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© 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1-1.

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1 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1-1

2 1-2 6: Consumer Buying Behavior Part 3: Customer Behavior and E-Marketing © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

3 1-3 Recognize the stages of the consumer buying decision process Understand the types of consumer decision making and the level of involvement Explore how situational influences may affect the consumer buying decision process Understand the psychological influences that may affect the consumer buying decision process Examine the social influences that may affect the consumer buying decision process Examine consumer misbehavior

4 1-4 Buying behavior: The decision processes and actions of people involved in buying and using products Consumer buying behavior: The decision processes and purchasing activities of people who purchase products for personal or household use and not for business purposes © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

5 1-5 Five stages 1.Problem recognition 2.Information search 3.Evaluation of alternatives 4.Purchase 5.Post-purchase evaluation © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

6 1-6

7 1-7 Occurs when a buyer becomes aware of a difference between a desired state and an actual condition Speed of consumer problem recognition can be rapid or slow Some consumers are unaware of their problems or needs © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

8 1-8 After recognizing the problem, consumers seek to satisfy their need © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Search for Information External Search Internal Search

9 1-9 Internal search Buyers search their memories for information about products that might solve their problem External search When an internal search is not sufficient, consumers seek additional information from outside sources Personal contacts are often important The Internet is a major information source © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

10 1-10 Consideration set (Evoked set): A group of brands within a particular product category that the buyer views as alternatives for possible purchase Evaluative criteria: Objective and subjective product characteristics that are important to the buyer Marketers can influence customers by framing the alternatives © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

11 1-11 Click here to learn about a Dove body wash producthere What problem does this product solve? How does it work differently than other cleansers on the market? What claims does this website and video make about the product?

12 1-12 The buyer Chooses the product or brand to be purchased Product availability may influence the decision Selects the seller Negotiates the terms of the transaction Makes the actual purchase or terminates the process © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

13 1-13 After purchase, the buyer evaluates the product Does its actual performance meet expected levels? Buyer is either satisfied or dissatisfied Cognitive dissonance: A buyers doubts shortly after a purchase about whether the decision was the right one Often occurs after expensive, high- involvement purchases © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

14 1-14 An individuals degree of interest in a product and the importance of the product for that person Enduring involvement: Ongoing and long- term involvement with a product or product category Situational involvement: Temporary and dynamic involvement resulting from a particular set of circumstances © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

15 1-15 High-involvement products Products that are visible to others and/or are expensive e.g. a home, a new car Low-involvement products Products that tend to be less expensive and have less associated social risk e.g. grocery items, a T-shirt © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

16 1-16 Which of the following are high-involvement products? Which are low-involvement? Tennis shoes A new laptop Bottled water A designer handbag A used car Do you think the level of involvement for some products changes with consumer income level?

17 1-17 Routinized response: Used when buying frequently purchased, low-cost items that require very little search-and-decision effort Limited decision making: Utilized when buying products occasionally, or when one needs to obtain information about an unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category Extended decision making: Occurs when purchasing unfamiliar, expensive, or infrequently bought items Impulse buying: Involves no conscious planning; is a powerful urge to buy something immediately © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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19 1-19 Result from circumstances, time, and location that affect the consumer buying decision process Can influence the decision making process at any stage Five categories of situational influences 1.Physical surroundings 2.Social surroundings 3.Time perspective 4.Reason for purchase 5.Buyers mood and condition © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

20 1-20 Partly influence peoples general behavior Primary psychological influences on consumer behavior are Perception Motives Learning Attitudes Personality and self-concept Lifestyles Operate on buyers internally, but are acted on by outside forces © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

21 1-21 Selecting, organizing, and interpreting information to product meaning Information inputs: Sensations received through sight, taste, hearing, smell, and touch Advertisers are increasingly taking a multisensory approach, even using scents © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

