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Locative Media Lalya Gaye Ubiquitous Computing course IT-University in Göteborg 31 November 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Locative Media Lalya Gaye Ubiquitous Computing course IT-University in Göteborg 31 November 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Locative Media Lalya Gaye Ubiquitous Computing course IT-University in Göteborg 31 November 2007

2 Aims and scope Overview of the field Technology overview Discussion of design and prototyping approaches Design issues: focus on sustainability in locative media Introduction Locative Media Lecture

3 Introduction Lecture Content Ubiquitous computing: recap Ubicomp technologies Locative Media: definition and origins Themes, projects and related design issues Characteristics, challenges and design opportunities Technologies available to the general public Sustainable Design?

4 Ubiquitous Computing Recap

5 Mark Weisers vision (1991) –disappearing computer –everyday world literally used as interface The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it. Ubiquitous Computing Recap

6 The computer: calculator -> information system -> interactive -> pc -> mobile, integrated, networked Levels of interaction: electrical -> symbolic -> textual -> visual -> social, tangible Evolution of the user interface: from immersing the user in the computers world to computing increasingly adapting to the users world and skills. Ubicomp = opposite of virtual reality: embedded reality. Ubiquitous Computing Recap

7 Evolution of computer-human interaction: –more of the humans everyday world and everyday skills in computing –computers an increased part of our everyday life –requiring less specialised knowledge to operate them –relying increasingly on users everyday skills –smaller computers –from one computer for many user, to many computers Ubiquitous Computing Recap

8 Designing ubicomp systems: Focus on the interaction between user & technology (as opposed to form and function), on what experience the user gets from it, on what added-value ubicomp brings to his/her life. Follow needs and requirements but also entice new behaviours? Ubiquitous Computing Recap

9 Enhance peoples activities by making computing available at hand, when and where needed (including when the users are mobile) Computing naturally blending into everyday settings, vanishes into the background The physical and social world around us as digitally augmented and distributed interface Manipulating digital data = manipulating entities in the physical world Literally build on peoples everyday use of the physical and social world, in situation and in real time. Peripheral awareness Greenfield: information processing dissolving into behaviour IT + everyday life as design material (f. ex. I/O Brush) Ubiquitous Computing Recap

10 Implementing the ubicomp vision: –Many interconnected computers per person –Mobile devices combined with computers embedded in the environment (e.g. post-hoc augmentation of everyday objects with sensors and networked communication) –With awareness of physical & social context + each other -> Mapping the digital world to the physical one -> User interface: tangible and embedded in the real world Ubiquitous Computing Recap

11 Implementing the ubicomp vision: –Distributed interface: networking mobile devices and embedded computers (sensors, processors, etc) -> flexible and seamless integrated whole -> e.g. any display or input device can become ones own (user mobility) –Interaction in context and in real time (f.ex. tracking things and people -> relevant information and interaction opportunity to the right person at the right time) Ubiquitous Computing Recap

12 Types of systems: –walk-up-pop-up –wearables –ambient displays –intelligent work environments –augmented, interconnected everyday objects –etc Ubiquitous Computing Recap Media cup, TecO

13 Ubiquitous Computing Technologies

14 Ubiquitous Computing (Weiser): computing interweaved in everyday life,where the action is (Dourish) –context awareness –embedded sensor networks –global positioning –wearable computing –augmented & mixed-reality –ad hoc and p2p user networks Ubiquitous Computing Technologies

15 * Embedded sensor networks Sensors: - in everyday environments - on people - on artefacts Sensor fusion: combining different data and placements to gather context Ubiquitous Computing Technologies

16 * Context-aware computing computer-based devices [that] reach out into the real world through sensors [Gellerson]. A system is context-aware if it uses context to provide relevant information and/or services to the user, where relevancy depends on the users task. [Dey & Abowd, 1999]. Ubiquitous Computing Technologies

17 * Context-aware computing Enables computing to run into the background and adapt to changes of context in order to present appropriate behaviour to specific situations. –presentation of information and services to a user –automatic execution of a service depending on context appropriateness –or tagging of context to information for later retrieval [Dey]. Ubiquitous Computing Technologies

18 * Context-aware computing Gellersen et al. Ubiquitous Computing Technologies

19 * Context-aware computing Gellersen et al. Ubiquitous Computing Technologies

20 * Tangible computing Input, data, output and networking contained and accessed within the same tangible artefact –Paper, cups, pens, umbrellas or specially designed artefacts Tangible objects as active entities that respond to the environment, to user manipulation and peoples activities in general Building on the users cognitive abilities Ubiquitous Computing Technologies

21 * Social computing Incorporating understandings of the social world into interactive systems –Social traces left by people on objects or places –Mobile social networks between co-located acquaintances –enhancing user awareness by providing them information about others and their activity Ubiquitous Computing Technologies

