Presentation on theme: "Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy Buildings"— Presentation transcript:
1Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy Buildings James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALDBENYA LIGHTING DESIGNWest Linn, Oregon, USAFebruary
2Efficiency Vermont is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems (AIA/CES). Credit(s) earned on completion of this program will be reported to AIA/CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for both AIA members and non-AIA members are available upon request. This program is registered with AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product.Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.AIA Providers can use their own powerpoint template as long as it doesn’t have your company logos. To personalize this slide, please insert your company name in the purple area. You may change the color used in the text. All other wording on this slide is mandatory and cannot be changed.
3By the end of this program, participants will be able to: Learning ObjectivesBy the end of this program, participants will be able to:Understand the definition of net zero energy buildingsUnderstand the roles of daylighting, efficient lighting, controls, and plug load management in net zero energy design & planning.Understand the relationship between load management and the effectiveness of on-site renewable generation.Gain knowledge of tools and techniques for Net Zero Lighting and Daylighting DesignTo personalize this slide, please insert your four learning objectives in the purple area on this slide. You may change the color used in the text. Be sure that these four learning objectives are identical to the ones that were submitted on the course registration. Please remove the “sample slide” lingo from the upper right hand corner of the page.
4Course EvaluationsAs a new requirement, Providers are required to encourage members to complete the online CES Discovery Evaluation. You may still use your own paper evaluation form to collect feedback for your personal records, however our online evaluation must still be encouraged.
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6US Total Energy Consumption by Source Zero Net means turning the coal, gas, and crude oil trends downward
7US Sources of Electric Energy 2007 Source: US Energy Information Administration 2007 data
8Present DayCoal is used to produce about 50% of the electricity in the US and 83% in China. Its use is growing in both countries.Increase in Chinese power demand adds (2) coal fired power plants per month to the grid.
9Present DayGlobal climate change is accelerating as greenhouse gas concentration rises faster than expected. CO2 concentration will soon damage ecosystems is an international movement to reduce greenhouse gases to 350 ppm .
16The Opportunity in Modern Lighting Lighting is a prime opportunity to mitigate energy use and greenhouse gas production 70% of lighting energy use is by day 50% of lighting energy use is by older, inefficient technologies Lighting is about 10% of the problem but it can be 20% of the solution!!!!
17Designing Zero Net Buildings Reduce total lighting energy useFree up capacity for other usesReduce on-peak lighting energy useImprove the human environmentBetter healthMore productivityImprove the built environmentCapital improvements without capital investmentReduce human impact and carbon footprintLess energy useDark skies at night
18What is “Zero Net”?Buildings that give and take energy from the grid, but in the end, have no “net” use.Required in California by law for all new residences by 2020 and for all new buildings by 2030.
22Chartwell School, Seaside, CA AIA COTE TOP 10, 2009 LEED Platinum Zero Net Interior lights off by day Exterior lighting off at night No A/C Practical PV arrayEHDD Architects
23 * Zero Net Options Electricity Energy Use Total Energy Electric TOU Measured Grid Energy UseMeasured Gas/fossil fuels UseNet Energy of Building Materials and ConstructionCO2 generated by operationsElectricityEnergy UseTotal EnergyCarbon FootprintElectric TOU*
24Zero Net EnergyTotal non-renewable and off-site renewable sources are considered “Debits”Total on-site renewable sources are considered “Credits”End of year: a building is “zero net” if there are more Credits than Debits
25Zero Net Electric Time of Use (TOU) Building energy demand profile does not match non-depletable source profileExcess thermal energy can be stored but excess electric energy is better off returned to the grid as a “bank”Bank “account” is depleted periodicallyPeak users pay a premiumPeak generators are rewarded
