4Revision of the previous session What is English civil law and how do we classify it?What is a tort? How are torts regulated in English law?What is the job of the court in tort cases?Can the same act be considered a crime and be subject to a civil lawsuit? ElaborateWhat are the available remedies in torts?What does compensation include?
5Explain the following terms NUISANCE v. TRESPASS TO LANDSLANDER v. LIBELASSAULT v. BATTERYTRESPASS TO CHATTELS v. CONVERSIONCONVERSION v. THEFTDAMAGE v. DAMAGESLOSS OF EARNINGS v. LOSS OF EARNING CAPACITY
7Definition of contract Think about the following questions:What is a contract?How does it differ from a regular agreement?In what situations do we enter into contracts?
8Definition of contract A contract can be defined as:a legally binding agreement between two or more parties which the courts will enforceIn order for an agreement to be considered a contract it must meet certain essential requirements.
9Elements of a contract The four essential elements of contract are: OfferAcceptanceConsiderationLegal Capacity and IntentionIn addition to these, certain other elements need to be present as well.
10Offer and Acceptanceone party must have made a binding offer to another, containing the basic terms of the agreementif the other party accepts the offer with all the basic terms a contract is formed (unqualified acceptance)
11Offer and AcceptanceIf the other party tries to negotiate by suggesting different terms, this is referred to as a qualified acceptanceA qualified acceptance does not result in a contract, but constitutes a counter- offerIf, in turn, the other party gives unqualified acceptance to the counter- offer, a contract is formed
12Offer and Acceptance Possible issues that may arise: Was there an unqualified acceptance?Was the acceptance communicated?In some cases, acceptance does not even have to be communicated – it is implied from conduct (e.g. the everyday situation of buying a product in a retail store)
13ConsiderationRefers to the promise between the contracting parties to give each other something of valuee.g. goods, price paid for the goods, service, etc.In addition, the object of the contract must not be disapproved by the law
14Legal Capacity and Intention The contracting parties must have legal capacity to contract (poslovna sposobnost)Also, intention to create legal relations must be present (this can be disputed if there is evidence to the contrary)
15Additional requirements Contracts can be made orally, although some contracts are only effective if made in writing:contracts for the sale of land,contracts for transfer of shares,hire-purchase contractslease contracts, etc.Contracts must be enforceable – if either party fails to perform the contract, the courts must be able to enforce it
16Defective contracts void voidable unenforceable Contracts which do not meet the requirements can be:voidvoidableunenforceable
17Void contractA void contract is one lacking one of the essential elements, i.e. a contract is not formed at allExamples:one or both parties do not have legal capacitythe object of the contract is illegal
18Voidable contractA voidable contract is a contract which has a defect in its formation and can be cancelled (avoided) by one of the parties if they chooseExamples:terms agreed under duressthere was fraud or misrepresentationone of the parties is a minor
19Unenforceable contract An unenforceable contract is valid but will not be enforced by the courtExamples:promise to pay a gambling debtthe limitation period for bringing action against the breaching party has expired (six years after the breach)
20Available remediesRemedies available in an action for breach of contract are:compensationspecific performancerescission
21Available remedies SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE RESCISSION court ordering the breaching party to perform the contract, i.e. to finish building the houseRESCISSIONthe contract is rescinded (cancelled or annulled) by the court
24Davis v. General Foods Corp. (1937) Facts: P. had an idea for a new food product. P. wrote a letter to D. offering to reveal such idea, and D. responded with a letter stating that they would consider her idea, "but only with the understanding that the use to be made of it by [D.], and the compensation, if any, to be paid therefor, are matters resting solely in our discretion." P. revealed her idea, which D. used, and paid P. no compensation. P. sued.
25Davis v. General Foods Corp. (1937) Nature of the Risk: When a seller discloses an idea after allowing the buyer the unlimited right to determine the price after use of the idea, he assumes the risk that the compensation may be less than he hoped.Issue: Was there an implied promise to pay a reasonable value for the P.'s recipe?
26Davis v. General Foods Corp. (1937) Holding: Where the buyer retains an unlimited right to determine the price of goods, and the seller acts relying upon the good faith and sense of fairness of the buyer to provide reasonable value for the goods, the courts cannot enforce a payment by the buyer.Reasoning: The court reasoned that the wording of the letter was too vague to consider a contract, and that the P. acted voluntarily at the mercy of the D..