22 * Augmented reality Superimposing a digital world upon the real one –User experiences both as co-existing parts of the same reality –User is able to interact with their combination in real time Interfaces: –3D computer graphics seen through transparent head-mounted displays or augmented glasses –Spatialised audio cues heard through headphones Ubiquitous Computing Technologies

23 * Augmented reality Mixed-reality: digital world not directly overlaid on the physical one but still presented as part of the same reality, f.ex. –with both realities displayed on the screen of hand- held device) Ubiquitous Computing Technologies

24 * Wearable computing Computing incorporated into clothing Make use of body-related information or interaction forms to control processes : - body movements - biometrics Embedded displays (e.g. glasses) Ubiquitous Computing Technologies

25 * Platforms: –Smart-Its –Smart Dust –Pin & Play –Tiny OS –etc Ubiquitous Computing Technologies

26 Smart-Its: –sensors: sound, light, acceleration (2d), pressure –core board: context-recognition, communication interface (RF) Ubiquitous Computing Technologies

27 Locative Media: Background

28 Typical contexts of use for ubicomp: home, office work, cafeterias, grad-students research labs, etc Locative media = media with sense of place New media + urban aesthetic practices + community uses of public space + contextual art + mobile, ubiquitous and geographical technologies City, public spaces Ubiquitous computing in public space: Minority Report dystopia (video: 44:20) vs. current creative uses and appropriations of public space? Locative Media Background

29 Urban aesthetic practices Mobility as creative act Creative use of public space Walking: –aboriginal walkabouts –situationist dérive, psycho-geography Locatived Media Background

30 Urban aesthetic practices Mobility as creative act Creative use of public space Graffiti Reclaim the Streets Urban sports: –skateboarding –parkour (video) -> urban space as resource for aesthetic movements Locative Media Background

31 Themes and Projects

32 Pervasive Gaming: the world as a game-board Space annotation: media with a specific position in space Location awareness & GPS-enabled locative media Mobile music & locative audio Radio pirates Social spaces etc Locative Media Projects Themes

33 Locative Media Projects Pervasive Gaming The world as game-board Botfighters and Pirates! Backseat Gaming (video) Can You See Me Now? (video) iPerG... Locative Media Projects Pervasive Gaming Can You See Me Know? Blast Theory + Equator

34 Media with a specific position in space User-authored social cues Virtual: Geonotes (video) Urban Tapestries (animations) Physical: Yellow Arrow (video) Grafedia Locative Media Projects Space Annotation Grafedia, grafedia.net Yellow Arrow, Count Media

35 GPS-drawing Non-linear narratives: Hundekopf (video) Locative Media Projects GPS & Positioning Hundekopf, knifeandfork

36 Tracking and mapping paths Biomapping (video), Drift, Net_Derive (video)... Locative Media Projects GPS & Positioning Biomapping, Christian NoldDrift, Teri Rueb

37 Audio space annotation Mobile music sharing/listening: - distributed - ad hoc - sound walks Mobile music making: - situated - collaborative Wearable audio Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative Audio

38 Audio space annotation Hear&There (Rozier, MIT Medialab, 1999) Tacticle Sound Garden [TSG] (video) (Mark Shepard, Buffalo Univ ) Tejp / Audio tags (PLAY & FAL, ) Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative Audio

39 Audio space annotation Audio Bombing (video) (Fleming et al., 2007) Sonic Graffiti (video) (C-Y Lee, 2007) Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative Audio

40 Audio space annotation [Murmur] (murmur.ca) Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative Audio

41 Sound walks Electric walks (Christina Kubisch) Drift (Rueb) 34n118w (Knowlton, Spellman, 2005) Craving (Garnicnig, Haider, 2007) Seven Mile Boots (Beloff et al., ) The Case at Kulturhuset (Knifeandfork, 2004) Riot! (Mobile Bristol, Hewlett Packard) Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative Audio

42 Distributed and located music Location 33 (Carter & Liu, USC, 2005) Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative Audio

43 Mobile music sharing SoundPryer (Mattias Östergren, Interactive Institute, 2001) TunA (Arianna Bassoli et al., Medialab Europe, 2002) Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative Audio

44 Mobile music sharing Bass Station (Mark Argo & Ahmi Wolf, 2003) Push!Music (Håkansson et al., 2005) Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative Audio

45 Situated music making Sonic City (video) (Gaye et al., FAL & PLAY, ) Sound Lens (Toshio Iwai, Tokyo Univ.) Solarcoustics: CONNECT (Barnard, ITP/NYU, 2005) Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative Audio