26Guiding Principles of Zero Net Negawatts cost less than megawatts. Conservation first!Use passive measures as much as possible. Avoid complex systems except as a last choice.Start with the simple, low cost high payback measures
27Making Zero Net Work – Conservation First Energy UseOther usesReduce Other UsesReduce ComputersComputersHVACReduce HVACLightingReduce LightingStandard BuildingSuper efficient building
28The Next Great Frontier of Design DaylightingThe Next Great Frontier of DesignIt is the Key to Zero Net
29Daylighting’s Challenges Four generations of architects and engineers lost to cheap energyLimited number of qualified architects, consultants and educatorsNo established methodology or dominant theoryEighty years of bad habitsLighting designers must learn to design daylighting
30Architecture’s Challenge: Architectural Fashion conflicts with Building Science Glass too transmittive – workers moved 10’ back from windowsRelies too much on low-e for solar gain controlPassive shading only works on one of four facadesCurtain wall poorly insulated
31Architecture’s Challenge: 70 years of air conditioning have taught us a lot of bad habits This photo faces north!20-30X too much daylightPoor insulationToo much glare on sunny daysElectric lights all onGlare control material installed by building occupants also to help control heat gainOrientation
32Engineer’s Challenge: Lighting controls are “too expensive” and lights are left on by day. “Value” engineering:Spend $2Million in energy to save $1Million in control system costsLighting Controls
33Lighting Designer’s Challenge: controlling ourselves from inefficient designs WasteMore than ½ of the electric light energy goes straight up into the sky
34Daylighting’s Principal Goal – Achieving Energy Balance UnderglazedGood DesignOverglazedSAVINGCOSTING
35Daylighting’s Benefits Daylighting can save:Up to 100% of lighting demandThe cooling associated with lighting demandExcessive cooling due to sub-optimal daylightingCooling energy coincident with other peaksDaylighting ProvidesHealthier interior environmentsHigher productivityBetter interior spaces
36Steps to Better Daylighting Use passive measures firstClimate tuned orientation and shadingCooling season solar gain controlPassive exterior components (natural and man made)High performance glazingAs much insulation as possibleSkylightsCurtain wallsMultiple roofs and skins for problem orientationsSimple skylights
38Gymnasium Daylighting PerformanceSacramento, CA USASemi-arid 37° NorthSkylight/floor ratio 4.2%Skylight SHGCSkylight VLTLight/heat ratioEquiv. LPWDay/Elec ratioMax summer lux ~1500Annual clear hoursCooling day autonomy is almost 100%Heating day autonomy is >75%Source: Sunoptics
40Toplighting Linear toplight Modular skylights with clerestory Source: Benya Lighting DesignModular skylights with clerestorySource: BOORA Architects
41Tubular Daylight Device PerformancePortland, OR USAPacific NW 46° NorthSkylight/floor ratio 3.0%Windows on eastEquiv. LPWDay/Elec ratioMax summer lux ~2000Annual clear hoursCooling day autonomy is almost 100%Heating day autonomy is <25%Source: Benya Lighting Design, Solatube
42Sidelighting with external shading Source: Kieran Timberlake Architects
43View Sidelighting – South facing, landscape shaded South facing high performance glazingSource: Benya Lighting Design
44View Sidelighting – west facing, vertical fin and blinds West facing shadingSource: Kieran Timberlake Architects
45Diffuse SidelightingDiffuse shaded glazing 25% window wall ratio .1 U value 25% VLTSource: Benya Lighting Design
47Integrated Electric/Daylight Source: Benya Lighting DesignEnergy use by day: < 0.15 w/sfTypical for 12 hours1.8 w/hour per sf per dayMaximum evening lighting: < 1 w/sfTypical for 4 hours4 w/hr per sf per day
48Building Integrated PV Can be applied to glazing systems Shading Lowers VLT Lowers SHGC
49BIPV Daylighting Performance Eugene, OR USA Pacific NW 44° North Skylight/floor ratio 12%South window w/PVSkylight SHGCSkylight VLTLight/heat ratioEquiv. LPWDay/Elec ratioMax summer lux ~2000Annual clear hoursCooling day autonomy is almost 100%Heating day autonomy is <25%Source: Benya Lighting Design
50Double Skin – Water Source Heat Pump LEED Platinum Loyola Information Commons Chicago Source: SCB Architects, Chicago
51Steps to Better Daylighting Active measuresActive shadingExterior shadesBlinds and perforated shadesOptical blinds and shadesBIPVSolar Collecting (rarely a good idea)HeliostatsFiberoptics and light pipes
52Integrated and Minimized ELECTRIC LIGHTINGIntegrated and MinimizedLewis and Clark Law Library2003 Edison Award of Excellence for Environmental Design
53Controls Reduce Use and Harvest Daylighting Typical building: 18 Wh/sf/dayEfficient building: 13 Wh/sf/dayDaylighted Building: 2Wh/sf/day
