Presentation on theme: "Development of Low Cost Synchronization Oscillators for Stand Alone Communication Networks for Efficient Information Broadcasting in Geographically Challenging."— Presentation transcript:
Development of Low Cost Synchronization Oscillators for Stand Alone Communication Networks for Efficient Information Broadcasting in Geographically Challenging Locations Dr. K. S. Daya (PI) & Prof. G.S.Tyagi (Co-PI) Microwave Physics Laboratory Department of Physics & Computer Science Dayalbagh Educational Institute Dayalbagh, Agra – In Collaboration with Dr. K. S. Daya (PI) & Prof. G.S.Tyagi (Co-PI) Microwave Physics Laboratory Department of Physics & Computer Science Dayalbagh Educational Institute Dayalbagh, Agra – In Collaboration with Dr. M. T. Sebastian (Co-PI) National Institute of Interdisciplinary Science & Technology (CSIR Laboratory) Trivandrum Prof. Norbert Klein (Co-PI) Chair in Electromagnetic Nanomaterials Department of Materials, Imperial College London South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ UK (Submitted to Ministry of Human Resource & Development under the Scheme on National Mission on Education through Information and Technology) In support with Juha Maata & Raj Bansal Rajiv Gandhi Center for Advanced Research Nokia Siemens Networks, Finland Imperial College London
The wireless communication sector represents one of the most important arenas of research and expansion. The last two decades has been considered to be the era of wireless communications being led by two major trends: the outburst of wireless multiple access communications, offering mobility to the telephone users and the mobile multimedia. In year 2002, the transmission of the data traffic started to exceed voice traffic. The numbers of mobile subscribers and internet users have also recorded a significant growth over the past few years.
Expectations The research community is presented with an expectation to accommodate these ever increasing demands with solutions through which it will be possible to access data and voice anytime, anywhere and at low cost. Services and features expected Freedom in Space Freedom in Time Freedom in Use Of Services Ubiquitous Network Society
Ubiquitous Connects everyone and everything Easy connection to networks anytime, anywhere, by anything and anyone ICT will be everywhere in daily life for user-friendly society Person to person plus Person to Goods, and Goods to Goods In every aspect, communication will take the more important role in society Universal User Friendly Friendly to people Can be used by anyone without thinking of the equipment or network The elderly and disabled will be able to participate in society with ICT User-oriented From the users viewpoint Close to the user For a society that is user-orientated than a society where objects are given by the supplier Developing technologies and services that are connected to the needs o Users can be suppliers Create a total of 100 million prosumers. Unique Creative & Vigorous Create individual energy A new society where your dreams come true Vitalize the society Create new social systems and business services Get out from the norm and realize local revitalization with creativity
Global Initiative Through ICT All the winds are blowing in the same direction to collectively create a Better World Order Through ICT USA Ubiquitous Computing Calm Computing Pervasive Computing Europe Ubiquitous Communications Ambient Intelligence Pervasive Computing Ever Net Japan Ubiquitous Network Zen Computing U-Japan Korea U-Korea Singapore Sentient Computing INDIA NMEICT
Immediate Challenges & Solutions Challenges are….. Need for a low cost sustainable communication network Solution is possible through Integration of different technology and decentralization of networks And one of the proposed solution is STAND ALONE NETWORKS
A Comparison …. Conventional Architecture
A Comparison …. Stand Alone Architecture
Drawbacks of Standalone networks Core Network Conventional Network Perfect Synchronization through primary reference clock Control Point Standalone network Loss of synchronization due to absence of PRC
Objective Dielectric Resonator Oscillator (DRO) –High frequency –Low phase noise Purpose of DRO –Reference for synchronization in the transceiver of stand alone networks Advantages of DRO –Frequency stability –Temperature stablility –High Quality factor (50,000 – 120,000 at 2.4 GHz) –Dielectric resonator minimizes noise –Low construction cost
Word about the Partners Microwave Group at Dayalbagh Established for last twenty years Diverse experience in device design and characterization of dielectrics, ferrites and novel materials. Industrial Experience at Nokia Siemens Networks in the RF research and development. Well equipped high frequency measurement facility (Funding from NMEICT for pilot phase of the project)
National Partners Dr. M. T. Sebastian Dielectric & Ceramic Group National Institute of Interdisciplinary Science & Technology, Trivandrum. More than 15 years of experience in synthesis of dielectric and ceramic materials for microwave applications More than 200 publications and world known for their tailor made dielectric materials
International Partners Prof. Norbert Klein Imperial College, London Prof. Kleins Group at FZ- Juelich, Germany is world known for low phase noise measurements of Oscillators. Extensive research publications & patents on microwave devices like filters, antennas and oscillators for communication networks. Presently, the group at Imperial College is a pioneer in left handed materials and their applications in microwave systems.
Industrial Partners Nokia Siemens Networks Participating Member From Finland: Dr Juha Maata From India: Dr Rajesh Bansal NSN are world leaders in networking and are the first to introduce and implement stand alone networks. Emisens Germany Specialist in interface development for microwave modules
Dielectric Resonator Oscillator Design Frequency – 2.4 GHz (Unlicensed Band) L.M. Gavrilovska and V. M. Atanasovski, Interoperability in future wireless communications system: A roadmap to 4G, Microwave Review, June 2007
Introduction Microwave Oscillator form the core component in communication and navigation link. The desired features in an Oscillators are: Low Noise Small Size High Efficiency Temperature stability Reliability One of the solution is Dielectric Oscillator due to high Q, low loss and compactness for easy integration in embedded environment.
