Presentation on theme: "Locative Media Lalya Gaye Ubiquitous Computing course"— Presentation transcript:
1Locative Media Lalya Gaye Ubiquitous Computing course IT-University in Göteborg31 November 2007
2Introduction Locative Media Lecture Aims and scope Overview of the fieldTechnology overviewDiscussion of design and prototyping approachesDesign issues: focus on sustainability in locative media
3Introduction Lecture Content Ubiquitous computing: recapUbicomp technologiesLocative Media: definition and originsThemes, projects and related design issuesCharacteristics, challenges and design opportunitiesTechnologies available to the general publicSustainable Design?
5Ubiquitous Computing Recap Mark Weiser’s vision (1991) disappearing computereveryday world literally used as interface“The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it.”
6Ubiquitous Computing Recap The computer: calculator -> information system -> interactive -> pc -> mobile, integrated, networkedLevels of interaction: electrical -> symbolic -> textual -> visual -> social, tangibleEvolution of the user interface: from immersing the user in the computer’s world to computing increasingly adapting to the user’s world and skills.Ubicomp = opposite of virtual reality: embedded reality.
7Ubiquitous Computing Recap Evolution of computer-human interaction: more of the human’s everyday world and everyday skills in computingcomputers an increased part of our everyday liferequiring less specialised knowledge to operate themrelying increasingly on user’s everyday skillssmaller computersfrom one computer for many user, to many computers
8Ubiquitous Computing Recap Designing ubicomp systems: Focus on the interaction between user & technology (as opposed to form and function), on what experience the user gets from it, on what added-value ubicomp brings to his/her life.Follow needs and requirements but also entice new behaviours?
9Ubiquitous Computing Recap Enhance people’s activities by making computing available at hand, when and where needed (including when the users are mobile)Computing naturally blending into everyday settings, vanishes into the backgroundThe physical and social world around us as digitally augmented and distributed interfaceManipulating digital data = manipulating entities in the physical worldLiterally build on people’s everyday use of the physical and social world, in situation and in real time.Peripheral awarenessGreenfield: “information processing dissolving into behaviour”IT + everyday life as design material (f. ex. I/O Brush)
10Ubiquitous Computing Recap Implementing the ubicomp vision: Many interconnected computers per personMobile devices combined with computers embedded in the environment (e.g. post-hoc augmentation of everyday objects with sensors and networked communication)With awareness of physical & social context + each other-> Mapping the digital world to the physical one-> User interface: tangible and embedded in the real world
11Ubiquitous Computing Recap Implementing the ubicomp vision: Distributed interface: networking mobile devices and embedded computers (sensors, processors, etc) -> flexible and seamless integrated whole -> e.g. any display or input device can become one’s own (user mobility)Interaction in context and in real time (f.ex. tracking things and people -> relevant information and interaction opportunity to the right person at the right time)
12Ubiquitous Computing Recap Types of systems: “walk-up-pop-up” wearablesambient displaysintelligent work environmentsaugmented, interconnected everyday objectsetcMedia cup, TecO
14Ubiquitous Computing Technologies Ubiquitous Computing (Weiser): computing interweaved in everyday life, “where the action is” (Dourish)context awarenessembedded sensor networksglobal positioningwearable computingaugmented & mixed-realityad hoc and p2p user networks
15Ubiquitous Computing Technologies * Embedded sensor networks Sensors: - in everyday environments- on people- on artefactsSensor fusion: combining different data and placements to gather context
16Ubiquitous Computing Technologies * Context-aware computing “computer-based devices [that] reach out into the real world through sensors” [Gellerson].“A system is context-aware if it uses context to provide relevant information and/or services to the user, where relevancy depends on the user’s task.” [Dey & Abowd, 1999].
17Ubiquitous Computing Technologies * Context-aware computing Enables computing to run into the background and adapt to changes of context in order to present appropriate behaviour to specific situations.“presentation of information and services to a user”“automatic execution of a service” depending on context appropriatenessor “tagging of context to information for later retrieval” [Dey].
18Ubiquitous Computing Technologies * Context-aware computing Gellersen et al.
19Ubiquitous Computing Technologies * Context-aware computing Gellersen et al.