22 1-22 1 3 2 Selective Exposure Selective Distortion Selective Retention

23 1-23 Selective exposure: An individual selects which inputs, usually relating to strongest needs, will reach awareness We cannot be conscious of all inputs at one time Selective distortion: Changing or twisting received information Occurs when a person receives information inconsistent with personal feelings or beliefs Selective retention: Remembering information inputs that support personal feelings and beliefs and forgetting inputs that do not © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

24 1-24 Motive: An internal energizing force that directs a persons behavior toward satisfying needs or achieving goals Patronage motives: Influence where a person purchases products on a regular basis © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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26 1-26 Changes in an individuals thought processes and behavior caused by information and experience Sources of learning Behavioral consequences Information processing Experience © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

27 1-27 An individuals enduring evaluation of feelings about and behavioral tendencies toward an object or idea Can be positive or negative Tend to be stable in the short term Individuals acquire attitudes through experience and interactions Attitude scale: A means of measuring consumer attitudes by gauging the intensity of individuals reactions to adjectives, phrases, or sentences about an object © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

28 1-28 Three major components of attitude Cognitive: Knowledge and information Affective: Feelings and emotions Behavioral: Actions regarding the object or idea © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

29 1-29 A set of internal traits and distinct behavioral tendencies that result in consistent patterns of behavior Marketers take aim at personality types in their campaigns Self-concept (Self-image): Ones view of ones self Closely linked to personality type © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

30 1-30 An individuals pattern of living expressed through activities, interests, and opinions Strongly influences the buying decision process Product needs Brand preferences Types of media How and where one shops Many marketers segment markets by lifestyle © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

31 1-31 A survey developed by SRI Consulting Business Intelligence Divides people into eight groups 1.Innovators5. Believers 2.Thinkers6. Strikers 3.Achievers7. Makers 4.Experiencers8. Survivors © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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33 1-33 Roles Family influences Reference groups Opinion leaders Digital networks Social classes Cultures and subcultures © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

34 1-34 The forces other people exert on ones buying behavior Roles: Actions and activities that a person in a particular position is supposed to perform based on expectations of the individual and surrounding persons Family influences: Have a direct impact on the buying decision process Consumer socialization: The process through which a person acquires the knowledge and skills to function as a consumer © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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36 1-36 Reference group: A group with which a person strongly identifies; adopts the values, attitudes, and behavior of group members Types of reference groups Membership Aspirational Dissociative © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

37 1-37 Opinion leader: A member of an informal group who provides information about a specific topic to other group members Likely to be most influential in high product involvement situations Social class: An open aggregate of people with similar social rank People can move in and out of different groups People within a class tend to have similar attitudes, values, language patterns, and possessions Class affects shopping patterns and types of stores frequented © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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39 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1-39

40 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1-40

41 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1-41

42 1-42 The accumulation of values, knowledge, beliefs, customs, objects, and concepts that a society uses to cope with its environment and passes on to future generations Subculture: A group of individuals whose characteristics, values, and behavior patterns are similar within the group and different from those of the surrounding culture © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

43 1-43 Different ethnic groups have increased their buying power over time How will changes in the nations cultural make-up affect marketing activities? Source: Despite Recession, Hispanic and Asian Buying Power Expected to Surge in U.S., According to Annual UGA Selig Center Multicultural Economy Study, Terry College of Business, November 4, 2010, www.terry.uga.edu/news/releases/2010/minority-buying-power-report.html (accessed June 28, 2011).

44 1-44 Behavior that violates generally accepted norms of a particular society Shoplifting Organized retail crime Consumer fraud Piracy of digital media Abusive consumers © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

45 1-45 Buying behaviorLimited decision making Consumer buying behaviorExtended decision making Consumer buying decision process Impulse buying Internal searchSituational influences External searchPsychological influences Consideration setPerception Evaluative criteriaInformational inputs Cognitive dissonanceSelective exposure Level of involvementSelective distortion Routinized response behaviorSelective retention

46 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1-46 MotiveSocial influences Maslows hierarchy of needs Roles Patronage motivesConsumer socialization LearningReference group AttitudeOpinion leader Attitude scaleSocial class PersonalityCulture Self-conceptSubculture LifestyleConsumer misbehavior


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