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Monika Gope Lecturer IICT

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1 Monika Gope Lecturer IICT
Computer History Monika Gope Lecturer IICT

2 Evaluation of computer
3/31/2017 The development of the modern day computer was the result of advances in technologies and man's need to quantify. Let us look at some of the important milestones in the evolution of computers.

3 Abacus The abacus was invented in 3000 BC in Babylonia.
3/31/2017 The abacus was invented in 3000 BC in Babylonia. Beads on rods to count and calculate Still widely used in Asia!

4 Slide Rule 1612, John Napier used floating point
arithmetic and invented the logarithm used until 1970s 1622,William Oughtred created the slide rule based on Napier‘s logarithms. 3/31/2017 William Oughtred (1575–1660)

5 Pascal's Adding Machine
In 1642 AD, Blaise Pascal , a French Mathematician invented a calculating machine named as Adding Machine. This machine was capable of doing Addition and Subtraction. This device is known as the First Calculator of the world. 3/31/2017 Blaise Pascal (1623–1662)

6 Leibniz’s Calculator 1673, Gottfried Leibnitz a German Mathematician improved the Adding machine and built a calculator which could multiply and division as well 3/31/2017 Gottfried Leibniz (1646–1716)

7 Jacqurad Loom 1801 He invented an automatic loom using punched cards to control patterns in the fabrics. 3/31/2017 Joseph-Marie Jacquard (1752–1834) First stored program - metal cards First computer manufacturing Still in use today! Starting the industrial age

8 Babbage’s Difference Engine
1822, a British mathematician designed the Difference Engine which can compute navigational tables. 1833,He designed the Analytical Engine 1991,it is built by the Science Museum in London He originated the concept of a programmable computer. Considered a father of Computer 3/31/2017 Charles Babbage (1752–1834)

9 Babbage’s Difference Engine

10 Lady Ada Lord Byron's daughter, Ada, Countess of Lovelace, suggested to Babbage that he use the binary system in his machine. She wrote programs for his analytical engine in 1840, becoming the world's first computer programmer. Her notes on the engine include what is recognized as the first algorithm intended to be processed by a machine. 3/31/2017 Lady Ada ( ) 

11 Hollerith’s Tabulating Machine
He developed a mechanical tabulator based on punched cards to rapidly tabulate statistics from millions of pieces of data Founded Hollerith Tabulating Company Which became IBM in 1924 3/31/2017 Herman Hollerith (1860–1929) This machine was used by American Department of Census to complete their 1880 census data.

12 History…. Konrad Zuse, , He developed Z1and Z2 mechanical computers using binary arithmetic 1943 ,Alan Turing built Colossus which is used to break German codes(is encrypted by ENIGMA machine) 3/31/2017

13 Mark I Computer Howard Aiken of Harvard University in USA joined hands with the company IBM. He developed a computer named Mark I in 1943. It could perform mathematical operations very fast. It could perform one operation per second. 3/31/2017 Howard Hathaway Aiken ( )

14 Mark I Computer 3/31/2017

15 ENIAC The first electronic computer ENIAC was developed in 1946 by a team lead by Professor Eckert and Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania in USA. Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) was very huge and very fast. It could solve 5000 operations per second. 3/31/2017

16 ENIAC Used 18000 vacuum tubes U shaped,25m long, 2.5m high, 1.5m wide
Programmed by plugging cables and setting switches From 1 hourto 1 day to programm Von Johnvon Neumann in 1945 proposed a stored program computer called EDVAC 3/31/2017

17 History… 1947,William Shockley, John Bardeen, Walter Brattain invent the transistor 1950‟s,IBM produces series of computers (IBM 701, 702) 1957,Fortran-the first programming language is introduced 1958, Integrated Circuit invented 1965, IBM/360 Mainframe is introduced using integrated circuits 1965, DEC introduced PDP-8, first minicomputer 3/31/2017

18 History… Integrated Circuit(IC):
Small Scale Integration(SSI), Medium Scale Integration(MSI), Large Scale Integration(LSI). 1971, Intel 4004 the first microprocessor 1973, Xerox invents Ethernet 3/31/2017

19 Intel 8080 In 1974 the Intel 8080 processor was introduced - it became the basis for the first personal computers. 3/31/2017

20 History… 1975, First PC, MITS Altair 8800, Bill Gates and Paul Allen wrote a BASIC compiler for the Altair. 1976, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak develop Apple I in their parent’s garage. 1976, Cray-1: The first supercomputer announced 1977, TRS-80 released by Tandy Corporation Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) and Super Large Scale Integration(SLSI) IBM PC 1981, Intel 8088 and DOS OS 3/31/2017

21 Portable Computer 1981, First “Portable Computer”
1983, First PDA released Had 8K of RAM Cost $199,95 (US) 1984, Apple Macintosh introduced 3/31/2017

22 Generations 0th Generation( -1900): Mechanics
1th Generation( ): Vacuum tube 2th Generation( ): Transistor 3th Generation( ): SSI, MSI, LSI 4th Generation(1981-): VLSI, SLSI Now ???? AI 3/31/2017

23 Now : 5th generation 3/31/2017

24 Classifications On the basis of Technology Generations of computers
On the basis of Purpose General Purpose, special Purpose computers On The basis of size & Speed Micro, Mini & Super Computers On the basis of how it functions Analog, Digital & Hybrid Computers 3/31/2017

25 Generations of Computer
Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful more efficient and reliable devices. 3/31/2017

