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Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy Buildings.

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Presentation on theme: "Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy Buildings."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy Buildings James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD BENYA LIGHTING DESIGN West Linn, Oregon, USA February

2 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Efficiency Vermont is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems (AIA/CES). Credit(s) earned on completion of this program will be reported to AIA/CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for both AIA members and non-AIA members are available upon request. This program is registered with AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.

3 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Learning Objectives By the end of this program, participants will be able to: Understand the definition of net zero energy buildings Understand the roles of daylighting, efficient lighting, controls, and plug load management in net zero energy design & planning. Understand the relationship between load management and the effectiveness of on-site renewable generation. Gain knowledge of tools and techniques for Net Zero Lighting and Daylighting Design

4 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Course Evaluations

5 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Copyright Materials This presentation is protected by US and International copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use of the presentation without written permission of the speaker and/or Efficiency Vermont is prohibited.

6 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) US Total Energy Consumption by Source Zero Net means turning the coal, gas, and crude oil trends downward

7 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) US Sources of Electric Energy 2007 Source: US Energy Information Administration 2007 data

8 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Present Day Coal is used to produce about 50% of the electricity in the US and 83% in China. Its use is growing in both countries. Increase in Chinese power demand adds (2) coal fired power plants per month to the grid.

9 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Present Day Global climate change is accelerating as greenhouse gas concentration rises faster than expected. CO2 concentration will soon damage ecosystems..350 is an international movement to reduce greenhouse gases to 350 ppm.

10 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) An international challenge

11 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Sustainability is becoming an empty marketing phrase Green is the new Black - NY Times, 2007

12 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) On-going debate and pushback

13 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) The Promise of Modern Lighting Beauty, discovery, wonder Necessary contributions to the functionality of the built environment Creative contributions to the enjoyment of life

14 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) The Reality of Modern Lighting

15 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Lighting Energy Use

16 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) The Opportunity in Modern Lighting Lighting is a prime opportunity to mitigate energy use and greenhouse gas production 70% of lighting energy use is by day 50% of lighting energy use is by older, inefficient technologies Lighting is about 10% of the problem but it can be 20% of the solution!!!!

17 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Designing Zero Net Buildings Reduce total lighting energy use Free up capacity for other uses Reduce on-peak lighting energy use Free up capacity for other uses Improve the human environment Better health More productivity Improve the built environment Capital improvements without capital investment Reduce human impact and carbon footprint Less energy use Dark skies at night

18 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) What is Zero Net? Buildings that give and take energy from the grid, but in the end, have no net use. Required in California by law for all new residences by 2020 and for all new buildings by 2030.

19 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Basic Zero Net Math +

20 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Impact on Energy © , Inc. / Architecture 2030

21 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Impact on Carbon © , Inc. / Architecture 2030

22 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Chartwell School, Seaside, CA AIA COTE TOP 10, 2009 LEED Platinum Zero Net EHDD Architects Interior lights off by day Exterior lighting off at night No A/C Practical PV array

23 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Zero Net Options Measured Grid Energy Use Measured Gas/fossil fuels Use Net Energy of Building Materials and Construction CO 2 generated by operations Electricity Energy Use Total Energy Carbon Footprint Electric TOU *

24 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Zero Net Energy Total non-renewable and off-site renewable sources are considered Debits Total on-site renewable sources are considered Credits End of year: a building is zero net if there are more Credits than Debits

25 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Zero Net Electric Time of Use (TOU) Building energy demand profile does not match non- depletable source profile Excess thermal energy can be stored but excess electric energy is better off returned to the grid as a bank Bank account is depleted periodically Peak users pay a premium Peak generators are rewarded

26 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Guiding Principles of Zero Net 1.Negawatts cost less than megawatts. Conservation first! 2.Use passive measures as much as possible. Avoid complex systems except as a last choice. 3.Start with the simple, low cost high payback measures

27 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Making Zero Net Work – Conservation First Standard Building Reduce Other Uses Reduce Computers Reduce HVAC Reduce LightingLighting HVAC Computers Other uses Super efficient building Energy Use

28 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) DAYLIGHTING The Next Great Frontier of Design It is the Key to Zero Net

29 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Daylightings Challenges Four generations of architects and engineers lost to cheap energy Limited number of qualified architects, consultants and educators No established methodology or dominant theory Eighty years of bad habits Lighting designers must learn to design daylighting

30 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Architectures Challenge: Architectural Fashion conflicts with Building Science Glass too transmittive – workers moved 10 back from windows Relies too much on low-e for solar gain control Passive shading only works on one of four facades Curtain wall poorly insulated

31 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Orientation This photo faces north! 20-30X too much daylight Poor insulation Too much glare on sunny days Electric lights all on Glare control material installed by building occupants also to help control heat gain Architectures Challenge: 70 years of air conditioning have taught us a lot of bad habits

32 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Lighting Controls Engineers Challenge: Lighting controls are too expensive and lights are left on by day. Value engineering: Spend $2Million in energy to save $1Million in control system costs

33 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Waste More than ½ of the electric light energy goes straight up into the sky Lighting Designers Challenge: controlling ourselves from inefficient designs

