentor others, which enables them to become useful and knowledgeable consultants for the entire community. The key learning objectives and activities, beyond studying the technology itself, include examining their own roles as learners by teaching and raising questions about effective teaching practices. They do so by becoming experts at specific technologies and sharing that expertise with others. Although the visible outcome of the class is a series of services performed by the students to members of the school community, the class work emphasizes learning to teach. While studying technology, they also learned how to communicate, think critically, and reflect upon themselves as learners.

22 Student Leadership-- Implementation Class Size/Orientation Determined by School Needs Create one or two periods with a computer lab teacher dedicated to teaching a full TLC class (around 20 students per class) Have supplemental students placed with a teacher (who has the resources in their room) during multiple periods (For example at RHS, there are four classes of TLC with no more than 5 students per class. The librarian is the teacher/facilitator and the students use computers in the library lab, allowing for other students to use the remaining computers.) Major Instructional Activities Complementing the technology support in their school community Technology study includes: Internet navigation, searching, and web site creation Server management Desktop publishing Graphics applications Computer Aided Design and other specialized software Pedagogical study includes: Methodology of teaching Materials preparations Presentation strategies Evaluation techniques Formalized self-reflection activities (such as log-keeping, using video tape to observe, analyze, and improve their own teaching efforts Continued … Teaching activities include: Weekly one-on-one mentoring sessions with faculty, staff, students or community members Teaching in larger group situations Preparing manuals and other instructional materials for clients Regularly assessing the school s technology learning needs and developing strategies to effectively meet those needs

23 Student Leadership– Implementation (cont.) Components Mentoring Preparation for mentoring Pedagogy Reflection and Planning Technology (application) learning by the TLC students Scheduling Producing Production Promotion (advertising program within school community) Training Types of Activities With Teachers Taught teachers one-on-one in regular sessions: , word processing, Excel, Web browsing techniques, Hyperstudio Assisted in setting up classroom technologies Helped teachers use new educational technologies in their classrooms Helped a teacher build computer-based math tutorials With Students Taught younger students one-on-one basic html, desktop publishing techniques Taught younger students as a class PowerPoint, Hyperstudio, Web browsing, digital photography, and graphics manipulation Taught peers one-on-one Excel, Auto-Cad Taught peers as a class web page building With Community Taught host nation peers about html and collaboratively built a public web site Managed a Saturday community computer lab for base members to learn about technology Helped teach soldiers presentation software Helped teach soldiers GIS software

24 Student Leadership– Testimonials Teachers: A greater percentage of the time than in the past, the kids were able to facilitate and help me and each other, because we were using computers. I saw them in roles that I think I would not have seen them in. They work also in learning how to listen in meetings to become a cooperative person within committees that are mostly adults and how to make connections to what they have heard in meetings... they become an active and contributing part of a group. … TLC students, they were wonderful. We teachers took a half day off with subs, and it was really neat. Here s these high school kids teaching these teachers how to do all the skills they knew. They were a wonderful group of kids. They knew what they were doing. They were patient with us. They walked things through with us over and over. It was nice to see something that the students know so much better than I do. (using computers). Students: I like teaching teachers. I don t think teachers have a problem with students teaching them … it made me feel like I knew something. Teaching younger children really helps you a lot because you see that you have to put yourself in their places; you have to put it in your own words so if you can explain it then you have really learned it.

25 Student Leadership– Assessment Many times students create their own assessments of their work based on established rubrics. Doing so enables them to set learning objectives and have a clear understanding of what is expected of them. They do this individually with the teacher. The students will be graded on completion of tasks and participation and there are several reflection essays throughout the course. While the actual technology learning can be assessed by a variety of traditional methods, including written tests but this would defeat the purpose of the collaborative learning environment and the learning-by-teaching emphasis. A primary purpose is to teach students to be responsible observers of their own learning, and not just learn new technologies. By doing so, they will become better learners. That growth and development is not of the nature that can be tested by traditional methods. The TLC teacher and student examine pre/post surveys and determine how much of the technological knowledge the student has learned. Students are expected to attain a high level of competence in one or two applications, rather than learning only a small amount about as many applications as possible. Sample Assessments: Questionnaires, surveys and journals Participant (learner– i.e. the teachers as learners) evaluation of the student as teacher Self-assessments on their teaching others

26 Student Leadership– Resource Requirements Infrastructure Recommendations Class Needs Administration Commitment Requires support with scheduling conflicts Should allow students to schedule teacher sessions during non-TLC class hours or after school School should help the faculty and community become aware of the TLC s abilities and function and assist with logistics (transportation) Classroom Should meet in a well-equipped computer lab with enough workstations for each student to have his/her own computer TLC students should have priority to schedule the lab for training or mentoring sessions Need to have access to the software they wish to learn, the computers to run the software, peripherals such as digital cameras, scanners, presentation monitors, and videotaping gear. Course Length May be offered for 18 week (semester), but highly recommended for full year course Teacher Needs The TLC Course Guidelines and Handouts A willingness to experiment, and accept that not everything goes well and is a success A willingness to give students a high degree of independence and respect. It is advisable to have more than one teacher team-teaching the course (eg. Librarian and Lab teacher) Student Needs Course is designed for mixed 7-12 th grade level students, either as full class (15-20 students) or as supplemental class (4-5 students more periods). Students need to be self-motivated and have high level of personal responsibility Students need to have a strong interest in learning technology, though a HIGH level of experience is NOT necessary other than general PC experience An interest in education and teaching Strong writing and communication skills Continued …