20Ubiquitous Computing Technologies * Tangible computing Input, data, output and networking contained and accessed within the same tangible artefactPaper, cups, pens, umbrellas or specially designed artefactsTangible objects as active entities that respond to the environment, to user manipulation and people’s activities in generalBuilding on the users’ cognitive abilities
21Ubiquitous Computing Technologies * Social computing Incorporating understandings of the social world into interactive systemsSocial traces left by people on objects or placesMobile social networks between co-located acquaintancesenhancing user awareness by providing them information about others and their activity
22Ubiquitous Computing Technologies * Augmented reality Superimposing a digital world upon the real oneUser experiences both as co-existing parts of the same realityUser is able to interact with their combination in real timeInterfaces:3D computer graphics seen through transparent head-mounted displays or augmented glassesSpatialised audio cues heard through headphones
23Ubiquitous Computing Technologies * Augmented reality Mixed-reality: digital world not directly overlaid on the physical one but still presented as part of the same reality, f.ex.with both realities displayed on the screen of hand-held device)
24Ubiquitous Computing Technologies * Wearable computing Computing incorporated into clothingMake use of body-related information or interaction forms to control processes : - body movements - biometricsEmbedded displays (e.g. glasses)
28Locative Media Background Typical contexts of use for ubicomp: home, office work, cafeterias, grad-students research labs, etcLocative media = media with sense of placeNew media + urban aesthetic practices + community uses of public space + contextual art + mobile, ubiquitous and geographical technologiesCity, public spacesUbiquitous computing in public space:Minority Report dystopia (video: 44:20) vs. current creative uses and appropriations of public space?
29Locatived Media Background Urban aesthetic practices Mobility as creative actCreative use of public spaceWalking:aboriginal walkaboutssituationist dérive, psycho-geography
30Locative Media Background Urban aesthetic practices Mobility as creative actCreative use of public spaceGraffitiReclaim the StreetsUrban sports:skateboardingparkour (video)-> urban space as resource for aesthetic movements
32Locative Media Projects ThemesPervasive Gaming: the world as a game-boardSpace annotation: media with a specific position in spaceLocation awareness & GPS-enabled locative mediaMobile music & locative audioRadio piratesSocial spacesetc
33Locative Media Projects Locative Media Projects Pervasive GamingLocative Media ProjectsPervasive GamingThe world as game-boardBotfighters and Pirates!Backseat Gaming (video)Can You See Me Now? (video)iPerG...Can You See Me Know? Blast Theory + Equator
34Locative Media Projects Space AnnotationMedia with a specific position in spaceUser-authored social cuesVirtual: Geonotes (video) Urban Tapestries (animations)Physical: Yellow Arrow (video) GrafediaGrafedia, grafedia.netYellow Arrow, Count Media
35Locative Media Projects GPS & PositioningHundekopf, knifeandforkGPS-drawingNon-linear narratives:Hundekopf (video)
36Locative Media Projects GPS & PositioningTracking and mapping pathsBiomapping (video), Drift, Net_Derive (video)...Biomapping, Christian NoldDrift, Teri Rueb
37Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative AudioAudio space annotationMobile music sharing/listening:distributedad hocsound walksMobile music making:situatedcollaborativeWearable audioUser content!!!
38Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative AudioAudio space annotationHear&There(Rozier, MIT Medialab, 1999)Tacticle Sound Garden [TSG] (video)(Mark Shepard, Buffalo Univ )Tejp / Audio tags(PLAY & FAL, )Sound as public display, Peripheral awareness, Community re-appropriation of public space
39Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative AudioAudio space annotationAudio Bombing (video)(Fleming et al., 2007)Sonic Graffiti (video)(C-Y Lee, 2007)Sound as public display, Peripheral awareness, Community re-appropriation of public space
40Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative AudioAudio space annotation[Murmur] (murmur.ca)Sound as public display, Peripheral awareness, Community re-appropriation of public space
41Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative AudioSound walksElectric walks (Christina Kubisch)Drift (Rueb)34n118w (Knowlton, Spellman, 2005)Craving (Garnicnig, Haider, 2007)Seven Mile Boots (Beloff et al., )The Case at Kulturhuset(Knifeandfork, 2004)Riot! (Mobile Bristol, Hewlett Packard)mapping audio world to physical paths
42Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative AudioDistributed and located musicLocation 33 (Carter & Liu, USC, 2005)
43Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative AudioMobile music sharingSoundPryer (Mattias Östergren, Interactive Institute, 2001)TunA(Arianna Bassoli et al.,Medialab Europe, 2002)Social aspect of mobile computing: ad hoc networks, distributed social networks, etc-> spontaneous and situated music sharing with people in public space
44Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative AudioMobile music sharingBass Station(Mark Argo & Ahmi Wolf, 2003)Push!Music (Håkansson et al., 2005)
45Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative AudioSituated music makingSonic City (video)(Gaye et al., FAL & PLAY, )Sound Lens (Toshio Iwai, Tokyo Univ.)Solarcoustics: CONNECT (Barnard, ITP/NYU, 2005)Sensor technology + GPS -> situated music making Interacting with the environment, mobile soundscapes
46Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative AudioSituated music makingSound Mapping (video)(Mott et al., Reverberant, 1997)Sonic Interface(Akitsugu Maebayashi, 1999)Warbike(McCallum, )Skatesonic (video) (van Toder, 2006)
47Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative AudioCollaborative mobile music makingImprovE (video)(Wideberg & Hasan, 2006)CosTune(Nishimoto et al., ATR, 2001)Malleable Mobile Music(Atau Tanaka, Sony CSL, 2004)Ad hoc & distributed networks throughout the city -> collaborative music making
48Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative AudioCollaborative mobile music makingChina Gates (Clay, Majoe, 2006)Sequencer404 (Hatcher, Jimison et al., 2006)Cellphonia (Bull et al, 2006)Ad hoc & distributed networks throughout the city -> collaborative music making
49Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative AudioWearable audioNomadic Radio (Shawney, MIT Medialab, 1998)Sonic Fabric (Alice Santaro, 2002)
50Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative AudioWearable audio”Personal instruments”(Krzysztof Wodiczko, 1969)(Chelle Hugues, RCA/CRD, 2000)
51Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative AudioWearable audioRobotcowboy (Wilcox, 2007)Hearing Sirens (Cathy van Eck, 2007)
52Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative AudioOutput: Headphones vs boombox vs using everyday objectsSoundbugTM speakers & piezosFlower Speakers (LET’S corporation, Japan, 2004)
53Locative Media Projects Radio PiratesBit Radio(Bureau of Inverse Technology)7/11 (video) (New Beginnings, Göteborg)Key Chain Radio Station(Rikako Sakai, Ivrea, 2004)
54Locative Media Projects Social SpacesHummingbirdsJabberwocky (video)MobiTip
55Charateristics, Challenges and Design Opportunities
56Characteristics of Locative Media Interaction PropertiesInteractions happening anywhere, on the move :taking advantage of the mobile setting: playing with social and geographic dynamics implied by mobility-> outdoors everyday space, location and social context becoming resources for interaction as you move through space-> spontaneous & situated collaborations with people around or distributed across the city
57Characteristics of Locative Media Interaction PropertiesInteractions happening anywhere, on the movebecoming embedded in the physical and social context of everyday life-> people managing interaction in heterogeneous context-> and in simultaneity with other activities (crossing a street... waiting for the bus...)tunA, Bassoli et al, Medialab Europe, 2002
58Characteristics of Locative Media Technical Opportunities & ChallengesUsage extended over time and spaceErgonomicsSame application, many devicesSame application, many placesAccess variabilityAd-hoc meetings, windows of opportunityShifting social roles and contextsShifting physical contextHeterogeneous environmentScales of interactionMerging digital and physical realms
59Characteristics of Locative Media Design IssuesUser-authored content spread across public space: raises questions aboutproperty of informationprivacy & surveillance (loca)spamming?Augmenting environments and supporting activities with embedded computation: what if it changes what makes things what they are?If ubicomp spreads into public space, according to whose will?Top-down corporations, government vs bottom-up citizens, communities? Conflicts of interests?
60Characteristics of Locative Media Design IssuesUser control (Greenfield): How do you know you are interacting with a computer if invisible? How do you protect your privacy? avoid false commands? How do you know where to look for interaction?How to query/notify presence, access, place, manipulate media?How is the place? Who is there? What activities are going on there? How mobile is/are the user(s)? What meaning do the place, activities, and things around have and for whom?
