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ENTHALPY OF FORMATION: Combustion of Methanol

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1 ENTHALPY OF FORMATION: Combustion of Methanol
River Dell High School Team A Jason Anesini Alina Kim Jae Noh

2 PURPOSE To construct an alcohol/hydrocarbon-fueled combustion reactor that propels a stopper upwards To determine the optimal way of measuring the energy released in the combustion reaction To determine the enthalpy of formation of methanol

3 EVERYDAY COMBUSTION Fireworks Charcoal Car engines Gasoline

4 COMBUSTION What is combustion? CH3OH(l) + 3/2O2(g)  CO2(g) + 2H2O(g)
Exothermic Reaction Endothermic Reaction Energy released ∆Hp < ∆Hr -∆Hrxn Energy absorbed ∆Hr < ∆Hp +∆Hrxn


6 ENTHALPY Heat of formation Heat of combustion
∆H when one mole of a compound is formed from its elements Standard heat of formation Heat of combustion Heat released in a combustion reaction


8 METHANOL Synthesized from CO and H2
Used as energy source and in many everyday appliances Lowest Ea among alcohols Costs 3x less than ethanol Memorize everyday supplies

9 EXPERIMENT APPARATUS Stopper – with green line
Methanol (stored in Drierite) Nalgene bottle (500 mL) Insulation Bubble wrap Glass fiber Tesla coil Copper wires Drierite is anhydrous calcium sulfate (check) Goes from blue to white (hydrous state)

10 EXPERIMENT APPARATUS Rubber Stopper Tesla Coil Methanol and Drierite
Nalgene Bottle (500mL)

120 f.p.s camera (Sony HDR-SR11) Meter stick Thermometer Laptop Temperature probe Vernier Software: Logger Pro 3.8.4

12 KINETIC ENERGY E = 1/2mv2 Mass of cork (w/ line) before reaction
Film: observe frame-by-frame to find initial velocity

13 KINETIC ENERGY Frame 987 Frame 988

14 HEAT ENERGY q = mCp∆T Variable Air in Bottle Bottle Mass
Volume of bottle and density of air Mass of bottle (without copper wires and insulation) Specific Heat (Cp) At the average temperature of 300C Specific heat of LDPE Temperature Change (∆T) Thermometer Temperature probe (laptop) Separately discuss insulation if necessary

15 RESULTS Total energy: kinetic energy & heat energy
Cork Air in bottle Bottle Heat energy represented the majority of total energy Equations in appendix were imported into Excel to make the spreadsheet


17 DATA ANALYSIS Experimental ∆Hf of methanol: -535kJ/mol
Theoretical ∆Hf of methanol: kJ/mol 124% error Small ∆Hc results in large experimental ∆Hf ΔHc = [ΔHf (CO) + 2ΔHf (H20)] – [ΔHf (CH3OH)] Experimental ∆Hf is “more” than theoretical because experimental heat of combustion is low (“inverse relationship”)

Characteristic Complete Combustion Incomplete Combustion Limiting Reagent Methanol Oxygen gas Formula CH3OH + 3/2O2  CO2 + 2H2O CH3OH + O2  CO + 2H2O Products Carbon dioxide gas Carbon monoxide gas (poisonous)

19 ADDRESSED PROBLEMS Assumption that total energy transferred to cork
Bottle warm to the touch after reaction Insulation to reduce heat loss to environment Limiting reagent of reaction Volume of methanol used (0.4 mL)

20 CONCLUSION Energy not accounted for
Energy escaped from bottle Multiple revisions to the procedure In the future… Made revision to get to where we are, in the future….blahblahblah -insulated container -low thermal conductivity

21 WORKS CITED Slide 3 – Fireworks. (accessed May 8, 2013). Slide 3 – Car Engine. (accessed May 8, 2013). Slide 5 – Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions. (accessed May 8, 2013). Slide 7 – Methanol Structure. (accessed May 8, 2013). Slide 7 – Methanol Ball-and-Stick Model. (accessed May 8, 2013).

22 TESLA COIL Tesla coils contain a transformer that changes low voltage to high voltage Increases the voltage and frequency When the electrode gets near another surface it discharges onto that surface

23 Incomplete Combustion
Assumption: methanol would combust in complete combustion After experiment: methanol combusted in incomplete combustion Refer to Calculations XII & XIII in Appendix: Part 1

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