27 Student Leadership– Resource Requirements Hardware/Equipment Requirements Computer CPUs/monitors Printers, external drives and other peripherals Computer projector (at the least, overhead projector) Video Camera Scanner Digital Camera(s) Probe with sensors (usually can be found in science departments) Software/Applications Word Processing (Word) Spreadsheet (Excel) Presentation Software (PowerPoint, Hyperstudio) Animation (3D Animator, Flash) Layout/Design/Desktop Publishing (Quark, PageMaker) Web Authoring (DreamWeaver, Front Page, PageMill) Data Base (FileMaker Pro, Access) Web Browsing Science Probeware GIS Mapping Teleconferencing Photo/Image Music/Midi Drawing/Painting

28 Student Leadership– Research Changing Student Roles in a Changing School Environment Students are increasingly playing more frequent and demanding roles as learners, teachers, mentors, peer instructors, problem solvers, designers, and technical support staff. Both the challenges they face as growing learners as well as the needs imposed by their school help shape these new roles. A 1996 U.S. Department of Education study on Education Reform states: Students must be enabled to engage in new roles and perform new forms of student work. Establishing new student roles and student work may be the true bottom line of reform. This shift is the key indicator of reform. Research has shown that students as teachers tend to demonstrate accelerated growth in social skills, confidence building, communications skills, and critical thinking (Kalkowski 1995) Student-to-student teaching has been especially successful and is rarely used in school programs. In peer-tutoring sessions, students can teach technology very effectively to their schoolmates because they speak a more similar language than do teachers and students (Hedin 1987). Students-as-technology-leaders programs are developing in many places, but as mentioned earlier, not yet within the framework of the credited classroom. The Maryland Virtual High School project, engages a cadre of students called the NetSRP s to help develop, troubleshoot, and maintain the networks and the Gen WHY project, in Olympia, WA, empowers middle-school students to become technology leaders and trainers. The TLC program, however, is unique in that students spend as much time examining their own learning style and reflecting about learning as they do practicing and teaching technology to others.

29 Student Leadership– Limitations Administrative Support/Commitment There are specific needs for the course that must have administrator support, such as: transportation to other schools and/or community areas Advertising and making visible the resources of the TLC students Scheduling Counselors must understand the foundational aspects of the program and be able to share that with students during scheduling time Each school must determine what type of program implementation they want (full classes or supplemental students) It is difficult to schedule times for students to work with teachers and/or classes Technology There must be a commitment on the part of the school for the purchasing of new software and peripherals that can be explored by the students. Most students come into the course with a basic understanding of word processing, slide presentations and spreadsheets. The school must commit to challenging these students with higher-level software Computers AND peripherals such as CD burners, digital cameras, scanner, and video cameras (for role playing/evaluation), etc. must be accessible to the students to complete projects and do training.

30 Ensuring Equitable Access All schools and libraries should be equipped with state-of-the-art technology and should enable students to connect through the internet to the vast resources available. Digital Divide: The Dept. of Education reported that in % of American classrooms had computers with access to the internet. Affluent counties have a higher average of 82%, while the average for low-income counties drops to 60%. A sample of student work from a history course introducing the unit on the Italian Renaissance. Students took their own faces and using photo-editing software, placed themselves into the paintings. Students researched the painters and paintings and as a final project made Mother s Day cards from their work. The project was team taught between the art teacher, TLC student, and history teacher.

31 Assessment When so much is riding on how well a new program succeeds, successful principals will need a means to measure the success or failure of new technology programs. An Educators Guide To Evaluating the Use of Technology in Schools and Classrooms is a great example of an effective assessment plan. Please visit:

32 Overlapping Issues Success stories The New Technology High School in California is not quite seven years old, but their technology driven programs have served as examples of success to schools around the country. Please visit their website at : Small Academies at Oakland Technical High School specializing in Engineering and Computer Science. Technology Competencies and Electronic Portfolios at Amity Regional High School. Successful Principals Will … In order to promote all three NEA aspects of technology use, a successful principal will need to demonstrate mastery of several of the ISLLC Standards. ISLLC Standard 1:Shared Vision of Learning The successful principal will facilitate the development and implementation of a technology vision that moves teachers to expand their boundaries of their creativity and the creativity of their students beyond the walls of the classroom. The technology vision aims to help teachers to use the power of computer technology to spark student imagination, and ultimately move them toward greater student learning. ISLLC Standard 3: Management of Resources and Operations The successful principal will devote enough time and resources to ensure that students and teachers continue to develop their technology skills. At least 25% of a district s technology budget should be dedicated to professional development to help staff and students use technology effectively. ( This may include paying for more substitutes as teachers attend workshops and conferences, hiring an in-house technology trainer, and paying employees extra for after school activities ISLLC 4: Mobilizing Community Resources The successful principal will take advantage of community resources to help supplement district resources. As technology continues to develop and change, successful schools rely on outside help to keep up with needs, developments, and breakthroughs.

