Presentation on theme: "American Chemical Society Engaging Your New Committee Members Bryan Balazs Committee on Committees (ConC) 2014 Leadership Institute Dallas, Texas Part."— Presentation transcript:
American Chemical Society Engaging Your New Committee Members Bryan Balazs Committee on Committees (ConC) 2014 Leadership Institute Dallas, Texas Part of a Committee Chairs responsibility is to: Welcome new members Inform them Support them Engage them in discussions Involve them in activities Remember: these apply to continuing members, too
ACS Committee Service: New Members Are Volunteers Welcome & Connect –With new members before their first committee meeting –Host a pre-meeting, either by telecon or in person at the national meeting if feasible, to inform and answer questions and to ascertain their interest in the committee –Keep in mind that new members may be seasoned ACS committee veterans, or brand new to the role Introduce –Each new member at the beginning of their first meeting and invite them to share a few words on their background and interests –This is a good idea for continuing members as well Mentor –Partner new members with continuing members –Engage new members in conversation at breaks, over meals, etc. Follow up –After their first committee meeting, addressing any questions or concerns –Realign assignments or partners as necessary Actions before, during, and after their first meeting are critical
Hosting a pre-meeting for New Members Host a telecon, or (if feasible) have an informal meal or refreshment event at some point before the full committee meets Involve Subcommittee Chairs or other committee leadership Review the committee User Manual, including important historical points Go over the ACS & committee Strategic Plans Discuss logistics for the upcoming committee meeting Discuss the agenda book and actions expected at this meeting Discuss differences in Full Members vs. Associate Members –Expectations with serving on an ACS national committee –Voting vs. Non-Voting status –Participation on Subcommittees, Task Forces, and as Liaisons And finally, ask if they have any questions or concerns
A committee User Manual is very useful for New Members A User Manual helps continuing members as well Does one exist? –If yes: How up-to-date is it? Are modifications needed (updating every 3 to 5 years is a general goal)? –If no: Should one be prepared? Do you want to appoint a task force for the job? Who would lead it? When would this work begin? What level of involvement would ACS staff have? What are your expectations as to the timeframe for completion? –Think about how you would socialize the new version (probably only necessary for new manuals or updates with significant changes)
Outline for a Committee User Manual Introduction to the committees background –Original driver for committee formation, and evolution from that point –Historical shifts in focus or responsibilities Realignments, new scope, new charters, etc. –Current Mission and Vision statements Include linkages to ACS Strategic Plan Review of committee responsibilities –Subcommittee structure –Relationships to Technical Divisions and/or Local Sections –Tracked metrics to allow an assessment of committee effectiveness Expectations for committee service –Commitment level (meeting attendance, work between meetings) –Travel $$$ (how much burden will the individual have?) –Liaison relationships to other committees
Committee User Manual: Roles & Responsibilities How the committee fits into the ACS governance structure Voting (and differences in this between full committee versus subcommittee meetings) –Member –Associate Member –Consultant Duties & delegations between Committee Chair and Subcommittee Chairs Role of Staff Liaison to the committee Role of ConC Liaison to the committee Glossary of ACS and committee terms and abbreviations Updates to the manual and the distribution list
Communicate to all well in advance of national meetings Work in advance with your Staff Liaison and ConC Liaison –Your Staff Liaison will likely assist with many items below As appropriate, communicate to All Members: –Welcome letter ( , letter, or telephone as appropriate) –Provide early notification of: National meeting housing information Location, time, date of committee meetings (as soon as Meetings & Expositions sends notices to you and your Staff Liaison) Agenda book (recommend electronically, but have a Plan B in case this doesnt work for some members) Accommodations for unusual travel schedules (within reason) –Updated committee User Manual –Plan, if possible, a pre-meeting gathering of New Members
A little Committee psychology is helpful… Try to understand the background of your new members –Academic? Industry? Self-employed? Brand new? Seasoned veteran? –Understand what brought them to this committee –Beware of group think, and be open to new ideas Watch for new members who: –Are unusually quiet? Could be just their personality, or it could be that they arent up to speed yet –Are overly talkative? Could be just their personality, but dont let them dominate discussions –Come with their own agenda, or want to run things their way –Take the conversations in a direction contrary to where you feel the discussions should go, or that offend others Remember: Any problems with members, new or continuing, should be raised with the ConC and Staff Liaisons as needed Remember that every individual comes with different perspectives
An effective committee is driven in large part by thorough prior planning and organizing by the Chair (that would be you) in conjunction with the ConC and Staff Liaisons … and remember… YOU will be the one reporting to Council and in C&EN!
