Presentation on theme: "Recycling Council of Alberta Recycling 101"— Presentation transcript:
1 Recycling Council of Alberta Recycling 101 Christina Seidel, Executive Director
2 kg/capita/year2010 Provincial TrendsData from the territories, NL and PEI are not provided due to confidentiality reasonsSource: Statistics Canada 2010 data
3 Provincial Waste Disposal Source: Stats Can 2010 data
4 Provincial Waste Disposal Source: Stats Can 2010 data
5 Provincial Waste Diversion Source: Stats Can 2010 data
6 Provincial Waste Diversion Source: Stats Can 2010 data
7 Sources of Waste Materials generated in Alberta Shows breakdown of waste from different sectors.Source: Stats Canada
8 Composition of Residential Waste Breakdown of residential waste – note by weight. Materials like plastic that are light actually take up more space.Source: Provincial Waste Characterization Framework, Oct. 2005
9 ICI Waste CompositionBreakdown of waste in the ICI (Industrial, Commercial, Institutional) sector.Source: Provincial Waste Characterization Framework, Oct. 2005
10 C&D Waste CompositionBreakdown of Construction & Demolition waste.Source: Provincial Waste Characterization Framework, Oct. 2005
11 Bringing together previous slides into overall Municipal Solid Waste, this is the overall breakdown. Highlight paper and organics as largest constituents.MSW Waste CompositionSource: compiled from charts found in Provincial Waste Characterization Framework, Oct. 2005
13 Effects of Waste Fill up landfills Fire hazards Toxic hazards PollutionClimate change / greenhouse gas emissionsEffects of Waste
14 Landfill Space Savings Garbage = 750 to 1250 lb/yd31 tonne garbage ~ 2-3 yd3 landfill spaceKey recyclables have lower densities, magnifying their impact on landfill costs:Cardboard: 750 lb/yd3Plastic containers: 355 lb/yd3Landfill tipping fees vary: $20/tonne - $135/tonneLandfill Space Savings
15 Climate Change EPA / Environment Canada studies Reducing waste (eliminating it at the source) has the most dramatic impact on reducing greenhouse gassesRecycling is also effective way of reducing GHGsless energy is required to manufacture materials from recycled materials than from virgin materialno gases occur from landfilling or incinerating those materialsClimate Change
16 Shows how GHGs are reduced through recycling Shows how GHGs are reduced through recycling. Recycling keeps material in bottom loop, eliminating emissions associated with raw material extraction and landfill. Raw material extraction is by far the largest contributor to GHG in a product’s lifecycle.
17 Net GHG Emissions from MSW Management Options (tonnes eCO2/tonne) MaterialSource ReductionRecycling/ CompostingAnaerobic DigestionThermal TreatmentLandfillNewspaper(3.81)(2.81)(0.49)(0.05)(1.22)Fine Paper(5.93)(3.33)(0.34)(0.04)1.18Cardboard(5.22)(3.34)(0.32)0.29Aluminum Cans(4.55)(6.49)0.01Steel(1.95)(1.15)(0.99)Glass(0.40)(0.10)HDPE(2.74)(2.27)2.85PET(3.50)(3.63)2.13ComputersNA(1.59)0.41Food Waste(0.24)0.020.80Yard Waste(0.15)(0.33)17
18 Energy Use: Recycled & Virgin Content Products (MJ/kg) Source: Dr. Jeffrey Morris, Sound Resource Management
19 CO2 Emissions: Recycled &Virgin Content Products (kg eCO2/kg) Source: Dr. Jeffrey Morris, Sound Resource Management19
20 Energy Savings: Recycling versus WTE Incineration (MJ/kg) Source: Dr. Jeffrey Morris, Sound Resource Management
21 CO2 Emissions: Recycling versus Disposal (kg eCO2/kg) Source: Dr. Jeffrey Morris, Sound Resource Management
22 CO2 Emissions: Composting versus Disposal (kg eCO2/kg) Source: Dr. Jeffrey Morris, Sound Resource Management
23 Source: Dr. Jeffrey Morris, Sound Resource Management
24 Source: Dr. Jeffrey Morris, Sound Resource Management
25 Value of Pollution Reductions from Recycling & Composting Discard TypeEnvironmental Value (US$/metric ton)Newspapers$CardboardMixed PaperGlass Containers61PET PlasticsHDPE PlasticsOther PlasticsAluminum Cans1,607Ferrous Cans & Scrap18-72Food Scraps62-107Yard & Garden Debris61-74Compostable Paper52-78Value of Pollution Reductions from Recycling & CompostingSource: Dr. Jeffrey Morris, Sound Resource Management
26 Zero Waste is a goal that is both pragmatic and visionary, to guide people to emulate sustainable natural cycles, where all discarded materials are resources for others to use. Zero Waste means designing and managing products and processes to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and materials, conserve and recover all resources, and not burn or bury them. Implementing Zero Waste will eliminate all discharges to land, water or air that may be a threat to planetary, human, animal or plant health."Zero Waste DefinitionSource: Zero Waste International Alliance
27 Zero Waste Principles Zero Waste to landfill or incineration divert more than 90% of solid wastes from landfillno solid wastes are processed in facilities that operate above ambient biological temperatures (more than 200 degrees F) to recover energy or materialsZero Waste PrinciplesSource: Zero Waste International Alliance
28 3Rs HierarchyReduceSource reduction can be achieved by purchasing durable, long-lasting goods, as well as seeking products and packaging that represent a reduction in materials, energy consumption or toxicityReuseReusing involves the use of a product more than once without altering its form, either for the same or for a different purposeRecycleDiverting products from disposal at the end of their useful lives, sorting, transporting and processing them to produce secondary sources of materials that are subsequently used in the production of new goods3Rs definitions, as established by RCA. Important to note it is a hierarchy – important to prioritize in this order.
