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Will the Real Customer Please Stand Up… Designing Services for Twenty-first Century Users ACRL - College Library Section ALA Annual Conference June 16,

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Presentation on theme: "Will the Real Customer Please Stand Up… Designing Services for Twenty-first Century Users ACRL - College Library Section ALA Annual Conference June 16,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Will the Real Customer Please Stand Up… Designing Services for Twenty-first Century Users ACRL - College Library Section ALA Annual Conference June 16, 2002

2 What Matters to College Students? Meeting Them Where They Live Barbara Valentine Reference & Systems Librarian Reference & Systems Librarian Linfield College McMinnville, Oregon

3 Focus Group & Interview Research Selected Writing Intensive classes –1993: 4 history classes –1998: 5 classes: social service, music, art, sociology, politics Interviewed 1/3 of students & course professor –1993: 28 students - 13 Female, 15 male 21 Seniors, 6 Juniors, 1 Sophomore 21 Seniors, 6 Juniors, 1 Sophomore –1998: 31 students - 21 Female, 10 male 13 Seniors, 10 Juniors, 8 Sophomores 13 Seniors, 10 Juniors, 8 Sophomores

4 Focus Group & Interviews Students question guide –Kuhlthaus - Information Search Process –Ask about feelings, thoughts, and actions during beginning, middle, and ending stages of research –Never mention library Instructor questions: –Before: What did they expect from the papers? –After: What was delivered?

5 Relevant Results - Students Students are busy –Academic work: many classes & assignments –Extracurricular clubs & sports –Have jobs on- or off-campus –Learning to manage time as adults

6 Relevant Results - Students Students are practical –Motivated by grades –Focus on What Professor Wants (WPW) –Allot certain amount of time and effort (Commitment) –Want clear, objective guidelines (ex. #pages, sources)

7 Relevant Results - Faculty Teachers goals for research are more abstract –Good independent learning experience –Introduce student to writing of discipline –Opportunity for students to push in new directions – grow, be creative –Grading can be subjective: grade on perceived ability, effort, progress in class

8 Relevant Results A Legitimate Effort – the common ground –Shared understanding - tacit or overt –Students need to focus time effectively –Students may view as kind of contract

9 Relevant Results Agents vs. Recruits –Unequal relationship Agents – set the rulesAgents – set the rules Recruits – follow themRecruits – follow them –Different personal agendas: Students goal to leave (graduate)Students goal to leave (graduate) Agents stay and enhance experienceAgents stay and enhance experience Peer network is very strong

10 Implications for Library Research Strapped for time; consult familiar sources & peopleStrapped for time; consult familiar sources & people Focus on WPWFocus on WPW Want results, not an adventureWant results, not an adventure May consult each other more often than risk an encounter with agentsMay consult each other more often than risk an encounter with agents

11 Web Usability Study Purpose: to help modify current Web pagePurpose: to help modify current Web page Format: 18 questions designed to test specific tasks (Ex. Find the book Moby Dick)Format: 18 questions designed to test specific tasks (Ex. Find the book Moby Dick) Participants recruited via Participants recruited via Who testedWho tested –13 students: approx. even numbers upper & lower classmen –Mostly from social science and science Previous use of Library Web pagesPrevious use of Library Web pages Most rarely or only occasionally used

12 Web Usability Study: Some Results Discoveries about navigation: –Scan pages quickly, superficially - 9 seconds –Look for expected wording; miss relevant stuff –Avoid formal help screens - look for answers among Web pages – trial and error searching –Expect pages to work like other Internet sites: standardized headings, links throughout

13 Web Usability Testing Modified Web Site and Retested –New group of students tested much better –The test itself had educated students to the wealth of resources available via the Web page.

