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P ROBABILITY & S TATISTICS Course Review

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T HE I DEA OF P ROBABILITY According to the Book of Odds, the probability that a randomly selected U.S. adult usually eats breakfast is 0.61. a) Explain what probability 0.61 means in this setting. b) Why doesnt this probability say that if 100 U.S. adults are chosen at random, exactly 61 of them usually eats breakfast?

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P ROBABILITY M ODELS Create a probability distribution for the event: You roll two 6-sided die and add the numbers. P(5) = P(not 5) = P(6) =

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M UTUALLY E XCLUSIVE OR D ISJOINT

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A PPLYING P ROBABILITY R ULES Age of Those Enrolled in Distance-learning Courses Age (yr):18 to 2324 to 2930 to 3940+ Probability:0.570.170.140.12 a) Why is this a legitimate probability model? b) P(not 18 to 23) =

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A PPLYING P ROBABILITY R ULES ( CONT.) A = cholesterol of 240mg or above B = cholesterol of 200mg to 239mg P(A) = 0.16P(B) = 0.29 a) Why are events A and B mutually exclusive? b) P(A or B) = c) What does P(A or B) mean? d) P(cholesterol below 200) =

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T WO - WAY T ABLES Pierced Ears GenderYesNo Male1971 Female844 a) P(pierced ears) = b) P(male with pierced ears) = c) P(male or pierced ears) =

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V ENN D IAGRAMS In an apartment complex, 40% of residents read USA Today. Only 25% read the New York Times. Five percent of residents read both papers. a) Make a two-way table b) Make a Venn diagram c) P(reads at least one newspaper) = d) P(does not read newspaper) =

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C ONDITIONAL P ROBABILITY Pierced Ears GenderYesNo Male1971 Female844 a) P(male | pierced ears) = b) P(pierced ears | male) =

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C ONDITIONAL P ROBABILITY ( CONT.) Grade Average SchoolABBelow B Liberal Arts214218902268 Physical Sciences368432800 Social Sciences882630588 a) P(below B) = b) P(physical science | below B) = c) P(below B | physical science) =

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I NDEPENDENCE Dominant Hand GenderRightLeft Male203 Female234 Are the events male and left-handed independent?

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M ORE I NDEPENDENCE In a deck of cards… Are 1 st card is a heart and 2 nd card is a heart independent? Is this still true if you put the 1 st card back in the deck and reshuffle after looking at it?

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T REE D IAGRAM (M ULTIPLICATION R ULE ) A company makes desktops and laptops in three different states. California produces 40% of the computers, Texas makes 25%, and New York makes the rest. Of the computers made in California, 75% are laptops. Of those made in Texas and New York, 70% and 50%, respectively, are laptops. Make a tree diagram. P(laptop) =

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C HAPTER 15 Probability Rules! "We figured the odds as best we could, and then we rolled the dice." U.S. President Jimmy Carter, June 10,1976.

C HAPTER 15 Probability Rules! "We figured the odds as best we could, and then we rolled the dice." U.S. President Jimmy Carter, June 10,1976.

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