29 Materials that cannot reasonably be reduced, reused or diverted for recycling or composting. ~20% of the municipal waste streamThe long-term zero-waste objective is to eliminate residuals from the waste stream.Residuals may be a temporary situationLack of marketsPoor product designTrue residuals require a disposal option.Residuals
30 Residuals Disposal Options – Energy Recovery Energy recovery involves utilizing the embodied energy in waste materials to produce needed heat or electricity.Energy recovery is represented by a variety of combustion processes.Recovery is considered an alternate disposal method, not a recycling alternative.Residuals Disposal Options – Energy Recovery3Rs definitions, as established by RCA. Important to note it is a hierarchy – important to prioritize in this order.
31 Residuals Disposal Options – Landfill Disposal of residual materials on land, in a specially engineered site constructed to minimize hazard to public health and safety.Landfills are still required with waste-to-energy for disposal of residual ash (~10-25%).Residuals Disposal Options – Landfill3Rs definitions, as established by RCA. Important to note it is a hierarchy – important to prioritize in this order.
33 MSW Options Report Considered 3 community sizes population of 20,000 / 80,000 / 200,000Looked at a number of management methodscompostinganaerobic digestionsanitary landfillbioreactor landfillthermal treatmentFull report available on RCA websiteMSW Options Report
34 MSW Options Report Key Thermal Treatment Findings Can reduce material 90% by volume; 70-75% by weight450 to 500 kWh of electricity per tonne of waste processed24 tonnes of waste can heat the average Canadian homeNew and emerging technologies such as plasma gasification are generally not yet commercially available or proven on a full scaleCostly waste treatment alternativecomparable to cost of anaerobic digestionmore costly than landfill disposalMSW Options Report
36 But, What About Europe? Very different policy framework Recycling strongly establishedStrong focus on hierarchyPrevention, reuse, recycling key elementsEU Target: by 2020, 50% of municipal solid waste and 70% of waste from construction, demolition, industry and manufacturing must be re-used or recycled.Netherlands currently at 66% diversionGermany at 65% diversionNew targets increase recycling; limit recoveryBut, What About Europe?
37 So, What is the Role of Waste-to-Energy in a Zero Waste World? Waste-to-energy should be considered a residuals treatment (or disposal) optionWaste prevention, reuse and recycling must be priorities over WtEWtE does not provide best environmental option3Rs must be optimized prior to WtE being consideredPlan for Zero Wastefrom disposal, not from landfillSo, What is the Role of Waste-to-Energy in a Zero Waste World?
39 City of Calgary Blue Cart Recycling Community Recycling Depots Service for single family homesCommunity Recycling DepotsService for multi-family homesNetwork of over 50 depotsOrganics Collection PilotCity of CalgaryFrom the early 1990’s to 2009, The City of Calgary operated a very efficient network of recycling depots to provide recycling services to residents. However, with the expansion of the types of material being accepted for recycling and the overwhelming use of the depot system, The City began collecting comingled recycling from single family homes in This system uses 240 litre carts and is collected by an automated collection truck. This change also allowed The City to expand the types of material accepted to include most plastics.