54Best Electric Lighting Technology Low watt sources LED Halogen Fluorescent HID Highest Efficacy Sources Linear fluorescent High wattage HID High Efficiency Sources and Luminaires Plasma HID
55Modern Lighting Control Technology Switching Motion sensors Time of day switches Photoelectric switches Dimming Daylighting Tuning User control Systems Whole building load management Shading integration
56Advanced Lighting and Integrated Design Techniques Layered lighting and daylightingTask and Ambient Lighting DesignNatural ambient integrated lightingReduced and controlled exterior street and roadway lightingDark-sky responsive architectural outdoor lighting
57Layered daylighting Layered Lighting and Daylighting Design Let the architecture drive fenestration choicesWindowsClerestoriesLight shelvesSkylightsSidwell Friends SchoolAIA COTE TopLEED PlatinumLayered daylighting
58Lights on for photography only Layered Lighting and Daylighting DesignLet the architecture drive fenestration choicesWindowsClerestoriesLight shelvesSkylightsSidwell Friends SchoolAIA COTE TopLEED PlatinumLayered daylightingLights on for photography only
59Task and Ambient Lighting Typical designsAmbient light fc w/sfTask light fc 0.4 w/sfTOTAL w/sfState of the Art DesignAmbient light fc w/sfTask light fc w/sfTOTAL w/sf
62Extremely important on a zero net building OUTDOOR LIGHTINGExtremely important on a zero net building
63Reduce or Eliminate Excessive Exterior Lighting Example: School School Building Size 100,000 sf 500 students Parking Lot and Drives Size 100,000 sf 200 cars Parking Lot Lighting 10,000 w LZ3, typical Parking Lot Energy (normal) 44,000 kWh Parking Lot Energy (aggressive) 4,000 kWh Savings 40,000 kWh PV size saved 23.5 pkW (Redding)
64Dark Sky Responsive Architectural Lighting Sacramento Memorial Auditorium2008 Edison Award2008 Edison Award of Excellence for Environmental DesignAspen Recreation Center2005 IDA Gold Award
66Office of the Future Survey of California Offices (SCE 2007) Plug LoadOffice of the Future Survey of California Offices (SCE 2007)Lighting w/sfComputers w/sfMonitors w/sfPrinters and misc > 0.2 w/sfTOTAL I.T w/sf
67I. T. Power can be as high as 3-4 w/sf in regular spaces
68Simple I.T. Changes Use laptops or thin clients Standard office computer wattsLaptop wattsThin client wattsUse LCD screensMinimize wall-wartsEmploy IT energy management softwareHP Thin ClientNo drivesStandard keyboard, mouse and monitorUSB , Ethernet, and other portsMaximum 50 watts, typical operating power <20 w
69Survey Plug Loads Discovered Other Plug LoadsSurvey Plug Loads DiscoveredOffice of the Future (SCE) buildingsPortable space heaters (10%) w each 1.5 w/sfHot/cold water dispenser w w/sfPersonal refrigerator (2%) w 0.1 w/sfPersonal fan (5%) w <.05 w/sf
70Mechanical and Envelope Opportunities PassivePassive solarWhite roofBetter insulationNatural ventilationMultiple skinsActiveHot water collectorsHeat pumps (ground or water source)Dark sky systemsThermal storage systems
71Load Shedding Controls A system to shed loads to force a better demand profile or simply prevent use at bad timesA system to shed load in response to grid demand and/or time of use costs
72See Where We Are At……………. Ordinary Efficient BuildingLights w/sfComputers 1.1 w/sfHVAC (cooling) 1.0 w/sfPlug load other 0.5 w/sfNon-process 0.5 w/sfDEMAND w/sfAverage Use w/sfAnnual Use kwh/sf/yrAssuming normal lack of concern for energy useSuper Efficient BuildingLights w/sfComputers 0.5 w/sfHVAC (cooling) 0.5 w/sfPlug load other w/sfNon-process w/sfDEMAND w/sfAverage Use .26 w/sfAnnual Use kWh/sf/yrAssuming aggressive energy savings
73A Net Zero Building will have.. EnvelopeNorth facing triple glazed façadeCentral north facing clerestory skylightSouth facing windows with light shelfSkylights throughoutMechanicalWater source or ground source heat pumpNatural ventilationGreen roof with PV arrayGood insulation
74A Net Zero Building will have.. LightingGeneral lighting 0.3 w/sfTask lighting 0.45 w/sfDigital dimming and controls for all systemsDaylighting designed for >90% effectivenessPlug LoadsDemand response and management controlsWorkstation sensors>95% conversion to laptops without desktop monitorAll LCD monitors on other computers
75The Chartwell School, Seaside CA EHDD Architects, San FranciscoLEED PlatinumPractical Costs
78Other Keys to Success Totally integrated design team Daylighting is part of schematic designOwner, architect, engineers and consultants are all part of schematic designEarly definition of goalsEarly identification of incentives and rulesUse LEED later not now
79Zero Net Buildings - Why Wait for the Future? We can do it today. For posting of this program see conference proceedings or