34 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Daylightings Principal Goal – Achieving Energy Balance SAVING COSTING Good DesignOverglazed Underglazed

35 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Daylightings Benefits Daylighting can save: Up to 100% of lighting demand The cooling associated with lighting demand Excessive cooling due to sub-optimal daylighting Cooling energy coincident with other peaks Daylighting Provides Healthier interior environments Higher productivity Better interior spaces

36 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Steps to Better Daylighting Use passive measures first Climate tuned orientation and shading Cooling season solar gain control Passive exterior components (natural and man made) High performance glazing As much insulation as possible Skylights Curtain walls Multiple roofs and skins for problem orientations Simple skylights

37 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Daylighting Dynamics LUX 500 SUNLIGHT OUTDOORS MAXIMUM WINTER LEVEL MAXIMUM SUMMER LEVEL DESIGN LIGHT LEVEL MINIMUM USEABLE LIGHT EGRESS LIGHTING ONLY DESIGN PROBLEM: GYMNASIUM 500 LUX

38 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Gymnasium Daylighting Performance Sacramento, CA USA Semi-arid 37° North Skylight/floor ratio 4.2% Skylight SHGC 0.32 Skylight VLT 0.64 Light/heat ratio 2.0 Equiv. LPW 232 Day/Elec ratio 3 Max summer lux ~1500 Annual clear hours 3100 Cooling day autonomy is almost 100% Heating day autonomy is >75% Source: Sunoptics

39 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Toplighting Modular skylights with splay Source: Sunoptics Linear toplight Source: Benya Lighting Design

40 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Toplighting Modular skylights with clerestory Source: BOORA Architects Linear toplight Source: Benya Lighting Design

41 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Tubular Daylight Device Performance Portland, OR USA Pacific NW 46° North Skylight/floor ratio 3.0% Windows on east Equiv. LPW 175 Day/Elec ratio 2.5 Max summer lux ~2000 Annual clear hours 2200 Cooling day autonomy is almost 100% Heating day autonomy is <25% Source: Benya Lighting Design, Solatube

42 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Sidelighting with external shading Source: Kieran Timberlake Architects

43 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) View Sidelighting – South facing, landscape shaded South facing high performance glazing Source: Benya Lighting Design

44 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) View Sidelighting – west facing, vertical fin and blinds West facing shading Source: Kieran Timberlake Architects

45 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Diffuse Sidelighting Diffuse shaded glazing 25% window wall ratio.1 U value 25% VLT Source: Benya Lighting Design

46 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Layered Daylighting Toplight, sidelight, clerestory Source: Benya Lighting Design

47 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Integrated Electric/Daylight Energy use by day: < 0.15 w/sf Typical for 12 hours 1.8 w/hour per sf per day Maximum evening lighting: < 1 w/sf Typical for 4 hours 4 w/hr per sf per day Source: Benya Lighting Design

48 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Building Integrated PV Can be applied to glazing systems Shading Lowers VLT Lowers SHGC

49 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) BIPV Daylighting Performance Eugene, OR USA Pacific NW 44° North Skylight/floor ratio 12% South window w/PV Skylight SHGC.22 Skylight VLT.28 Light/heat ratio 1.27 Equiv. LPW 150 Day/Elec ratio 2.0 Max summer lux ~2000 Annual clear hours 2400 Cooling day autonomy is almost 100% Heating day autonomy is <25% Source: Benya Lighting Design

50 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Double Skin – Water Source Heat Pump LEED Platinum Loyola Information Commons Chicago Source: SCB Architects, Chicago

51 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Active measures Active shading Exterior shades Blinds and perforated shades Optical blinds and shades BIPV Solar Collecting (rarely a good idea) Heliostats Fiberoptics and light pipes Steps to Better Daylighting

52 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) ELECTRIC LIGHTING Integrated and Minimized Lewis and Clark Law Library 2003 Edison Award of Excellence for Environmental Design

53 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Controls Reduce Use and Harvest Daylighting Typical building: 18 Wh/sf/day Efficient building: 13 Wh/sf/day Daylighted Building: 2Wh/sf/day

54 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Best Electric Lighting Technology Low watt sources LED Halogen Fluorescent HID Highest Efficacy Sources Linear fluorescent High wattage HID High Efficiency Sources and Luminaires LED Plasma HID

55 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Modern Lighting Control Technology Switching Motion sensors Time of day switches Photoelectric switches Dimming Daylighting Tuning User control Systems Whole building load management Shading integration

56 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Advanced Lighting and Integrated Design Techniques Layered lighting and daylighting Task and Ambient Lighting Design Natural ambient integrated lighting Reduced and controlled exterior street and roadway lighting Dark-sky responsive architectural outdoor lighting

57 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Layered daylighting Layered Lighting and Daylighting Design Let the architecture drive fenestration choices Windows Clerestories Light shelves Skylights Sidwell Friends School AIA COTE Top LEED Platinum

58 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Layered daylighting Layered Lighting and Daylighting Design Let the architecture drive fenestration choices Windows Clerestories Light shelves Skylights Sidwell Friends School AIA COTE Top LEED Platinum Lights on for photography only