46 Situated music making Sound Mapping (video) (Mott et al., Reverberant, 1997) Sonic Interface (Akitsugu Maebayashi, 1999) Warbike (McCallum, ) Skatesonic (video) (van Toder, 2006) Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative Audio

47 Collaborative mobile music making ImprovE (video) (Wideberg & Hasan, 2006) CosTune (Nishimoto et al., ATR, 2001) Malleable Mobile Music (Atau Tanaka, Sony CSL, 2004) Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative Audio

48 Collaborative mobile music making China Gates (Clay, Majoe, 2006) Sequencer404 (Hatcher, Jimison et al., 2006) Cellphonia (Bull et al, 2006) Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative Audio

49 Wearable audio Nomadic Radio (Shawney, MIT Medialab, 1998) Sonic Fabric (Alice Santaro, 2002) Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative Audio

50 Wearable audio Personal instruments (Krzysztof Wodiczko, 1969) (Chelle Hugues, RCA/CRD, 2000) Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative Audio

51 Wearable audio Robotcowboy (Wilcox, 2007) Hearing Sirens (Cathy van Eck, 2007) Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative Audio

52 Output: Headphones vs boombox vs using everyday objects SoundbugTM speakers & piezos Flower Speakers (LETS corporation, Japan, 2004) Locative Media Projects Mobile Music and Locative Audio

53 Bit Radio (Bureau of Inverse Technology) 7/11 (video) (New Beginnings, Göteborg) Key Chain Radio Station (Rikako Sakai, Ivrea, 2004) Locative Media Projects Radio Pirates

54 Hummingbirds Jabberwocky (video) MobiTip Locative Media Projects Social Spaces

55 Charateristics, Challenges and Design Opportunities

56 Interactions happening anywhere, on the move : taking advantage of the mobile setting: playing with social and geographic dynamics implied by mobility -> outdoors everyday space, location and social context becoming resources for interaction as you move through space -> spontaneous & situated collaborations with people around or distributed across the city Characteristics of Locative Media Interaction Properties

57 Interactions happening anywhere, on the move becoming embedded in the physical and social context of everyday life -> people managing interaction in heterogeneous context -> and in simultaneity with other activities (crossing a street... waiting for the bus...) tunA, Bassoli et al, Medialab Europe, 2002 Characteristics of Locative Media Interaction Properties

58 Usage extended over time and space Ergonomics Same application, many devices Same application, many places Access variability Ad-hoc meetings, windows of opportunity Shifting social roles and contexts Shifting physical context Heterogeneous environment Scales of interaction Merging digital and physical realms Characteristics of Locative Media Technical Opportunities & Challenges

59 User-authored content spread across public space: raises questions about –property of information –privacy & surveillance (loca) –spamming? Augmenting environments and supporting activities with embedded computation: what if it changes what makes things what they are? If ubicomp spreads into public space, according to whose will? Top-down corporations, government vs bottom-up citizens, communities? Conflicts of interests? Characteristics of Locative Media Design Issues

60 User control (Greenfield): How do you know you are interacting with a computer if invisible? How do you protect your privacy? avoid false commands? How do you know where to look for interaction? How to query/notify presence, access, place, manipulate media? How is the place? Who is there? What activities are going on there? How mobile is/are the user(s)? What meaning do the place, activities, and things around have and for whom? Characteristics of Locative Media Design Issues

61 Pro-active and calm computing vs engaging Ubicomp vs pervasive computing: at hand when needed vs always on everywhere Connect physical and virtual world: technical and HCI issue but also sociological, aesthetic, even political and environmental. F.ex. Yellow Arrow vs Geonotes: –physical vs virtual markers –Graffiti style interaction vs screen-based Characteristics of Locative Media Design Issues

62 Enabling technologies Available to General Public

63 Mobile peer-to-peer Tracking, positioning and placement Sensing and data-processing Content creation and manipulation Enabling Technologies Available to the General Public

64 * Server-Client * Mobile peer-to-peer: –Bluetooth –WiFi –Infrared Enabling Technologies Available to the General Public

65 * Bluetooth Standard communication protocol for wireless personal area network (PANs) Connect and exchange information (commands, files) between devices Microwave radio frequency -> non-directional Short range (power-class-dependent: m) Use: BluetunA, bluejacking, Nokias Digidress Enabling Technologies Mobile Peer-to-Peer

66 * WiFi Wireless local area network Radio, non-directional Internet and VoIP phone access, network connectivity for for consumer electronics, etc Connect to local access points Server-client vs ad hoc networks Enabling Technologies Mobile Peer-to-Peer

67 * Phones vs Wifi-enabled PDAs Connectivity: closed/open network vs operators Cost Range Distributed vs ad hoc vs server-client Compatibility Programmability: SDK, OS Memory, speed Enabling Technologies Mobile Peer-to-Peer