27Austin v. Burge (1911)Facts: The Defendant received and read a newspaper over the course of several years. He had at one time subscribed for a two-year period, but claims that after the expiration of those two years, he requested that service be stopped. The Claimant is the newspaper owner, who claims he never received notice of stoppage.Nature of the Risk: In the absence of a contract, the Claimant assumed the risk that the Defendant would not pay for his newspaper.
28Austin v. Burge (1911)Issue: Was there a contract implied by the conduct of the Defendant in reading the newspaper?Holding: One who accepts an unsolicited newspaper, and reads it, is liable for the cost of the newspaper subscription if it is understood that the newspaper is not free.
29Austin v. Burge (1911)Reasoning: The court stated that although one cannot be forced into a contract unilaterally by the newspaper company, the Defendant's actions of reading the newspaper, which he knew was not free, implied that he had to pay for it. The court constructed a quasi- contract due to the Defendant's deriving benefit, and held the Defendant liable for the subscription price.
31The Angry ShopperCharles Tholthorpe bought a cheap, simple laptop at Carmecom Computers on 25 November When he arrived home and turned it on, he discovered that it had a burnt pixel in the middle of the screen. He went back to the shop, asking for a replacement. The salesman refused to replace the laptop, as under the guarantee, replacements are issued only if there are seven or more burnt pixels. This made Mr Tholthorpe angry because if he had known there was a burnt pixel, he would not have bought the laptop.
32The Angry Shopper (cont.) Mr Tholthorpe then asked for a complete refund. This was refused as well. He felt helpless and angry and threatened to write to various Internet mailing lists and post on forums telling people not to buy products from Carmecom and left the shop, leaving the laptop behind. As he walked outside, he noticed many people entering and leaving the shop. He realized that it was the season of Christmas shopping and saw an opportunity for hurting Carmecom.
33The Angry Shopper (cont.) He stood outside the shop and told everyone who wanted to come in exactly what had happened. He told them not to buy anything from Carmecom, that their computers were rubbish. Having seen this, a Carmecom salesman came to him and promised to call his boss to see about a replacement and said that they would contact Mr Tholthorpe within a few days. He asked for his address, which Mr Tholthorpe was only too happy to provide. A few days later, he received a letter...
34The Angry Shopper In your opinion... Is either party at fault in this case?Was a contract formed? Was there a breach of contract?Was a tort committed? By whom?What tort was committed?What arguments wold the claimant have to sustain his case in court?
35Dear Mr TholthorpeOur client: George Hardy, Carmecom Ltd.Your defamatory action of 25 November 2008We represent George Hardy of Carmecom Ltd. in relation to an incident that took place at their store on 25 November 2008.According to our client, you visited his store in a state of some excitement and went directly to the front of a queue of shoppers. You then demanded a refund for a laptop computer you had bought earlier that day.Mr Hardy asked you if you would mind waiting your turn. You then dropped a bag containing the computer onto the cash desk and threatened to send libellous postings to a number of Internet mailing lists. Following this, you left the store shouting various defamatory comments about our client.You remained outside the front entrance of Carmecom and harassed Mr Hardy’s potential customers in an effort to convince them not to enter the store. Based on what our client has learned from some of these customers, it is our understanding that these efforts involved the repetition of a serious of slanderous statements concerning both the quality of Carmecom’s products and their business practices.
36At this point, our client noticed that you were carrying a second bag of similar size and shape to the one containing the computer you had recently bought from Carmecom. The bag was from one of our client’s competitors, who we have learned was selling the same laptop for £150 less than the price you paid for it.Our client believes that he has lost a significant amount of business as a result of your actions. We have advised him that he would be successful in any action against you. In order to avoid such action, please sign and return the enclosed retraction by 15 December If you choose not to sign the retraction, we will be forced to commence proceedings immediately.We look forward to hearing from you.Yours sincerelyJames LottEastwood, Lott and McCarthy Solicitors
37The Angry Shopper What new information do we learn from the letter? What would you advise Mr Tholthorpe to do?