2Evaluation of computer 3/31/2017The development of the modern day computer was the result of advances in technologies and man's need to quantify.Let us look at some of the important milestones in the evolution of computers.
3Abacus The abacus was invented in 3000 BC in Babylonia. 3/31/2017The abacus was invented in 3000 BC in Babylonia.Beads on rods to count and calculateStill widely used in Asia!
4Slide Rule 1612, John Napier used floating point arithmetic and invented the logarithmused until 1970s1622,William Oughtred created the slide rule based on Napier‘s logarithms.3/31/2017William Oughtred(1575–1660)
5Pascal's Adding Machine In 1642 AD, Blaise Pascal , a FrenchMathematician invented a calculating machine named as Adding Machine.This machine was capable of doing Addition and Subtraction. This device is known as the First Calculator of the world.3/31/2017Blaise Pascal(1623–1662)
6Leibniz’s Calculator1673, Gottfried Leibnitz a German Mathematician improved the Adding machine and built a calculator which could multiply and division as well3/31/2017Gottfried Leibniz(1646–1716)
7Jacqurad Loom 1801He invented an automatic loom using punched cards to control patterns in the fabrics.3/31/2017Joseph-Marie Jacquard(1752–1834)First stored program - metal cardsFirst computer manufacturingStill in use today!Starting the industrial age
8Babbage’s Difference Engine 1822, a British mathematician designed the Difference Engine which can compute navigational tables.1833,He designed the Analytical Engine1991,it is built by the Science Museum in LondonHe originated the concept of a programmable computer.Considered a father of Computer3/31/2017Charles Babbage(1752–1834)
10Lady AdaLord Byron's daughter, Ada, Countess of Lovelace, suggested to Babbage that he use the binary system in his machine.She wrote programs for his analytical engine in 1840, becoming the world's first computer programmer.Her notes on the engine include what is recognized as the first algorithm intended to be processed by a machine.3/31/2017Lady Ada( )
11Hollerith’s Tabulating Machine He developed a mechanical tabulator based on punched cards to rapidly tabulate statistics from millions of pieces of dataFounded Hollerith Tabulating Company Which became IBM in 19243/31/2017Herman Hollerith(1860–1929)This machine was used by American Department of Census to complete their 1880 census data.
12History….Konrad Zuse, , He developed Z1and Z2 mechanical computers using binary arithmetic1943 ,Alan Turing built Colossus which is used to break German codes(is encrypted by ENIGMA machine)3/31/2017
13Mark I ComputerHoward Aiken of Harvard University in USA joined hands with the company IBM. He developed a computer named Mark I in 1943.It could perform mathematical operations very fast.It could perform one operation per second.3/31/2017Howard Hathaway Aiken( )
15ENIACThe first electronic computer ENIAC was developed in 1946 by a team lead by Professor Eckert and Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania in USA.Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) was very huge and very fast.It could solve 5000 operations per second.3/31/2017
16ENIAC Used 18000 vacuum tubes U shaped,25m long, 2.5m high, 1.5m wide Programmed by plugging cables and setting switchesFrom 1 hourto 1 day to programmVon Johnvon Neumann in 1945 proposed a stored program computer called EDVAC3/31/2017
17History…1947,William Shockley, John Bardeen, Walter Brattain invent the transistor1950‟s,IBM produces series of computers (IBM 701, 702)1957,Fortran-the first programming language is introduced1958, Integrated Circuit invented1965, IBM/360 Mainframe is introduced using integrated circuits1965, DEC introduced PDP-8, first minicomputer3/31/2017
18History… Integrated Circuit(IC): Small Scale Integration(SSI), Medium Scale Integration(MSI), Large Scale Integration(LSI).1971, Intel 4004 the first microprocessor1973, Xerox invents Ethernet3/31/2017
19Intel 8080In 1974 the Intel 8080 processor was introduced - it became the basis for the first personal computers.3/31/2017
20History…1975, First PC, MITS Altair 8800, Bill Gates and Paul Allen wrote a BASIC compiler for the Altair.1976, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak develop Apple I in their parent’s garage.1976, Cray-1: The first supercomputer announced1977, TRS-80 released by Tandy CorporationVery Large Scale Integration (VLSI) and Super Large Scale Integration(SLSI)IBM PC 1981, Intel 8088 and DOS OS3/31/2017
21Portable Computer 1981, First “Portable Computer” 1983, First PDA releasedHad 8K of RAMCost $199,95 (US)1984, Apple Macintosh introduced3/31/2017
24Classifications On the basis of Technology Generations of computers On the basis of PurposeGeneral Purpose, special Purpose computersOn The basis of size & SpeedMicro, Mini & Super ComputersOn the basis of how it functionsAnalog, Digital & Hybrid Computers3/31/2017
25Generations of Computer Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasinglysmaller,cheaper,more powerfulmore efficient andreliable devices.3/31/2017
26Structure of a Vaccum Tube FIRST GENERATIONTIME PERIOD : 1940's-1950'sTECHNOLOGY USED : Vacuum TubesSIZE AND SPEED : Huge, taking up entirerooms, Slow speedLANGUAGE USED : Machine languageCOST : System andworking cost very high.OTHER FEATURES :Used a great deal of electricity.Generated a lot of heat.Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts.EXAMPLE : UNIVAC and ENIAC3/31/2017Structure of a Vaccum TubeUNIVACENIAC
27SECOND GENERATION TIME PERIOD : 1950's- 1960's TECHNOLOGY USED : TransistorsSIZE AND SPEED : Lesser size and increased speedLANGUAGE USED : Assembly language and languages likeCOBOL and FORTRANCOST : Cost decreasedOTHER FEATURES : More efficient and reliable.Though the transistors still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube.Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output.EXAMPLE : UNIVAC 1108, IBM 1401, CDC 16043/31/2017TRANSISITORSUNIVAC 1108IBM 1401
