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Nanochemistry in the New Leaving Certificate Chemistry Syllabus Dr Justin D. Holmes 30 th Annual ChemEd Conference, UCC22 Oct 2011 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Nanochemistry in the New Leaving Certificate Chemistry Syllabus Dr Justin D. Holmes 30 th Annual ChemEd Conference, UCC22 Oct 2011 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nanochemistry in the New Leaving Certificate Chemistry Syllabus Dr Justin D. Holmes 30 th Annual ChemEd Conference, UCC22 Oct

2 Draft Chemistry Syllabus (Leaving Certificate) 2 Unit 2: Properties, Structure and Bonding Students learn aboutStudent should be able to 2.6 Technological applications of chemistry Discuss the terms : nanoscience, nanochemistry and nanotechnology Describe and discuss how incorporation of carbon nanotubes into polymer composites can alter the mechanical properties of these composites Describe/discuss the electronic properties and potential applications of carbon nanotubes

3 What is Nanoscience, Nanochemistry and Nanotechnology? Nanoscience - the study of matter at very small length scales: 100 nanometres and below. Nanochemistry – the synthesis of nanoscale building blocks of different size, shape, composition, surface structure, charge and functionality. Nanotechnology - the products that are derived from this knowledge So what is the big deal? 1.Novel and sometimes unexpected properties….. 2.Can design materials to have specific properties 3.Small matter is constantly moving…can arranges itself to form interesting and useful objects, e,g. part of a computer chip, or cure for cancer…but you need to know the rules! 3

4 What is a Nanometre? Nanos [Greek]: the dwarf A Nanometre is a millionth fraction of a millimetre 1mm 4

5 1 nanometre length corresponds to five atoms side-by-side Atom Apple Earth 6/2/2014© CRANN 095 How big: Atom compared to an apple? 5

6 Nano: The Middle Ground ? Galactic Macroscopic Microscopic Nanoscopic Molecular/Atomic Scale Subatomic/Nuclear Particle ? ? m m 10 1 m m m m m 6

7 Why the Hype about Nanotechology ? Internet search engine ~ 10 Million hits Nanotechnology is on the way to becoming the FIRST $Trillion Market Nanotechnology affects almost every aspect of daily life, e.g. security or medicine 7

8 Nanotechology: Research to Applications 8

9 Electron tube Transistor Integrated circuits Notebook Mobile Phone Internet Remember the Transistor 9

10 Electronics & Molecules 5 cm 0.05 m TubeTransistorChip Molecule ? 5 mm m 5 m 0.000,005 m < 5 nm < 0.000,000,005 m $ $ Getting smaller and smaller More transistors per laptop than people on planet Earth 10

11 Nelumbo nucifera, the sacred Lotus flower. New Materials: Lotus Effect 11

12 Stain Resistant Fabrics No More Restaurant Disasters! 12

13 Nanoparticles/Nanospheres in Cosmetics Small crystal size and controlled particle size: - give excellent dispersibility, - make skin feel attractive, - transparent on the skin May increase protection against both UVA and UVB rays Helps increase penetration of active material into skin 13

14 Scratch Resistant Materials NanoTek® Aluminium Oxide Nanoparticles 14

15 Therapies Based on Nanoparticles Antibody that recognises cancer cell Drugs for release Magic Bullets…specifically designed to target cancer cells 15

16 But thats not all - Small Stuff is Always Moving Diffusion of oxygen vacancies on TiO 2 (110) surfaces Prof. F. Besenbacher, iNano Centre, Aarhus University, Denmark Aggregation of Nano-Au Materials Chemistry & Analysis Group, UCC 16

17 Various Forms of Carbon Allotropes of carbon have different covalent bonding arrangements 17

18 No No Conducts Electricity Buckyballs Carbon Nanotubes +++ Not Known Diamond Graphite +++ Coal Conducts Heat Tensile Strength HardnessAllotrope Properties of Carbon Allotropes 18

19 200× stronger than steel - 1/16 th weight First synthetic material to have greater strength than spider silk Excellent conductors of electricity and heat - similar to Cu Have huge potential for product development Unique Properties of Carbon Nanotubes 19

20 Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs) Structures of Carbon Nanotubes 20

21 Nanotube Composites: Electronic Paper CRANN- HP Project Flexible substrate Light weight High transparency Good conductivity Prototype HP e-skins device 21

22 Nanotube Composites: Sporting Equipment Badminton racquet manufacturer Yonex incorporates carbon nanotubes into their cup stack carbon nanotubes racquets ( American baseball bat manufacturer Easton Sports has formed an alliance with a nanotechnology company Zyvex to develop baseball bats incorporating carbon nanotubes Tennis racquets also incorporate carbon nanotubes ( Light weight Strength Bigger sweet spot 22

23 800 g Super Light and Strong Materials BMC designs high-tech bicycle frame with carbon nanotubes 23

24 Metallic vs Semiconducting SWNTs (0,0) C h = (10,0) a1a1 a2a2 x yMetallic 24

25 (0,0) C h = (10,5) a1a1 a2a2 x y Chirality - twist of the nanotube Metallic vs Semiconducting SWNTs Semiconducting Atomically resolved STM measurement of a carbon nanotube 25

26 Electronic Properties of SWNTs Diffusive Transport in Ordinary Materials Ballistic Transport in Nanotubes Carriers are scattered in new directions by electrons, phonons, impurities and interfaces Carriers cannot be scattered in new directions because no other directions are available 26

27 Electronic Applications of Carbon Nanotubes 27

28 Next Generation of Nanotube Technologies Carbon nanotubes are being used to develop flat screen televisions with higher resolution than the human eye can detect Your next TV screen could be thin, ultra-light and foldable… Branching and switching of signals at electronic junctions is similar to what happens in nerves A carbon nanotube neural tree can be trained to perform complex switching and computing functions Could be used to detect/respond to electronic, acoustic, chemical, biological or thermal signals. 28

29 Potential Health Risks of Nanomaterials Critical factors: –Surface Area –Surface Chemistry –Size - deposition probability and translocation –Shape Carbon Nanotubes Engineered Nanoparticles Quantum Dots © Felice Frankel 29

30 Nanoscience – International Context Worldwide investment in nanotechnology research and development has increased over 20-fold in the last 12 years – from $432 million in 1997 to about $9,200 million in Over 35 countries have now initiated national based activities in this space and the levels of investment are increasing. 30

31 Who is Winning the Nanoscience Race? Top 10 Nations Ranked by Impact 1. Switzerland 2. Netherlands 3. United States 4. Canada 5. Belgium 6. Ireland 7. United Kingdom 8. Denmark 9. France 10. Japan 31

32 Nanoscience – Materials Research Ireland now ranked 8th in the world in Materials Science! - Chemistry - Physics - Biology Source: Times Higher Education, August 26 th /story.asp?sectioncode=26&storycode =413239&c=1 32

33 The Future 33

34 Summary Nanotechnology is the next wave! Will impact all sectors: from health care to next generation computers and communications - presently 10% of Irish exports are enabled by nanotechnology Anticipated 1.5 trillion market by 2015 Ireland has critical mass of research excellence and world-class facilities Ireland is well positioned to catch the nanotech wave! 34 Acknowledgements Prof John Boland (TCD, CRANN) Prof Georg Duesberg (CRANN / Infineon Technologies AG) National Nanotechnology Secondary School Resource An Australian Government Initiative (

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