40 Calgary Recycling Depot Residential recycling in Calgary
41 Blue bag, curbside pickup of recyclables Co-composter composts organics contained in the general waste streamDepots for drop-off of multi-family recyclablesNew program for blue bag collection of multi-familyYear-round EcoStation household hazardous waste drop-offDue to previous difficulties with siting a landfill, a high priority is placed on maximizing diversion. The City of Edmonton has a two-stream collection system: 1) recyclables from houses in a blue bag and from multi-family residences in blue bins, 2) remainder in black bags/cans and mult-family dumpsters. Recyclables go to the MRF (Material Recycling Facility) for sorting; waste goes to Integrated Processing and Transfer Facility from which the organic portion goes to the composting facility, and residuals are pulled off for disposal. As of 2012, residuals from both streams will be converted to methanol and ethanol in a waste to biofuels facility.Still a depot system as well to service multi-family population and small businesses.Eco-Stations divert hazardous waste so it doesn’t contaminate the compost stream. E-waste and construction and demolition waste is recycled at the Edmonton Waste Management Centre.
45 Rural Alberta Primarily drop-off depot collection of recyclables Varied levels of serviceBag limits, user-pay and landfill bans common tools used to promote waste reductionRural AlbertaComments on programs in rural Alberta.
46 Edson & District Recycling Depot Edson an example of a successful rural waste diversion program. Photos show depot building, and outside drop-off area.Edson & District Recycling Depot
47 CCME Stewardship Definition “[Packaging] stewardship is a concept by which industry, governments, and consumers assume a greater responsibility for ensuring that the manufacture, use, reuse, recycling, and disposal [of packaging] has a minimum impact on the environment.”CCME Stewardship DefinitionIntroduces concept of stewardship.
48 “Extended producer responsibility (EPR) is an environmental policy approach in which a producer's responsibility for a product is extended to the post-consumer stage of a product's life cycle.”CCME EPR DefinitionIntroduces concept of stewardship.
50 Alberta Stewardship Programs - Non-Regulated / Voluntary Pesticide Containers (http://www.environment.alberta.ca/01535.html)Dead Drugs (Envirx)Portable Rechargeable Battery Collection (call2recycle.ca)Covers Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cd), Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH), Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) and Small Sealed Lead (Pb) rechargeable batteries.Recycle My Cell (www.RecycleMyCell.ca)MoU for a Voluntary Strategy to Reduce Plastic Bag Distribution in AlbertaAgreement made in June 2010 between Alberta Environment and Retail/Grocery Associations to reduce the per capita and overall distribution of plastic bags at point-of-sale from the amount distributed in 2008 by 30% by 2012 and by 50% by 2014.Alberta Stewardship Programs - Non-Regulated / VoluntaryAlberta’s non-regulated stewardship programs.
51 Scrap Tires Program launched in 1992 Regulated retail advance disposal surchargeProgram administered by non-profit stakeholder board (Alberta Recycling Management Authority – Tire Recycling Program)Dedicated FundBoard Funding StrategyPay for resultsValue-added productsOver 60 million tires recycledScrap TiresDescription of tire stewardship program. Funds go into dedicated fund that is administered by ARMA – Tire Recycling Program, and pays processors based on what they produce.ARMA is a not-for-profit association responsible for managing Alberta’s tire, electronics and paint recycling programs. Known simply as “Alberta Recycling”, the organization reports to the Minister of Environment and is run by a Board of Directors representing many stakeholder groups.
52 Which Tires are Covered under the Program? Passenger car, motorcycle and pickup truck tires - $4All-terrain vehicle, forklift, skid-steer (bobcat) tires - $4Tires on trucks, transporters, trailers and buses - $9Industrial/Off-the-Road (OTR) Tires (except farm tires)Rims < 24” - $40Rims > 24” - $100Rims > 33” - $200Which Tires are Covered under the Program?New fees (shown above) and inclusion of OTR tires effective April 1, 2011
53 Recycled Tire Products Rubber patio bricks, tiles and matsCrumb instead of sand in playgroundsSpreadable poured-in-place playground coverSports field and running track applicationsRoofing productsUndercushionDairy “mattresses”Recycled Tire Products
54 Used Oil Management Program Environmental Handling Charge (EHC) on new oil materials (oil, filters, plastic containers)Industry-established non-profit, AUOMA, governs fundsReturn Incentive (RI) paid for collection / transport to recyclersSimilar program in effect in BC, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Quebec and OntarioUsed Oil Management ProgramDescription of used oil program.Oil levy surplus (where the EHC is greater than the RI) offsets containers’ deficit (where the EHC is less than the RI). Filters almost break even (the EHC is about equal to the RI).