68 * Platform: Opentrek Peer-to-peer networking platform specifically designed for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Cross-platform! Ad hoc networking -> collaborate Enabling Technologies Mobile Peer-to-Peer

69 * Tracking, positioning and placement –Phone cells –WiFi hotspots –GPS –Virtual media –Physical markers: 2D barcodes, RFID, user ID to phone Enabling Technologies Available to the General Public

70 * Global Positioning System (GPS) 30 geo-stationary satellites -> location, speed, direction, path Shadows, accuracy Use: CYSMN?, GPS drawing, Drift GPS-enabled phones, PDAs Platform: Geotracing Enabling Technologies Tracking, Positioning and Placement

71 * Geotracing Enabling Technologies Tracking, Positioning and Placement

72 * Placing media: socialight.net In-place and remote annotation with smart-phone /PDA social network community sound, text, images, video google maps + GPS Enabling Technologies Tracking, Positioning and Placement

73 * RFID Radio-frequency identification Storing and remotely retrieving data Storage & processing + antenna Physical markers Tagging objects Range: 5-20cm Passive (powered by inductivity when used) vs active RFID Enabling Technologies Tracking, Positioning and Placement

74 * RFID –Uses: –Passports –ransport payments –Product tracking –Automotive –Animal identification –RFID in inventory systems –Human implants –RFID in libraries Controversy: privacy issues. Shielding? Enabling Technologies Tracking, Positioning and Placement

75 * 2D barcodes QR (Quick Response) code, Datamatrix code, etc Physical markers Can store between one and 500 characters Tag objects, places Scan with cameraphones -> hyperlink (physical mobile interaction) How to: Kaywa reader + generator: Enabling Technologies Tracking, Positioning and Placement

76 * Unique ID to phone Physical markers with unique IDs Tag objects, places Send number to server -> store & retrieve media Arrows available, but not ID generator Enabling Technologies Tracking, Positioning and Placement

77 * Sensing: –sensors –data processing: microcontrollers Enabling Technologies Available to the General Public

78 * Micro-controllers Basic Stamp II, Basic X – 24 Tutorial: Arduino –open source hardware physical computing I/O platform –cheap (20 Euro) –easy (Processing) –assemble yourself –stand-alone or connect to computer (MAX/MSP, etc) –www.arduino.cc Enabling Technologies Sensor Data Processing

79 * Creating and manipulating content: –Mobile Processing –Python –J2ME –miniMIXA –PdA (Pd on PDAs, linux) –Keyworx Enabling Technologies Available to the General Public

80 * Mobile Processing Open source programming environment for design and prototyping software for mobile phones. Similar to Processing environment. Runs on Java powered mobile devices. Bluetooth -> communication Control example: attach light sensor on screen so sending info from phone to laptop Enabling Technologies Creating and Manipulating Content

81 * MiniMIXA Commercial DJ software for mobile phones, PDAs * Keyworx Multimedia platform (base for GeoTracing f.ex.) * PDa (Puredata anywhere): Pd for Linux on PDAs Enabling Technologies Creating and Manipulating Content

82 * Python PyS60 Interactive object-oriented language Nokia S60 phones and more Record, playback, play MIDI notes, control MAX/MSP patches... PyS60: and Tutorial (Jürgen Scheible - Mobilenin) Enabling Technologies Creating and Manipulating Content

83 3 rd party software (Java, etc) Hacking hardware: use camera, microphone, speakers, audio out... Enabling Technologies Hacking mobile phones

84 Sustainable Design?

85 Problem in particular with Ubicomp: technology spread everywhere Production, use, reuse, disposal Use of energy + where to get it from? Computers get smaller but not batteries Issues with spreading technology into the wild: not as controlled environment as homes or offices Littering: what happens to the embedded technology after use or break-down? who is responsible/accountable ? Physical & virtual littering? Peak oil! Sustainable Locative Media? Issues

86 Recycling? Use of existing material and sources of energy? Biodegradable material, f. ex. paper markers? The simpler the better? Wearability? When should power be on? How should the system know when it should be on/off? Sustainable Locative Media? Possible Approaches

87 * Hacking Repurposing existing technology Sustainable Locative Media? Design Inspirations

88 * Parasating? Re-using existing features and properties of space and sources of energy in the environment: power, airflow, conductivity, etc. paraSITE Glitch (Tejp) Sustainable Locative Media? Design Inspirations

89 * Body-generated energy? steps, body-heat, etc Humand-Powered Objects Workshop: Bike4Tea, DynamoMouse... Sustainable Locative Media? Design Inspirations

90 * Ephemeral computing (Jernström)? Deploying and packing up temporary and re-usable ubicomp infrastructures SiSSy (video) Sustainable Locative Media? Design Inspirations

91 Resources:


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