Questions? CMS Attention, young chemist! The mighty Papa Moai requires your assistance with a perplexing riddle. There is no turning back, now! What organization is the source of greatest personal fulfillment? Sure, I guess. Im not bad at riddles. Excellent. Then see if you can unravel this enigma of Gordian complexity that baffles even one such as I. Oh, thats an easy one. The answer is the ACS. Astounding--perfect for the Leadership Institute! Truly, you are a being to be reckoned with. Go ahead.
American Chemical Society Liaisons How to get the best out of the relationships Janet Bryant Committee on Committees (ConC) 2014 Leadership Institute Dallas, Texas
American Chemical Society 12 What is a Liaison? Establishes means of communication between different groups or committees. Improves relationships through specific goals and action items. Helps eliminate undesirable duplication of efforts. Provides an efficient means to link efforts for more productive outcomes.
American Chemical Society 13 Types of Liaisons Staff ConC Committee-to-Committee Liaisons –Joint Visiting and Information Gathering –Mutual Interest Area Sharing –Collaborative Working Groups –Short-Term
American Chemical Society 14 Staff Liaison Bridge between ACS and committee Administrator Communicator Financial Analyst Motivator Adhesive Finder of common grounds between committees
American Chemical Society 15 ConC Liaison Observer Recommender Other duties –Conducting 5-year Performance Reviews –Recommending continuation, creation, disbanding or merging of committees –Building pipelines of diverse talent pools –Recruiting members for governance –Training Committee Chairs
ACS National Committees Council Committees (Elected) –CPC –N&E –ConC Council Committees (Standing) –C&B –DAC –CEPA –LSAC –MAC –M&E Council Committees (Other) –Analytical Reagents –Nomenclature, Terminology & Symbols –Project SEED –Technician Affairs –Ethics Board & Council Society Committees –B&F –SOCED Board & Council Committees –Chemical Abstracts Service –Chemical Safety –Chemistry & Public Affairs –Chemists with Disabilities –Community Activities –Environmental Improvement –International Activities –Minority Affairs –Patents and Related Matters –Professional Training –Publications –Public Relations & Communications –Science –Senior Chemists –Younger Chemists –Women Chemists
Activity - What liaison(s) do you have? American Chemical Society 17 You are a new committee chair and have inherited liaisons to or from your committee. Who are these liaisons, which committees they liaise with, and what role do they play for your committee? Take a few moments and list these.
American Chemical Society 18 Committee-to-Committee Liaison Role: To improve communication and relationship between committees. Specific goals and action items needed. Mutually agreed. Periodically reviewed by both. Goals: Access information, ideas, and expertise. Increase synergistic interactions and/or collaborative activities. Decrease overlap of effort.
American Chemical Society 19 C-to-C Liaison Joint Visiting and Information Gathering Traditional liaison where a member of one committee visits another committees meeting (and may or may not provide reports). The liaison interacts with the committee to collect information to be used by the liaisons committee in committee discussions and actions. Information gathering could be provided or requested outside of committee meeting.
American Chemical Society 20 C-to-C Liaison Sharing Areas of Interest Relation based on specific goals and desired outcomes. Liaisons provide pertinent information to committees tackling issues of mutual interest. Liaisons oral reports should be included in relevant sections of the meeting.
American Chemical Society 21 C-to-C Liaison Collaborative Working Relationship Can be generated from shared common goals with other committees. –Joint Sub-committees? Assign an interested representative (liaison) to the working group with clear understanding of the desired outcome. Make sure that liaison reports back to the committee. Provide talking points for each meeting to support discussion. Rotate coordination between committees.
American Chemical Society 22 C-to-C Liaison Short Term Assignment May be useful for special project or anniversary celebration. Must define time of interaction and specific outcome. Is often effective in subcommittees. Make sure that final report is presented to committee.
American Chemical Society 23 Identifying the Need for Liaisons Develop approximately 5 committee goals for the year. Make the goals known to committee members, including liaisons. Use ACS staff liaison (and your knowledge and network) to identify other committees that can contribute to the goals or share areas of mutual interest. Select the type of liaison that best fits the situation. Find a suitable person within the committee to serve as the liaison. (Optional: Establish a liaison coordinator if you have many liaisons.)