55 Environmental Handling Charges Paid by the first seller in the province to AUOMA, may be passed on to resellers / consumersOil5 cents per litre of new oilFilters$0.50 on filters under 8 inches in length, $1 per filter equal to or greater than 8” in lengthContainers5 cents per litre-size of container (5 cents for a one-liter container; 20 cents for a four-litre container)Environmental Handling ChargesEHC paid at wholesale level (first importer) and may be passed onto consumer, but not required.
56 Recycled Products “Re-refined” Motor Oil Industrial Heating Oil Numerous Recycled Industrial Plastic ProductsNew Oil ContainersRailroad TiesGuardrail PostsCurbs and Fence PostsPlastic PipeDimensional LumberOther Durable GoodsFlower PotsPlastic Patio FurnitureRecycled Industrial Metal ProductsRecycled ProductsNew commercial plastic containers and other consumer products may come from washed, pelletized used oil containers.“Recycled” industrial plastic products such as rail road ties, guardrails, curbs and fence posts may come from unwashed / semi-washed, shredded used oil containers (either process for recycled feedstock or product is also incented by AUOMA).Recycled “industrial” metal products includes such things as rebar from scrap metal including crushed used oil filters.
57 Beverage Container Recycling Return system established in 1972Containers are returned for deposit at over 278 collection sites in Alberta (216 bottle depots for all products and 62 retail locations for beer only)>1.9 billion containers collected and recycled in (82% return rate)Beverage Container RecyclingSystem established primarily to combat litter. Now promoted for its environmental benefits.
58 Beverage Container Management System Deposit paid at retail level on ready to drink beverage containers (including milk)10 cents on containers up to and including one litre25 cents on containers larger than one litre10 cents for beer bottles and cansContainer Recycling Fee (CRF) shown visibly on till slips – non-refundableBeverage Container Management SystemDeposit is fully refundable. As of June 1, 2009, all milk and cream containers have a refundable deposit on them when purchased at a retail outlet. CRF is like the fees paid in the other programs, in that it is used to pay for the recycling of the containers. CRF distinct and separate from deposit.
59 Alberta’s Electronics Recycling Program Launched October 2004Environmental fees collected on the sale of new eligible electronics in Alberta. Fees are used to:Collect, transport and recycle scrap electronics,Develop research into new recycling technologies, andBuild awareness and support for the electronics recycling programs.More than 300 collection sites across AlbertaSome communities hold e-waste roundup eventsOver 2,800,000 units or 53,500 tonnes of electronic components recycled Alberta’s Electronics Recycling ProgramFigures updated March 2010 (confirmed to still be accurate as per albertarecycling.ca, Feb. 2011).
60 Eligible Products and Recycling Fees Regulated advance disposal surchargeTelevisions18-inch screen and smaller: $1519-inch to 29-inch screen: $2530-inch to 45-inch screen: $3046-inch and larger screen: $45Computer EquipmentComputer monitors (LCD and CRT): $12CPUs and servers (also covers recycling of keyboard, mouse, cables, and speakers): $10Printer/printer combinations: $8Laptop and notebook computers: $5Eligible Products and Recycling FeesIn the future, a second phase is proposed to be added to the Program which will include more items in the categories of small kitchen appliances, audio visual, telecommunications and information technology.
61 Paint Recycling Program Launched April 1, 2008Over 225 collection sites have been established throughout AlbertaOver 3.8 million litres of paint and 480,000 aerosol containers have been recycledPaint Recycling ProgramData to March 2010
62 Paint Recycling Fees Unpressurized paint containers: 100 ml to 250 ml: $0.10251 ml to 1 L: $0.251.01 L to 5 L: $0.755.01 L to 23 L: $2.00Aerosol paint containers all sizes: $0.10Paint is sorted into different streams and sent to processorsRecycled into new paint, used for fuel blending, or sent for proper disposal if necessaryPaint Recycling Fees
63 Stewardship programs have been successful in diverting waste Regulation provides level playing field to producersDedicated funds ensure targeted programsDAOs maintain “arm’s length” from governmentStewardship SummaryDAO – Delegated Administrative Organization
64 Closing the Loop Buy Recycled Green Procurement Sources Support recycling industryEncourage use of recycled materialsGreen Procurement SourcesRCA’s Enviro Business GuideEnvironmental Choice ProgramAsk for Green choicesClosing the LoopRemind that recycling has not occurred until material has reentered market place.
65 Christina Seidel Executive Director 403.843.6563 firstname.lastname@example.org VisionZero WasteExtended Producer ResponsibilitySocial ConscienceMissionTo Promote and Facilitate Waste Reduction, Recycling, and Resource Conservation in AlbertaChristina Seidel Executive Director