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Universal Design, Accessibility, Bias and Sensitivity Considerations.

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Presentation on theme: "Universal Design, Accessibility, Bias and Sensitivity Considerations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Universal Design, Accessibility, Bias and Sensitivity Considerations

2 Quality of Measurement High Quality Evidence Lower Quality Evidence Item or Task

3 Accessibility Bias Sensitivity Sensory or Learning Disability English Language Proficiency

4 Jimmy is the star on his football team. This season he scored ten touchdowns, kicked twenty extra points, and had eight field goals. What is the total number of points Jimmy has scored this season? Jimmy is the star on his football team. This season he scored ten touchdowns, kicked twenty extra points, and had eight field goals. What is the total number of points Jimmy has scored this season? What is this question asking me? What is a field goal? 104

5 Keys to Accessing Assessment Targets Universal Design Bias Sensitivity Accessibility

6 Universal Design Universal design is the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design. – Ron Mace

7 Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Universal Design does not imply one size fits all but rather acknowledges the need for alternatives to suit many different peoples needs. … the essence of UDL is flexibility and the inclusion of alternatives to adapt to the myriad variations in learner needs, styles, and preferences. – Rose and Meyer

8 Universal Design and Assessment Jimmy is the star on his football team. This season he scored ten touchdowns, kicked twenty extra points, and had eight field goals. What is the total number of points Jimmy has scored this season? Jimmy is the star on his football team. This season he scored ten touchdowns, kicked twenty extra points, and had eight field goals. What is the total number of points Jimmy has scored this season? Jimmy has been searching a park for coins. He found ten nickels, twenty pennies, and eight dimes. What is the total amount of money Jimmy found? Jimmy has been searching a park for coins. He found ten nickels, twenty pennies, and eight dimes. What is the total amount of money Jimmy found? Jimmy has been searching a park for coins. He found ten nickels, twenty pennies, and eight dimes. What is the total amount of money Jimmy found? Jimmy has been searching a park for coins. He found ten nickels, twenty pennies, and eight dimes. What is the total amount of money Jimmy found? Jimmy has been searching a park for coins…

9 How an Item Functions Present Information Stimulate Construct Produce Response Produce Visible Product of Construct Produce Score Measure of Construct Make Inference Statement About Construct Interact with Content Apply Construct 4 × 8 4 x 8 ? 4 x 8 ? 4 x x 8 32 Correct = 1 point Beth achieved the assessment target.

10 Present Information Stimulate Construct Produce Response Visible Product of Construct Quantitative Score Measure of Construct Inference Statement About Construct Interact with Content Apply Construct Barriers to Valid Measurement Inaccurate receipt or interpretation of stimulus What is a field goal? Challenges interacting with content Inaccurate production or recording of response Inaccurate interpretation of student response

11 4 Challenges to Accessibility Review 1.Inaccurate receipt or interpretation of stimulus 2.Interacting with content 3.Inaccurate production or recording of response 4.Inaccurate interpretation of response

12 Universal Design Provides Foundation for Accessible Assessment

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16 One Size Does Not Fit All

17 Universal Design Provides Foundation for Accessible Assessment Braille One Size Does Not Fit All

18 Universal Design Provides Foundation for Accessible Assessment BrailleRead Aloud One Size Does Not Fit All

19 Universal Design Provides Foundation for Accessible Assessment BrailleRead Aloud Translation One Size Does Not Fit All

20 Universal Design Provides Foundation for Accessible Assessment BrailleRead Aloud ASLTranslation One Size Does Not Fit All

21 Universal Design Provides Foundation for Accessible Assessment BrailleRead Aloud ASLTranslation One Size Does Not Fit All

22 Bias Bias occurs when content contained in an item or task creates an unfair disadvantage for a sub-group of students – Unfamiliar contexts or examples – Unusual names of people or places – References to local events or issues

23 Sensitivity Sensitivity focuses on content that creates unease, provokes negative feelings, or challenges beliefs or values – Religions, religious practices, and religious figures – Political topics – Issues of gender, race, ethnicity, and culture

24 Accessibility Extensions Audio presentation of text-based content Audio descriptions of graphics Braille presentation of text-based content Tactile presentation of graphics Signed presentation of text-based content Presentation of content in another language

25 Examples of Accessibility Guidelines Only use graphics when necessary Avoid idioms, jargon, and terminology that is difficult to translate Clearly label all graphics Keep tables as simple as possible

26 Accessibility Considerations Vision Cognitive Load Language Motor Skills

27 Vision Minimize the use of graphics Simplify the complexity of graphics Simplify the complexity of tables

28 Cognitive Load Minimize the amount of information contained in an item Simplify the layout of an item Avoid items that spread information across multiple pages or screens In school, Myra uses a desktop computer. Myras mother began a new job and received a laptop computer. Myras mothers laptop screen seems smaller than the computer Myra uses at school. What is the area, in square inches, of the laptop screen as shown in the picture? 13 8 The diagram below shows the dimensions for a computer screen. What is the area of the screen, in square inches? Dimensions of Screen 13 8

29 Language Simplify vocabulary Simplify sentence structure Avoid unusual names, places, and terms Place problems in familiar contexts such as school-based activities or settings Paris went on a trip to Belgium and bought a large box of chocolates containing 36 pieces that she wants to share evenly with her three friends. How many pieces will each friend receive? Maria has 36 pieces of candy. Maria wants to share the pieces evenly with three friends. How many pieces will each friend receive?

30 Motor Skills Limit the number of required manipulations Avoid precise manipulations such as selecting a single point in a graph Minimize the length of constructed-responses The drawings below show four different ways of dividing a rectangle into equal sized sections and shading the equivalent of 1/3 of the sections. One of drawings is inaccurate. Place the inaccurate drawing into the trash can. The drawings below show four different ways of dividing a rectangle into equal sized sections and shading the equivalent of 1/3 of the sections. One of drawings is inaccurate. Select the drawing that is inaccurate. AB CD

31 Guidelines for Universally Designed Items and Tasks Simplify vocabulary and sentence structure Place problems in familiar contexts with familiar items and names Use graphics only when necessary Simplify graphics and tables Avoid the use of color and maximize contrast Avoid content that spans multiple pages or that contains multiple elements Use highly interactive manipulations only when necessary Identify terms and visuals that should not be altered


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