American Chemical Society 24 C-to-C Liaisons Reminders As new chairs of committees you have the unique opportunity to evaluate existing liaisons for your committee. –Their historic purposes? –Effectiveness? –Can the relationships be improved? –Do you need them all, every year? –Do you have all the liaisons that needed?
Activity – Do I need new liaisons? American Chemical Society 25 Work with your staff liaison. Make a list of 1-2 goals that you want to achieve as new committee chair. Discuss if other committees can help you with these goals. Discuss if the appointment of liaisons with other committees would be useful to facilitate the accomplishment of the goals.
American Chemical Society 26 Liaison Duties (your liaisons to other committees) Specific details of the liaison arrangement need to be made with the other Chair. Liaisons must know why they are liaisons and what their assignment entails. Liaisons should present a useful report and assessment to the parent committee.
American Chemical Society Liaison Duties (liaisons from other committees) Specific details of the liaison arrangement need to be made with the other Chair. Liaisons must know to what extent they are expected to participate in your committee. Liaisons from other committees may report to your committee in a variety of ways. Liaison reports should be integrated into the agenda, not an after-thought.
American Chemical Society 28 Get the Best of the Relationship Define expectations/outcomes for each liaison assignment. Communicate with liaisons before each meeting to articulate meeting objectives and issues. Include liaisons in relevant discussions between meetings. Encourage and incorporate written liaison reports in the agenda book. Include oral liaison reports only when these address issues being considered. Schedule these with related action items or reports. Do not cluster liaison reports out of context at the end of the meeting. Review existing liaison assignments on an annual basis.
American Chemical Society Committee Reports and Reporting Requirements New Committee Chair Training January 2014
American Chemical Society 30 Committees Reports and Reporting Requirements Committees are grouped into three broad categories when it comes to reporting: Committees reporting to the Board of Directors. Committees reporting to the Council. Committees reporting to both the Board of Directors and the Council.
American Chemical Society 31 Committees Reporting to the Board (Standing) Audits Board of Trustees, Group Insurance Plans for ACS Members (BOT) Corporation Associates (CA) Executive Compensation (CEC) Governing Board for Publishing (GBP) Governing Board for ACS Green Chemistry Institute ® (GCI) Grants and Awards (G&A)
American Chemical Society 32 Committees Reporting to the Board (Standing) Pensions and Investments (P&I) Petroleum Research Fund Advisory Board (PRF) –to G&A Planning Professional & Member Relations (P&MR) Public Affairs & Public Relations (PA&PR) –PA&PR Subcommittee on National Historic Chemical Landmarks (NHCL)
Committees Reporting to the Council (Elected) Committees on Committees (ConC) Council Policy (CPC) Nominations and Elections (N&E) American Chemical Society 33
Committees Reporting to the Council (Standing) Constitution & Bylaws (C&B) Divisional Activities (DAC) Economic and Professional Affairs (CEPA) Local Section Activities (LSAC) Membership Affairs (MAC) Meetings and Expositions (M&E) American Chemical Society 34
Committees Reporting to the Council (Other) American Chemical Society 35 Analytical Reagents (CAR) Ethics (ETHICS) Nomenclature, Terminology and Symbols (NTS) Project SEED (SEED) Technician Affairs (CTA)
Committees Reporting to the Board and Council (Society) Budget & Finance (B&F) Education (SOCED) American Chemical Society 36
Committees Reporting to the Board and Council (Joint Board-Council) Chemical Abstracts Service (CCAS) Chemical Safety (CCS) Chemistry and Public Affairs (CCPA) Chemists with Disabilities (CWD) Community Activities (CCA) Environmental Improvement (CEI) International Activities (IAC) Minority Affairs (CMA) American Chemical Society 37
Committees Reporting to the Board and Council (Joint Board-Council) American Chemical Society 38 Patents and Related Matters (CP&RM) Professional Training (CPT) Publications (PUBS) Public Relations and Communications (CPRC) Science (COMSCI) Senior Chemists (SCC) Women Chemists (WCC) Younger Chemists (YCC)
American Chemical Society 39 Drafting Committee Reports Five Types of Committee Reporting Documents: Committee Written Report for Council Agenda Committee Oral Report to Council Committee Written Report to the Board of Directors Committee Minutes C&EN Short Report