28THIRD GENERATION TIME PERIOD : late 1960's-1970's TECHNOLOGY USED : Integrated CircuitSIZE AND SPEED : Size Lesser and speed further increasedLANGUAGE USED : Operating System was developed.COST : Cost decreased furtherOTHER FEATURES : Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory.Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.EXAMPLE : IBM-360 series, Honeywell Model 316, Honeywell6000 series, CDC – 1700.IBM 360/503/31/2017
29Intel 4004D microprocessor FOURTH GENERATIONTIME PERIOD : 1970's-today TECHNOLOGY USED : Microprocessor SIZE AND SPEED : Reduced size and tremendous speed LANGUAGE USED : High Level Languages like PASCAL,COBOL, C, C++, JAVA COST : Reduced Cost OTHER FEATURES : Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors.As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet.Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices. EXAMPLE : Intel 4004, Apple Macintosh3/31/2017The Macintosh 128K, the first Macintosh, was the first commercially successful personal computer to use images, rather than text, to communicate.Intel 4004D microprocessor
30FIFTH GENERATIONTIME PERIOD : 1990's -today TECHNOLOGY USED : Microprocessor SIZE AND SPEED : Reduced size and tremendous speed LANGUAGE USED : Based on Artificial intelligence COST : Reduced Cost OTHER FEATURES : Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today.The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization. EXAMPLE : Parallel Inference Machine NoteArtificial Intelligence is the branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans.Voice Recognition is the field of computer science that deals with designing computer systems that can recognize spoken words.3/31/2017
31On The basis of size & Speed Super ComputersMainframeMiniMicro (personal Computers)3/31/2017
32Super Computer The fastest type of computer. Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations.For example, weather forecasting requires a supercomputer.Other uses of supercomputers include animated graphics, , nuclear energy research, and petroleum exploration.Characteristics Powerful Expensive Dedicated to one purpose - weather, satellites, military Used by large governments or very large companiesCan be used by thousands of people at the same time Very large - fill rooms3/31/2017
34Super Computer3/31/2017Sixteen racks of IBM's Blue Gene/L supercomputer can perform 70.7 trillion calculations per second, making it the fastest machine known so far.
35MainframesIn the early days of computing, mainframes were huge computers that couldfill an entire room or even a whole floor.As the size of computers has decreased while the power has increased, the termmainframe has fallen out of use in favor of enterprise server. You'll still hear theterm used, particularly in large companies to describe the huge machinesprocessing millions of transactions every day.Characteristics: Expensive Powerful and fast Is not limited to one job Used by business and small government organizations3/31/2017
36Super Computer vs. Mainframe The main difference between a supercomputer and a mainframe is that a supercomputer channels all its power into executing a few programs as fast as possible, whereas a mainframe uses its power to execute many programs simultaneously.3/31/2017
37Mini ComputerAnother term rarely used anymore, minicomputers fall in betweenmicrocomputers (PCs) and mainframes (enterprise servers).Minicomputers are normally referred to as mid-range servers now.Characteristics: Smaller than mainframeCan do several jobs at once Can be used by many people at one time Used by small companies3/31/2017
38Micro ComputerThe term microcomputer, also known as personal computer (PC), or acomputer that depends on a microprocessor.A microcomputer contains a central processing unit (CPU) on amicrochip (the microprocessor), a memory system (read-only memoryand random access memory), placed on a motherboard.Example: desktop, notebook, laptop, handheld devices.Characteristics:developed in 1980 designed for single user not very powerful or expensive found in homes3/31/2017
39Classification of Computers of On the basis of How It Functions The current classifications of computers place them into fourcategories:Analog ComputerDigital ComputerHybrid Computers3/31/2017
40Classification of Computers of On the basis of How It Functions 3/31/2017AnalogComputersDigitalComputersOperate on continuous data, likemeasuring temp. changes .Faster.Accuracy of an analog computeris restricted to the accuracy withwhich physical quantities can besensed and displayed.Specific Purpose computers .Digital computers work ondiscrete data.Digital computer can processdata with greater accuracy.We generally use digitalcomputers for business andscientific data processing.
41Hybrid ComputerHybrid computers are computers that comprise features of analog computers and digital computers.The digital component normally serves as the controller and provides logical operations, while the analog component normally serves as a solver of differential equations.3/31/2017
42Purpose Based Classification of Computer Systems 3/31/2017Special Purpose ComputersGeneral Purpose ComputersSpecial-purpose computer: Dedicated computers that perform specific tasksControlling the temperature and humidityMonitoring your heart rateMonitoring your house security systemThe First Real Computers:1939: Konrad Zuse completed the first programmable, general-purpose digital computer
433/31/2017You don’t need to know everything, the only thing you have to know is how to get it when you want to use itEnstein