33 Fast Facts – The Digital Divide The N-Geners are the first to grow up surrounded by digital media. They are no more intimidated by digital technology than a VCR or a toaster. And it is through their use of the digital media that N-Gen will develop and superimpose its culture on the rest of society. I dont buy that these kids have short attention spans. They think in different ways than adults. Sometimes they are multitasking. Other times they can get into something and spend many hours on it if it makes sense to them. Dr. Idit Harel author of Children Designers The digital revolution is transforming social and economic life. By 2001, there were 700+ million Internet users. The market for e-commerce was $2.6 billion in 1996 and is expected to reach $500 billion by Environmental Scan in the Americas: Ecology of Child Development 7_htm_files/Committee-e/ENV-SCAN-EN.pdf 7_htm_files/Committee-e/ENV-SCAN-EN.pdf Access in Schools is Not Enough Wiring the schools and populating them with computers is necessary but not enough. In order to ensure equal opportunity to share in the digital revolution, students must be provided with appropriate software and services. Innovative technologies cannot make up for educational professionals who lack innovative methods and merely replicate learning models that don't work. "Does It Compute? The Relationship Between Educational Technology and Student Achievement in Mathematics," contains some interesting findings. Researchers found strong links between certain kinds of technology use and higher scores on NAEP. Eighth graders whose teachers used computers for simulations and applications performed better on NAEP than students whose teachers did not. In both grades, students whose teachers had received computer professional development training outperformed students whose teachers had not. Eighth graders whose teachers used computers primarily for drill and practice performed worse than other students. Fourth-graders whose teachers used computers for math/learning games scored higher than students whose teachers did not. _study/part2.html _study/part2.html

34 Conclusions Schools are being asked to change more actively and frequently than ever before and much of these changes will emphasize not only technology integration but new ways of examining teaching and learning. The old classroom models simply are inappropriate for today s students and schools must re-think so many of the components within their walls, including the walls themselves. Students can and should be seen as real contributors to their own learning and their school community, rather than just being receivers of knowledge. The TLC class provides a concrete mechanism that fosters this contribution. By reducing the amount of time and effort spent learning how to use the tools, schools will be better able to explore how to teach with those tools. The TLC course has proven that students can play critical roles in their schools while becoming better learners. These characteristics identify the students, and the thinkers of tomorrow.

35 Internet Web Links General Information TLC Program -- Metacognition Synopsis of article Developing Metacognition: Blakey, E., & Spence, S. (1990) NCREL Description Overview of Metacognition Student metacognitive portfolio review template Historical perspective of metacognition in education research Online lecture how-to on metacognition TLC Program -- SCANS Report

36 References General Overview, T. (2001, July). The computer delusion. The Atlantic Monthly, pp Reeves, T.C. (1997). Established and emerging evaluation paradigms for instructional design. In C. Dills & A. Romiszowowski, (Eds), Instructional development paradigms (pp ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology. Bracewell, R., & Laferriere, T. (1996). The contribution of new technologies to learning and teaching in elementary and secondary schools. Montreal, Quebec, Canada: Laval University and McGill University. Donaldson, G. (2001) Cultivating Leadership In Schools.New York, Teachers College Press. Professional Development Miller, J. (Oct 1997). Online, off-track. Techniques: Making Education & Career Connections. 17(7), p Mouza, C. (Winter ). Learning to teach with new technology: Implications for professional development. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. 35(2). p Smerdon, B., Cronen, S., Lanahan, L., Anderson, J., Iannotti, N., & Angeles, J. (2000) U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics. Teachers Tools for the 21 st Century: A Report on Teachers Use of Technology. NCES Washington, DC. Continued …

37 References (cont.) Student Leadership Blakey, E., & Spence, S. (1990). Developing metacognition. Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information Resources. [ED327218] Brown, A., Campion, J. & Day, J. (1980). Learning To Learn; On Training Students to Learn from Texts. Paper presented at American Education Research Association, Boston, MA. Dirkes, M. Ann. (1985, November). "Metacognition: Students in charge of their thinking." Roeper Review, 8(2), EJ Hedin, D. Students as Teachers: A Tool for Improving School. Social Policy 17/3 (1987): Kalkowski, Page. (1995). Peer and cross-age tutoring. In School improvement research series. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Education Laboratory. (On line document): Lin, X., and Bielaczyc, K. (1998). Supporting Metacognitive Activities in Learning About Complex Subject Domains: Lessons Learned from Research Cases. Manuscript. Scruggs, Thomas E.; Mastropieri, M. A.; Monson, J.; & Jorgenson, C. (1985, Fall). "Maximizing what gifted students can learn: Recent findings of learning strategy research." Gifted Child Quarterly, 29(4), EJ Saphier, Jon, and Gower, Robert. (1997) The Skillful Teacher Research for Better Teaching, Inc. Acton, MA Newstrom, John and Scannell, Edward. (1989) Games Trainers Play. McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing

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