Preparing Committee Reports – Written & Oral to the Council Key Documents: CPC Policy on Reports to Council Guidelines for Visual Presentations to Council Committee Reports and Reporting Checklist American Chemical Society 40
Committee Report – Council Meetings How often do committees report to the Council? Per ACS Bylaws: Elected, Standing, and Society committees report orally and in writing at each meeting of the Council. Other and Joint Board Council committees are expected to report at least once a year. –Oral reports are presented at meetings of Council by… committees who have submitted written reports that are included in the Council agenda. CPC Policy on Reports to ACS Council American Chemical Society 41
American Chemical Society 42 Preparing Written Committee Reports for the Council Written reports: are part of the printed or official records of the Council meetings as described in the bylaws describe major initiatives and/or accomplishments since the last report and their impact on the Society are no more than two single-spaced pages, with topic headings where appropriate direct Councilors to sources of additional information such as websites, when appropriate
Preparing Oral Committee Reports for Council Meetings Oral reports: Highlight major accomplishments that have occurred since the last written report was prepared. They may describe future activities when those activities could significantly impact the membership and /or Society operations. American Chemical Society 43
Preparing Oral Committee Reports for Council Meetings Oral reports: Must be less than three minutes in duration and less than 450 words in length unless specifically approved by CPC. Should not convey information that is available elsewhere or chronicle committee activities. Personal references and tributes to individuals are not appropriate. American Chemical Society 44
Preparing Oral Committee Reports for Council Meetings Oral reports: Are presented at meetings of the Council by committees which have submitted written reports that are included in the Council agenda. Additional oral reports may be authorized by CPC when appropriate for Council action. American Chemical Society 45
Preparing Oral Committee Reports for Council Meetings Oral reports: Should include visual aids that summarize the major points of the report and reduce presentation time. Are provided to the Secretary of CPC with any visual aids in electronic format no later than the afternoon before CPC meetings. American Chemical Society 46
Guidelines for Visual Presentations to Council Visuals are required to be in the form of PowerPoint presentations using the ACS template in horizontal landscape. Titles should be large (36-40 point); the body copy should be 24 point or greater. If you cannot read your presentation on a laptop screen from 10 feet away, it will not be legible to the audience. Use key words to help audience focus; avoid complete sentences. See Guidelines for Visual Presentations to Council for additional information. American Chemical Society 47
Committee Reports After the Council Meeting: Committee reports are posted on acs.org/council Shortened versions of the reports are printed in C&EN as information for the Society membership. American Chemical Society 48
Committee Reporting – Board of Directors How often do committees report to the Board of Directors? Society Committees and some Standing Committees (G&A, P&MR, PA&PR) report at each meeting in writing, and orally when there is a request for Board action. Other Standing Committees and Joint Board- Council Committees report in writing at least once per year, and orally when there is a request for Board action. American Chemical Society 49
Committee Minutes Permanent record of what occurred at the meeting Potential legal significance In some states, they are required for boards and some committees Per ACS bylaws the Standing Committees (MAC, M&E, C&B, LSAC, DAC, CEPA) must elect a secretary American Chemical Society 50
Committee Minutes What Purpose Do Minutes Serve? to transcribe into permanent and official form the actions at a board [committee] [The Law of Associations] Prove that a meeting was valid Admissible in court as evidence of what action was taken: Burden is on the person attacking accuracy of minutes in legal proceeding American Chemical Society 51
Committee Minutes What is the procedure? Standard practice among nonprofits: prepare minutes after meeting and have approved at subsequent meeting … but its not required. Approving minutes isnt same as approving actions… it merely says that the minutes were an appropriate record of the meeting. American Chemical Society 52