General Configuration of DRO Active Device Passive Circuit a1a1 a1a1 b1b1 b1 a2a2 a2a2 b2b2 b2 An oscillator can be considered as a combination of an active and passive part. Oscillation conditions are defined by the transmission and reflection coefficients of the two modules.
Development Phase PhaseDEINIISTICLNSN EMSN 1 Synthesis of Dielectric Materials 2 CharacterizationDielectric Active Element 3 Design 4 Lab Testing 5 Temperature stability 6 Design Optimization 7 Testing at NSN
Strategy Reverse Engineering A simple dielectric oscillator will be designed for characterization (dielectric materials tend to behave differently in an embedded environment from an isolated bounded medium) After isolated characterization of each elements, they will be tested on the oscillator. ( An idea about the possible source of noise at the beginning is better than debugging the complex design in maze!) Removal and know how of problem at the root point will lead to more efficient and perennial design.
Challenges and Solution Temperature stability and High Quality factor of the resonator. (Dr Sebastian will discuss) Jitter Noise at High Frequency Design of frequency selective slow wave structures like EBG for reduction of unwanted frequency. (A novel feature to attain nearly zero loss at room temperature)ResultsonEBG.pptResultsonEBG.ppt Phase Noise By having tailor made dielectric materials with high selectivity and Q.
Dielectric resonator Equivalent series impedance Where N =coupling factor/turn ratio Q=R/ oL (unloaded resonator) Ratio of unloaded to external Q is given by RL=2Zo for loaded resistance = Zo for transmission line where
Continue (Dielectric resonator) Reflection coefficient looking on terminated microstrip feedline towards resonator is given by or Q can be determined by simple measurement of reflection coefficient
Dielectric resonator oscillator Parallel feedback Series feedback
But what we propose to do is… Creating structures which can ideally replace the PRC operating at cryogenic temperatures with novel structures and materials, but at very low cost!!! These Oscillators is proposed to design with stability of 5 ppm. (Existing – 40 ppm at Tranciever end) Prof. Klein….Presentation_Norbert_Ministry_India_1.pptPresentation_Norbert_Ministry_India_1.ppt
Non-Recurring Budget DEI S.No.ITEM Cost in Lakhs (in INR) 1e-beam lithography200 2Oxygen Plasma Etch40 3Thin Film deposition system50 4Site Preparation250 5Class clean room650 6 Cryogenic temperature measurement system33 7RF band solve suite15 8 Microwave studio (perpetual license)22 9Cables connectors and Launchers15 10Books & Journals15 11Clean room furniture15 12 Computers10 13Other software15 14 PLG set up (wet stations and development station)200 15SEM Double sided proximity type exposure unit10 17Equipments for machining10 18 GLP Furniture ( For Lab and Clean room)35 19GSM Analyser50 20Signal Generator (67 GHZ)70 21Spectrum Analyser60 22Other equipment40 23VSWR Meter10 24Furnace35 25High Frequency Mixers70 Total Non Recurring Cost2070 NIIST S.No.ItemTentative Price in Lakhs 1Agilent Analogue Signal Generator 49 2Agilent Spectrum Analyser up to 50 GHz 56 3Teraview Terahertz Time domain Spectrometer 210 4Microwave Measurement system 35 5Dry Etching system35 6Other Equipment15 SUM 400 Imperial College S. No. ItemQuantity Cost in Lakhs Non-Recurring 1. Resonator/substrate characterization facilities Press for shaping samples Hot press up to C Furnace Electronic weighing balance TGA/DTA Polishing machine Cables, connectors, die for pressing samples, Laptop Computer Die sets of different sizes Thermal conductivity measurement set up Substrate metallization facility Books Paltinum plates/crucibles 2.0 Total Non- recurring Cost in Lakhs 220
Recurring Budget Name of the InstitutionProposed Non Recurring Budget in Crores Dayalbagh Educational Institute2.02 NIIST, Trivandrum0.32 Imperial College, London2.82 TOTAL in Crore5.16
Outcomes Developed Oscillators will provide Sustainability Repeatability at low cost to stand alone networks at very low cost. This Technology will open up a new horizon of decentralized networks leading to a ubiquitous network society.NSN.pptNSN.ppt
Relevance to Mission Objective Conventional Network ComponentEstimated Cost MSCUSD 20 million PRCUSD 1 million TranscoderUSD 0.1 million BSCUSD 0.5 million BTSUSD AntennasUSD Total CostUSD Million Comparison of CAPEX Stand Alone Network And a DRO to replace PRC Estimated cost ~ USD 200 ComponentEstimated Cost 2-PC (1GHz, 512MB RAM) USD 2000 BTSUSD 2000 AntennasUSD VC SoftwareUSD 5000 Total CostUSD Spectacular reduction in capex !!!
Proposed Outcome Proposed Oscillator will provide sustainability to the decentralized networks. Bring down the cost of installation operation and services considerably. Due to the optional need of the core network the architecture can provide ubiquitous connectivity.