59 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Task and Ambient Lighting Typical designs Ambient light fc 0.8 w/sf Task light fc 0.4 w/sf TOTAL 1.2 w/sf State of the Art Design Ambient light fc 0.5 w/sf Task light fc 0.2 w/sf TOTAL 0.7 w/sf

60 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Natural Ambient Sales Lighting JEWELRY STORE Tubular daylighting devices with CMH track NATURA:L AMBIENT LIGHTING DESIGN Ambient lighting Sunny day, 100+ fc Cloudy day, fc Night 5 fc Merchandise lighting Sunny day, fc Cloudy day, fc Night, fc CONNECTED LIGHTING POWER 3.1 w/sf

61 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) AIRPORT Metal halide downlights/fluorescent upllghts NATURAL AMBIENT LIGHTING DESIGN Ambient lighting Sunny day, 150+ fc Cloudy day, 5-50 fc Night 5 fc Merchandise lighting Sunny day, fc Cloudy day, Night, fc CONNECTED LIGHTING POWER 2.0 w/sf AVERAGE LIGHTING POWER 0.4 w/sf

62 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) OUTDOOR LIGHTING Extremely important on a zero net building

63 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Reduce or Eliminate Excessive Exterior Lighting Example: School School Building Size 100,000 sf500 students Parking Lot and Drives Size100,000 sf 200 cars Parking Lot Lighting 10,000 wLZ3, typical Parking Lot Energy (normal)44,000 kWh Parking Lot Energy (aggressive) 4,000 kWh Savings40,000 kWh PV size saved23.5 pkW (Redding)

64 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Dark Sky Responsive Architectural Lighting Sacramento Memorial Auditorium 2008 Edison Award 2008 Edison Award of Excellence for Environmental Design Aspen Recreation Center 2005 IDA Gold Award

65 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) TOTAL BUILDING ENERGY CONSIDERATIONS

66 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Plug Load Office of the Future Survey of California Offices (SCE 2007) Lighting 1.1 w/sf Computers 0.7 w/sf Monitors 0.4 w/sf Printers and misc > 0.2 w/sf TOTAL I.T w/sf

67 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) I. T. Power can be as high as 3-4 w/sf in regular spaces

68 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Simple I.T. Changes Use laptops or thin clients Standard office computer watts Laptop watts Thin client watts Use LCD screens Minimize wall-warts Employ IT energy management software HP Thin Client No drives Standard keyboard, mouse and monitor USB, Ethernet, and other ports Maximum 50 watts, typical operating power <20 w

69 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Other Plug Loads Survey Plug Loads Discovered Office of the Future (SCE) buildings Portable space heaters (10%) 1500w each 1.5 w/sf Hot/cold water dispenser 500w0.25 w/sf Personal refrigerator (2%) 120 w0.1 w/sf Personal fan (5%) 25 w<.05 w/sf

70 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Mechanical and Envelope Opportunities Passive Passive solar White roof Better insulation Natural ventilation Multiple skins Active Hot water collectors Heat pumps (ground or water source) Dark sky systems Thermal storage systems

71 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Load Shedding Controls A system to shed loads to force a better demand profile or simply prevent use at bad times A system to shed load in response to grid demand and/or time of use costs

72 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) See Where We Are At……………. Ordinary Efficient Building Lights1.1 w/sf Computers1.1 w/sf HVAC (cooling)1.0 w/sf Plug load other0.5 w/sf Non-process0.5 w/sf DEMAND 4.2 w/sf Average Use 1.47 w/sf Annual Use 12.9 kwh/sf/yr Assuming normal lack of concern for energy use Super Efficient Building Lights0.2 w/sf Computers0.5 w/sf HVAC (cooling)0.5 w/sf Plug load other0.25 w/sf Non-process0.25 w/sf DEMAND 1.7 w/sf Average Use.26 w/sf Annual Use 2.3 kWh/sf/yr Assuming aggressive energy savings

73 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) A Net Zero Building will have.. Envelope North facing triple glazed façade Central north facing clerestory skylight South facing windows with light shelf Skylights throughout Mechanical Water source or ground source heat pump Natural ventilation Green roof with PV array Good insulation

74 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) A Net Zero Building will have.. Lighting General lighting 0.3 w/sf Task lighting 0.45 w/sf Digital dimming and controls for all systems Daylighting designed for >90% effectiveness Plug Loads Demand response and management controls Workstation sensors >95% conversion to laptops without desktop monitor All LCD monitors on other computers

75 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) LEED Platinum Practical Costs The Chartwell School, Seaside CA EHDD Architects, San Francisco

76 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US)

77 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Zero Net Renewable Source

78 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Other Keys to Success Totally integrated design team Daylighting is part of schematic design Owner, architect, engineers and consultants are all part of schematic design Early definition of goals Early identification of incentives and rules Use LEED later not now

79 Lighting and Daylighting Your Way to Zero Net Energy James R Benya, PE, FIES, FIALD, LC (US) Zero Net Buildings - Why Wait for the Future? We can do it today. For posting of this program see conference proceedings or


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