Committee Minutes - Types Some minutes are very short, reflecting only adopted motions –Brief and legal –Lack of usefulness as record Some are almost verbatim transcripts –Help as historical record –Certain details are helpful legally (due process) –Can be mischaracterized in legal action American Chemical Society 53
Committee Minutes – Compromise Intermediate approach –summary of issues discussed –summary of actions taken –not a record of who said what –attach (and cite) formal/lengthy documents –use agenda as basis for headings –keep the form the same each time –include self-serving legal statements American Chemical Society 54
Committee Minutes – Include Date, time and place of meeting Whether meeting is special or regular Names of attendees Whether quorum was present Departures and reentries of attendees Actions taken If requested, who voted no or abstained Brief summary of reports (or reference attached reports) American Chemical Society 55
C&EN Short Report - Description Condensed committee report of key actions and discussions that occurred at the meeting Key information for the Society membership Generally 250 words in length Due ~ 10 days after the national meeting American Chemical Society 56
Committee Report Summary Remember to report at one of the two Council meetings per year. Avoid repeating information in the oral report that has already appeared in the written report. Refer to the Committee Reports and Reporting Checklist when preparing the report Remember minutes have potential legal significance. American Chemical Society 57
Committees Reports and Reporting Requirements Reminder: Your staff liaison is trained on how to prepare committee reports and can either prepare a draft for you, or aid you or the secretary of the committee in preparing a draft. American Chemical Society 58
Committees Reports and Reporting Requirements Discussion/Questions? American Chemical Society 59
American Chemical Society Committee Budgets Flint H. Lewis Staff Liaison, ConC ACS Secretary and General Counsel January 24, 2014
American Chemical Society 61 Committee Budgets: Responsibilities for Budgeting Budget & Finance (B&F) ACS Treasurers Office ACS Division Director Staff Liaison Committee Chairs
American Chemical Society 62 Committee Budgets: Background ACS Board Chair initiated a committee budget review in B&F Subcommittee on Committee Budgets established in –Reviewed current process for budgeting and accountability for committee budgets. –Identified ways to increase transparency. –Encouraged judicious fiscal behavior. –Discussed enhancements/improvements to the budget process.
American Chemical Society 63 Committee Budgets: B&F Subcommittee Review & Observations Reviewed three-year financial trend data ( ) for 54 governance budgets. –Requested additional information on 14 governance budgets. Travel and professional services account for more than 75% of total committee expenses. Historically, committee budgets have provided for full capacity, rather than a most-likely scenario, leading to sizeable favorable variances. –Reductions made in the probable projections as actual events unfold. Committee Chairs werent always included in the budgeting process.
American Chemical Society 64 Committee Budgets: B&F Subcommittee Recommendations Committee budget discussions include explanations of budget assumptions. Travel and professional services accounts should be zero-based. –Use of virtual meetings encouraged to control costs. Staff liaisons will consult the Committee Chair during the budget preparation process.
American Chemical Society 65 Committee Budgets: B&F Subcommittee Recommendations Staff liaisons will include the committees final approved budget in each agenda book. A summary, by committee, of Governance Net Expenses will be included in the B&F and Board of Directors budget books. Finance staff will provide training to new staff liaisons regarding Committee budgeting procedures and guidelines.
American Chemical Society 66 Budgetary Needs Vary by committee mission, charter –Travel and professional services. –Oversight responsibilities. –Products of committee work. Special projects of the committee Program Budgets –Administered by staff unit. –Budget is not under the purview of the committee.
American Chemical Society 67 Committee Budgets: Travel Reimbursement All costs for travel reimbursement for committee meetings held at National Meetings will be budgeted by the Secretarys Office. –COUNCILORS TRAVEL EXPENSE PROGRAM –NON-COUNCILORS TRAVEL REIMBURSEMENT Committee budgets should include travel reimbursement only for committee meetings held outside of National Meetings (zero-based).