61Characteristics of Locative Media Design IssuesPro-active and calm computing vs engagingUbicomp vs pervasive computing: at hand when needed vs always on everywhereConnect physical and virtual world: technical and HCI issue but also sociological, aesthetic, even political and environmental. F.ex. Yellow Arrow vs Geonotes:physical vs virtual markersGraffiti style interaction vs screen-based
62Enabling technologies Available to General Public
63Enabling Technologies Available to the General PublicMobile peer-to-peerTracking, positioning and placementSensing and data-processingContent creation and manipulation
64Enabling Technologies Available to the General Public* Server-Client* Mobile peer-to-peer:BluetoothWiFiInfrared
65Enabling Technologies Mobile Peer-to-Peer* BluetoothStandard communication protocol for wireless personal area network (PANs)Connect and exchange information (commands, files) between devicesMicrowave radio frequency -> non-directionalShort range (power-class-dependent: m)Use: BluetunA, bluejacking, Nokia’s Digidress
66Enabling Technologies Mobile Peer-to-Peer* WiFiWireless local area networkRadio, non-directionalInternet and VoIP phone access, network connectivity for for consumer electronics, etcConnect to local access pointsServer-client vs ad hoc networks
67Enabling Technologies Mobile Peer-to-Peer* Phones vs Wifi-enabled PDAsConnectivity: closed/open network vs operatorsCostRangeDistributed vs ad hoc vs server-clientCompatibilityProgrammability: SDK, OSMemory, speed
68Enabling Technologies Mobile Peer-to-Peer* Platform: OpentrekPeer-to-peer networking platform specifically designed for Wireless Ad Hoc NetworksCross-platform!Ad hoc networking -> collaborate
69Enabling Technologies Available to the General Public* Tracking, positioning and placementPhone cellsWiFi hotspotsGPSVirtual mediaPhysical markers: 2D barcodes, RFID, user ID to phone
70Enabling Technologies Tracking, Positioning and Placement* Global Positioning System (GPS)30 geo-stationary satellites -> location, speed, direction, pathShadows, accuracyUse: CYSMN?, GPS drawing, DriftGPS-enabled phones, PDAsPlatform: Geotracing
71Enabling Technologies Tracking, Positioning and Placement* Geotracing
72Enabling Technologies Tracking, Positioning and Placement* Placing media: socialight.netIn-place and remote annotation with smart-phone /PDAsocial network communitysound, text, images, videogoogle maps + GPS
73Enabling Technologies Tracking, Positioning and Placement* RFIDRadio-frequency identificationStoring and remotely retrieving dataStorage & processing + antennaPhysical markersTagging objectsRange: 5-20cmPassive (powered by inductivity when used) vs active RFID
74Enabling Technologies Tracking, Positioning and Placement* RFIDUses:Passportsransport paymentsProduct trackingAutomotiveAnimal identificationRFID in inventory systemsHuman implantsRFID in librariesControversy: privacy issues. Shielding?
75Enabling Technologies Tracking, Positioning and Placement* 2D barcodesQR (Quick Response) code, Datamatrix code, etcPhysical markersCan store between one and 500 charactersTag objects, placesScan with cameraphones -> hyperlink (physical mobile interaction)How to: Kaywa reader + generator:
76Enabling Technologies Tracking, Positioning and Placement* Unique ID to phonePhysical markers with unique IDsTag objects, placesSend number to server -> store & retrieve mediaArrows available, but not ID generator
77Enabling Technologies Available to the General Public* Sensing:sensorsdata processing: microcontrollers
78Enabling Technologies Sensor Data Processing* Micro-controllersBasic Stamp II, Basic X – 24Tutorial:Arduinoopen source hardware physical computing I/O platformcheap (20 Euro)easy (Processing)assemble yourselfstand-alone or connect to computer (MAX/MSP, etc)
79Enabling Technologies Available to the General Public* Creating and manipulating content:Mobile ProcessingPythonJ2MEminiMIXAPdA (Pd on PDAs, linux)Keyworx
80Enabling Technologies Creating and Manipulating Content* Mobile ProcessingOpen source programming environment for design and prototyping software for mobile phones.Similar to Processing environment.Runs on Java powered mobile devices.Bluetooth -> communicationControl example: attach light sensor on screen so sending info from phone to laptop
81Enabling Technologies Creating and Manipulating Content* MiniMIXACommercial DJ software for mobile phones, PDAs* KeyworxMultimedia platform (base for GeoTracing f.ex.)* PDa (Puredata anywhere): Pd for Linux on PDAs
82Enabling Technologies Creating and Manipulating Content* Python PyS60Interactive object-oriented languageNokia S60 phones and moreRecord, playback, play MIDI notes, control MAX/MSP patches...PyS60: andTutorial (Jürgen Scheible - Mobilenin)
83Enabling Technologies Hacking mobile phones3rd party software (Java, etc)Hacking hardware: use camera, microphone, speakers, audio out...
85Sustainable Locative Media? IssuesProblem in particular with Ubicomp: technology spread everywhereProduction, use, reuse, disposalUse of energy + where to get it from?Computers get smaller but not batteriesIssues with spreading technology into the wild: not as controlled environment as homes or officesLittering: what happens to the embedded technology after use or break-down? who is responsible/accountable ?Physical & virtual littering?Peak oil!
86Sustainable Locative Media? Possible ApproachesRecycling?Use of existing material and sources of energy?Biodegradable material, f. ex. paper markers?The simpler the better?Wearability?When should power be on? How should the system know when it should be on/off?
88Sustainable Locative Media? Design Inspirations* Parasating?Re-using existing features and properties of space and sources of energy in the environment: power, airflow, conductivity, etc.paraSITEGlitch (Tejp)