14 21st Century Students Web Searching - DEsposito & Gardner (1999) –Sophisticated Web searchers –Self-sufficient – competent users dont ask –Do not relate Library and Internet –If they ask about Web researching, they ask computer lab assistants, not librarians

15 21st Century Students Yvonna S. Lincoln (2002) –Used to piloting... uncharted waters of cyberspace and feel the physical world is as easily navigated. –Self-reliant- view library control of resources as obstruction…challenge to exploration

16 21st Century Students Research behavior Bibliographies increasing numbers of Web resources, while decreasing numbers of books and journal articlesBibliographies increasing numbers of Web resources, while decreasing numbers of books and journal articles Students use unevaluated Web resourcesStudents use unevaluated Web resources Can bypass traditional scholarly communication process (library) by using InternetCan bypass traditional scholarly communication process (library) by using Internet Instructors and students use the Web for research differentlyInstructors and students use the Web for research differently

17 What is Needed? Understanding of students where they live –Qualitative studies –Informal observation –Presence in campus activities –Tap into peer networks –Janet Cotrell - students as unique constituency

18 What is Needed? Be a Bridge between Faculty and Students –Library instruction at the assignment level when possible - help clarify assignments for students –Discuss changing complexion of research How do instructors do their own researchHow do instructors do their own research Students bypass scholarly process by searching the WebStudents bypass scholarly process by searching the Web Web citations need checkingWeb citations need checking –Offer practical classes for students & faculty MaryAnn Hight MaryAnn Hight

19 What is Needed? Simplicity and focus in reference and teaching –Less is more; hands on when possible –Recognize and build on student expertise –Be available by –Look at 24/7 reference - Rachel Cheng

20 What is Needed? Make library Web sites fit student expectations and mode of learning –Web is their medium; how do they use it –Design so they want to come there –Design to facilitate learning

21 Think Different Cyber generation communicates differently –More communication, less thinking time? –Anywhere, anytime, context shift Knowledge production changing –Fluid, interactive, multimedia, immediate –Citation concept eroding with Web? –Compare traditional scholarly communication

22 Old Thinking If it does not appear in our archives, it does not exist. Librarian Star Wars: Attack of the Clones

23 Think Different Pierre Levy (1997) The emergence of cyberspace does not at all mean that the whole is finally accessible, but rather that the whole is finally out of reach...

24 Think Different Yvonna S. Lincoln (2002) Libraries will need to explore methods and modes of helping which edify the feeling that self-reliant users want.Libraries will need to explore methods and modes of helping which edify the feeling that self-reliant users want. Libraries may have to think of service differently; not as performed, but as performance; not dispensed but enacted as an elaborate cultural ritual, the texture and fabric of which is changing in front of us.Libraries may have to think of service differently; not as performed, but as performance; not dispensed but enacted as an elaborate cultural ritual, the texture and fabric of which is changing in front of us.

25 Supporting the Student Constituency: Being an Advocate Janet R. Cottrell Director of Information Access Kenyon College Gambier, OH

26 About Kenyon College < 1600 undergrads< 1600 undergrads Liberal arts communityLiberal arts community On an Ohio hilltopOn an Ohio hilltop OH5, OhioLINK, fiberOH5, OhioLINK, fiber Very merged library/computing servicesVery merged library/computing services

27 LBIS Library and Information ServicesLibrary and Information Services 4 Directors report to VP4 Directors report to VP Constituencies:Constituencies: –Faculty –Administration/Staff –Students

28 Information Access Dept. CirculationCirculation ReferenceReference AudioVisual ResourcesAudioVisual Resources All computer labs on campusAll computer labs on campus HelpLineHelpLine Dorm networking, etc.Dorm networking, etc. Advocate for student accessAdvocate for student access

29 Advocate for Student Access Formal roleFormal role –In job description –Designated meeter Compare priorities, exchange ideasCompare priorities, exchange ideas Non-competition agreement with other directorsNon-competition agreement with other directors

30 Outcomes Quiet areasQuiet areas Group study roomGroup study room Digital video editing labDigital video editing lab Laptop jacks in libraryLaptop jacks in library 24-hour study space in library24-hour study space in library Kenyon Authors RoomKenyon Authors Room Bandwidth doubledBandwidth doubled

31 What Its Really Like TerrifyingTerrifying RewardingRewarding Havent been in student paper cartoon (yet)Havent been in student paper cartoon (yet)

32 Insights to the Job Experience as a recent student: Be the inside contact.Experience as a recent student: Be the inside contact.

33 Insights to the Job Experience in teaching faculty: Why do students do what they do?Experience in teaching faculty: Why do students do what they do?

34 Insights to the Job Experience in doing reference: Students work on projects with many stages.Experience in doing reference: Students work on projects with many stages.