American Chemical Society 68 Non-Councilor Reimbursement Policy Partially conforms to the already established Councilor Travel Expense Program. Support non-Councilor attendance at committee meetings and participation in Society governance during national meetings. Provide financial support for: –Ordinary and necessary transportation –Lodging –Meal expenses
American Chemical Society 69 Non-Councilor Reimbursement Policy Committees covered: Other Committees of Council Analytical Reagents Ethics Project SEED Technician Affairs
American Chemical Society 70 Non-Councilor Reimbursement Policy Committees covered: Joint Board-Council Chemical Abstracts Service Chemical Safety Chemistry and Public Affairs Community Activities Environmental Improvement International Activities Minority Affairs Patents & Related Matters Publications Public Relations & Communications Science Senior Chemists Women Chemists
American Chemical Society 71 Non-Councilor Reimbursement Policy Council Standing Constitution and Bylaws Divisional Activities Economic and Professional Affairs Local Section Activities Meetings and Expositions Membership Affairs Committees unaffected (Councilors only): Council Elected Committees Council Policy Nominations and Elections
American Chemical Society 72 Non-Councilor Reimbursement Policy Committees currently budgeting for reimbursement of non-Councilors at levels other than policy: Budget and Finance Chemists with Disabilities Education Nomenclature, Terminology and Symbols Professional Training Younger Chemists
American Chemical Society 73 Non-Councilor Reimbursement Policy Submitting a request for support. Filing of the completed ACS travel expense reimbursement voucher. Staff liaison Secretarys office
American Chemical Society 74 Members, Associates, Consultants, and ConC Liaisons who are COUNCILORS Members, Associates, and Consultants who are NON-COUNCILORS ACS National Meetings TransportationYes Lodging and Meals Committee and Subcommittee Sessions Yes Remainder of National Meeting YesNo National Meeting Registration Fee Yes Council MeetingYesNo Elsewhere TransportationYes Lodging and MealsYes Maximum allowable Reimbursement Spring - $ Fall- $ Yearly Total - $ Spring - $ Fall- $ Yearly Total- $
American Chemical Society 75 Society Program Portfolio Management (SPPM)
76 American Chemical Society Robert's Rules of Order Flint H. Lewis ConC Staff Liaison ACS Secretary New Chairs Training January 24-26, 2014
77 American Chemical Society ACS Committees: The Big Picture ACS governed by the Board and Council Boards charge: shall have, hold, and administer all the property, funds, and affairs of the Society [Const. Art. VIII] Council: the popular deliberative assembly [Const. Art. VII] – a forum for member issues – specific duties re: elections, dues, amending governing documents
78 American Chemical Society Why Care About Structure? Committees help boards to be more efficient, more active, and more knowledgeable and to distribute work evenly among members…Organizations with an effective committee structure are more likely to have satisfied board members who feel they are making tangible and meaningful contributions… [Nonprofit Board Committees E. Hirzy]
79 American Chemical Society Committee, Defined …a body of one or more persons, elected or appointed by an assembly or society, to consider, investigate, or take action on certain matters or subjects, or to do all of these things. [Roberts Rules]
80 American Chemical Society Role of Committees A board of directors normally conducts its business through a well-organized committee structure that partitions the work of the board and allows directors to make maximum use of their expertise. It is a matter of time and efficiency as well as expertise. [Corporate Governance p.44]
81 American Chemical Society Committee Authority Committee authority isnt unlimited… …Be sure your committee has authority to consider/act upon specific issues Limitations on a committees ability to act: –Bylaws –Duties in Bulletin V –Resolution creating committee
Why Should I Care About Roberts Rules? Leadership Fairness Efficiency 82 American Chemical Society
Henry M. Robert (1837–1923) & His Rules –What do I do now!? –Adapted from rules of Congress –Purpose? Allow majority to effectively work its will … –…with due respect for rights of strong minorities –Universally accepted rules of procedure 83 American Chemical Society
Know the Basics –Basics: How motions are made How votes are taken Know the sequence for consideration –Why the basics? ACS operates on consensus……and prefers informal procedures Strict application perceived negatively 84 American Chemical Society
Sequence for Consideration 85 American Chemical Society –Motion made –Second –State the motion –Debate –Vote –Announce the vote –Motion made –Second –State the motion –Debate –Vote –Announce the vote Mover controls Committee controls
Amendments –Amendment = secondary motion –Follow the sequence for consideration –Deal with amendment first, then the underlying motion –If you approve an amendment: also vote on the underlying motion as amended (i.e. 2 votes are needed to adopt the motion as amended) 86 American Chemical Society
Special Rules for Committees 87 American Chemical Society …motions to close or limit debate are not allowed in committees. [p. 483] Informal discussion of a subject is permitted while no motion is pending [p. 470] Members are not required to obtain the floor before making motions or speaking [p. 470]
Chairs Role in Committees Roberts: Chair not only has the right to make and debate motions, but he is usually the most active participant in the discussion and work of the committee [p. 483] ACS Practice: Chairs vote, but exercise caution in expressing strong views or speaking too often. 88 American Chemical Society
Mistake? Motion to Reconsider Characteristics –Timing (any time in committees) –Who can move? –Must be seconded –Debatable (if…) –Effect of adoption (back to square one) 89 American Chemical Society Purpose –correction of hasty, ill- advised, or erroneous action –New info/changed circumstances