26 Structure of a Vaccum Tube
FIRST GENERATION TIME PERIOD : 1940's-1950's TECHNOLOGY USED : Vacuum Tubes SIZE AND SPEED : Huge, taking up entire rooms, Slow speed LANGUAGE USED : Machine language COST : System and working cost very high. OTHER FEATURES : Used a great deal of electricity. Generated a lot of heat. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts. EXAMPLE : UNIVAC and ENIAC 3/31/2017 Structure of a Vaccum Tube UNIVAC ENIAC

TECHNOLOGY USED : Transistors SIZE AND SPEED : Lesser size and increased speed LANGUAGE USED : Assembly language and languages like COBOL and FORTRAN COST : Cost decreased OTHER FEATURES : More efficient and reliable. Though the transistors still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output. EXAMPLE : UNIVAC 1108, IBM 1401, CDC 1604 3/31/2017 TRANSISITORS UNIVAC 1108 IBM 1401

28 THIRD GENERATION TIME PERIOD : late 1960's-1970's
TECHNOLOGY USED : Integrated Circuit SIZE AND SPEED : Size Lesser and speed further increased LANGUAGE USED : Operating System was developed. COST : Cost decreased further OTHER FEATURES : Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors. EXAMPLE : IBM-360 series, Honeywell Model 316, Honeywell 6000 series, CDC – 1700. IBM 360/50 3/31/2017

29 Intel 4004D microprocessor
FOURTH GENERATION TIME PERIOD : 1970's-today TECHNOLOGY USED : Microprocessor SIZE AND SPEED : Reduced size and tremendous speed LANGUAGE USED : High Level Languages like PASCAL, COBOL, C, C++, JAVA COST : Reduced Cost OTHER FEATURES : Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors. As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices. EXAMPLE : Intel 4004, Apple Macintosh 3/31/2017 The Macintosh 128K, the first Macintosh, was the first commercially successful personal computer to use images, rather than text, to communicate. Intel 4004D microprocessor

30 FIFTH GENERATION TIME PERIOD : 1990's -today TECHNOLOGY USED : Microprocessor SIZE AND SPEED : Reduced size and tremendous speed LANGUAGE USED : Based on Artificial intelligence COST : Reduced Cost OTHER FEATURES : Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization. EXAMPLE : Parallel Inference Machine Note Artificial Intelligence is the branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. Voice Recognition is the field of computer science that deals with designing computer systems that can recognize spoken words. 3/31/2017

31 On The basis of size & Speed
Super Computers Mainframe Mini Micro (personal Computers) 3/31/2017

32 Super Computer The fastest type of computer.
Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations. For example, weather forecasting requires a supercomputer. Other uses of supercomputers include animated graphics, , nuclear energy research, and petroleum exploration. Characteristics  Powerful  Expensive  Dedicated to one purpose - weather, satellites, military  Used by large governments or very large companies Can be used by thousands of people at the same time  Very large - fill rooms 3/31/2017

33 Super Computer 3/31/2017

34 Super Computer 3/31/2017 Sixteen racks of IBM's Blue Gene/L supercomputer can perform 70.7 trillion calculations per second, making it the fastest machine known so far.

35 Mainframes In the early days of computing, mainframes were huge computers that could fill an entire room or even a whole floor. As the size of computers has decreased while the power has increased, the term mainframe has fallen out of use in favor of enterprise server. You'll still hear the term used, particularly in large companies to describe the huge machines processing millions of transactions every day. Characteristics:       Expensive      Powerful and fast      Is not limited to one job      Used by business and small government organizations 3/31/2017

36 Super Computer vs. Mainframe
The main difference between a supercomputer and a mainframe is that a supercomputer channels all its power into executing a few programs as fast as possible, whereas a mainframe uses its power to execute many programs simultaneously. 3/31/2017

37 Mini Computer Another term rarely used anymore, minicomputers fall in between microcomputers (PCs) and mainframes (enterprise servers). Minicomputers are normally referred to as mid-range servers now. Characteristics:   Smaller than mainframe Can do several jobs at once   Can be used by many people at one time   Used by small companies 3/31/2017

38 Micro Computer The term microcomputer, also known as personal computer (PC), or a computer that depends on a microprocessor. A microcomputer contains a central processing unit (CPU) on a microchip (the microprocessor), a memory system (read-only memory and random access memory), placed on a motherboard. Example:  desktop, notebook, laptop, handheld devices. Characteristics: developed in 1980  designed for single user  not very powerful or expensive  found in homes 3/31/2017

39 Classification of Computers of On the basis of How It Functions
The current classifications of computers place them into four categories: Analog Computer Digital Computer Hybrid Computers 3/31/2017

40 Classification of Computers of On the basis of How It Functions
3/31/2017 Analog Computers Digital Computers Operate on continuous data, like measuring temp. changes . Faster. Accuracy of an analog computer is restricted to the accuracy with which physical quantities can be sensed and displayed. Specific Purpose computers . Digital computers work on discrete data. Digital computer can process data with greater accuracy. We generally use digital computers for business and scientific data processing.

41 Hybrid Computer Hybrid computers are computers that comprise features of analog computers and digital computers. The digital component normally serves as the controller and provides logical operations, while the analog component normally serves as a solver of differential equations. 3/31/2017

42 Purpose Based Classification of Computer Systems
3/31/2017 Special Purpose Computers General Purpose Computers Special-purpose computer: Dedicated computers that perform specific tasks Controlling the temperature and humidity Monitoring your heart rate Monitoring your house security system The First Real Computers:1939: Konrad Zuse completed the first programmable, general-purpose digital computer

43 3/31/2017 You don’t need to know everything, the only thing you have to know is how to get it when you want to use it Enstein

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