35 New Ways of Organizing Full spectrum serviceFull spectrum service Versatile staffVersatile staff Student employees are cross-trainedStudent employees are cross-trained Easier facilities managementEasier facilities management

36 Recommendations Identify students as a unique constituencyIdentify students as a unique constituency Devise specific support structuresDevise specific support structures Be an advocateBe an advocate

37 For more information Educause Quarterly article Dec. 2001Educause Quarterly article Dec College & Research Libraries article Jan. 2002College & Research Libraries article Jan Kenyons web site web site

38 Maryann Hight Librarian Soka University of America Aliso Viejo, California

39 Senior Thesis Writers Series Bates College George and Helen Ladd Library –Original research and writing on a research topic of the students design –Requires understanding of subject area, its theoretical underpinnings, and research methodology –Requires independent thinking, creativity, self-discipline, and effective time management –85% of senior class writes a thesis

40 Library and Technology Needs BibliographiesBibliographies Other library catalogsOther library catalogs Search enginesSearch engines Catalogs vs. indexesCatalogs vs. indexes Subject headingsSubject headings Interlibrary loanInterlibrary loan

41 And still more…. File storageFile storage CopyrightCopyright Citation managementCitation management PrintingPrinting Media productionMedia production

42 Thesis Writers Series Research Tips for Thesis WritersResearch Tips for Thesis Writers Evaluating Resources for your ThesisEvaluating Resources for your Thesis Computing Tips for Thesis WritersComputing Tips for Thesis Writers Using Media in your ThesisUsing Media in your Thesis Endnote for Thesis WritersEndnote for Thesis Writers

43 What comes next? Continue to offer the series as part of the support system on campus for thesis studentsContinue to offer the series as part of the support system on campus for thesis students Refine the contentRefine the content Increase publicityIncrease publicity Encourage faculty input for series content and publicityEncourage faculty input for series content and publicity

44 Scheduling the Series First SemesterFirst Semester Two sets of sessions, one afternoon, one eveningTwo sets of sessions, one afternoon, one evening Supporting handouts and web pagesSupporting handouts and web pages

45 Publicity lists lists Faculty advisorsFaculty advisors Web pagesWeb pages Signs, Signs, SignsSigns, Signs, Signs Supporting HandoutsSupporting Handouts

46 Attendance Disappointing but…

47 Unplanned Benefits Created an awareness of the research demands of a thesis….Created an awareness of the research demands of a thesis…. Increase in reference questions about thesis issuesIncrease in reference questions about thesis issues Promotion by faculty for servicesPromotion by faculty for services Increased demand for handoutsIncreased demand for handouts Requests to repeat seriesRequests to repeat series

48 Rachel Cheng Assistant University Librarian Wesleyan University Middletown, Connecticut

49 Why We Need It In a Small Residential CollegeWhy We Need It In a Small Residential College The PlanThe Plan What We Hope to AccomplishWhat We Hope to Accomplish What We Have Learned So FarWhat We Have Learned So Far Unexpected BenefitsUnexpected Benefits StatisticsStatistics Live Reference Services over the web: a college library consortium approach Rachel Cheng

50 Why We Need It In a Small Residential College Non-traditional, non-residential students Non-traditional, non-residential students Undergraduates studying abroad and during breaks Undergraduates studying abroad and during breaks 60% of e-resources are used outside of libraries 60% of e-resources are used outside of libraries A lot of usage occurred while there is no staff on duty, i.e. after 10pm, and weekends A lot of usage occurred while there is no staff on duty, i.e. after 10pm, and weekends To connect to our users whenever and wherever they may need help To connect to our users whenever and wherever they may need help Rachel Cheng Live Reference Services over the web: a college library consortium approach

51 The Plan Train existing librarians to provide digital reference services for their own institution during their regular reference hours Train existing librarians to provide digital reference services for their own institution during their regular reference hours Hire additional librarians to provide reference services during extended hours; Hire additional librarians to provide reference services during extended hours; Phase in additional institutions to measure the service demands Phase in additional institutions to measure the service demands Train grant funded librarians in local campus Train grant funded librarians in local campus Went live: Wesleyan October 15, 2001; Connecticut College, November 5, 2001 Went live: Wesleyan October 15, 2001; Connecticut College, November 5, 2001 Smith College started on April 1st, 2002 Smith College started on April 1st, 2002 Wellesley College will start in June 2002 and Vassar College in Spring of 2003 Wellesley College will start in June 2002 and Vassar College in Spring of 2003 Rachel Cheng Live Reference Services over the web: a college library consortium approach

52 What We Hope to Accomplish Find a way to calculate the demand of digital reference service Find a way to calculate the demand of digital reference service Ascertain the feasibility of sharing collaborative live help during off-peak hours as a long term consortium service Ascertain the feasibility of sharing collaborative live help during off-peak hours as a long term consortium service Calculate the real cost of providing reference services in an academic library Calculate the real cost of providing reference services in an academic library Gain some insights to help us improve library user services Gain some insights to help us improve library user services Study the long term impact of introducing a new type of reference services Study the long term impact of introducing a new type of reference services Rachel Cheng Live Reference Services over the web: a college library consortium approach

53 What We Have Learned So Far Needs as much PR as possible Needs as much PR as possible Digital reference is a service of convenience, not a substitute for traditional reference services Digital reference is a service of convenience, not a substitute for traditional reference services Most reference services are local policies or resources related Most reference services are local policies or resources related Chat is a LOT slower than talk. Need to get feedback / response from users constantly Chat is a LOT slower than talk. Need to get feedback / response from users constantly Sometimes it IS easier to send web pages, however, it is not always necessary. Sometimes it IS easier to send web pages, however, it is not always necessary. Take advantage of built-in features Take advantage of built-in features Expect typos, lots of them Expect typos, lots of them Rachel Cheng Live Reference Services over the web: a college library consortium approach

54 Unexpected Benefits LiveHelp makes user services transparent to library staff LiveHelp makes user services transparent to library staff Capturing and sharing the questions and user comments provide tangible evidence of the overall scope and end results we try to achieve as an organization to all library staff Capturing and sharing the questions and user comments provide tangible evidence of the overall scope and end results we try to achieve as an organization to all library staff Transcripts help identify areas where new staff need more training, old staff need update on policies, procedures, etc Transcripts help identify areas where new staff need more training, old staff need update on policies, procedures, etc Ability to follow up or transfer questions to subject specialists Ability to follow up or transfer questions to subject specialists Web reference service CAN be a much more personal experience Web reference service CAN be a much more personal experience A good foundation toward creating a local knowledge database for users and staff A good foundation toward creating a local knowledge database for users and staff Rachel Cheng Live Reference Services over the web: a college library consortium approach

55 Statistics Beyond statistics captured by the LiveHelp software, we are recording the numbers whenever the link is clicked to see how many clicks translate into a real LiveHelp session Beyond statistics captured by the LiveHelp software, we are recording the numbers whenever the link is clicked to see how many clicks translate into a real LiveHelp session Wesleyan is collecting reference statistics on and off Reference Desk to study the long term impact of introducing new types of reference services Wesleyan is collecting reference statistics on and off Reference Desk to study the long term impact of introducing new types of reference services in-person, phone, , LiveHelp in-person, phone, , LiveHelp date and time, time in minutes to answer a question, user type, name of librarian date and time, time in minutes to answer a question, user type, name of librarian anticipated end results: average time to answer questions by services types, cost/question by service types, cost effectiveness of services by types, overall cost of providing reference services anticipated end results: average time to answer questions by services types, cost/question by service types, cost effectiveness of services by types, overall cost of providing reference services Rachel Cheng Live Reference Services over the web: a college library consortium approach

56 Rachel Cheng Hourly Trends: Live Reference Services over the web: a college library consortium approach

57 Daily Trends: Rachel Cheng Live Reference Services over the web: a college library consortium approach

58 Weekly Trends: Live Reference Services over the web: a college library consortium approach

59 Sessions breakdown by location and referring web pages Rachel Cheng Live Reference Services over the web: a college library consortium approach

60 Clicks vs. real session comparison by week Live Reference Services over the web: a college library consortium approach

61 Additional information

62 CLS 2002Conference Program Committee Robin Wagner, Gettysburg College, ChairRobin Wagner, Gettysburg College, Chair Lisabeth Chabot, Mary Baldwin CollegeLisabeth Chabot, Mary Baldwin College Rachel Cheng, Wesleyan UniversityRachel Cheng, Wesleyan University Donna Cohen, Rollins CollegeDonna Cohen, Rollins College Ginny Moreland, Agnes Scott CollegeGinny Moreland, Agnes Scott College Isabella ONeill, Bucknell UniversityIsabella ONeill, Bucknell University


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