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Microsoft Office 2007 – Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding Essential Computer Concepts.

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1 Microsoft Office 2007 – Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding Essential Computer Concepts

2 2 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Investigate types of computersInvestigate types of computers Examine computer systemsExamine computer systems Examine input devicesExamine input devices Examine output devicesExamine output devices Investigate data processingInvestigate data processing Understand memoryUnderstand memory Objectives

3 3 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understand storage mediaUnderstand storage media Explore data communicationsExplore data communications Learn about networksLearn about networks Learn about security threatsLearn about security threats Understand system softwareUnderstand system software Understand application softwareUnderstand application software Objectives

4 4 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Defining Computers A computer is an electronic device that: accepts inputaccepts input processes dataprocesses data stores datastores data produces outputproduces output

5 5 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Investigating Types of Computers The categories of computers are: Personal computersPersonal computers DesktopDesktop Notebook (Laptop)Notebook (Laptop) Tablet PCTablet PC Hand-heldsHand-helds PDAsPDAs MP3 playersMP3 players Cell phonesCell phones MainframesMainframes SupercomputersSupercomputers

6 6 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Investigating Types of Computers Personal computers are used for general computing tasks. Hand-held computers fit in the palm of your hand and run on batteries. Mainframes are used by companies to provide centralized storage, processing, and management for large amounts of data. Supercomputers are the largest and fastest of computers, and can process an enormous volume of data.

7 7 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Investigating Types of Computers Notebook computerNotebook computer also referred to as a laptop computeralso referred to as a laptop computer smallsmall lightweightlightweight portableportable

8 8 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Investigating Types of Computers PDAsPDAs Personal Digital AssistantsPersonal Digital Assistants generally used to maintain an electronic appointment book, address book, calculator, and notepad

9 9 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Investigating Types of Computers Supercomputers are the largest and fastest of computers, and can process an enormous volume of data.

10 10 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding Terminals TerminalTerminal has a keyboard for inputhas a keyboard for input monitor for outputmonitor for output processes little or no data on its ownprocesses little or no data on its own Terminal emulatorTerminal emulator personal computer, workstation, or serverpersonal computer, workstation, or server uses special software to imitate a terminaluses special software to imitate a terminal allows the PC to communicate with he mainframe or supercomputerallows the PC to communicate with he mainframe or supercomputer

11 11 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Examining Computer Systems A computer system is made up of: Hardwarethe physical componentsHardwarethe physical components Softwarethe programs or lists of instructionsSoftwarethe programs or lists of instructions

12 12 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Examining Computer Systems Architecture or configuration is the design of the computer.Architecture or configuration is the design of the computer. As in, what does the computer consist of?As in, what does the computer consist of? Specifications are the technical details about each component.Specifications are the technical details about each component. As in, how big is the monitor?As in, how big is the monitor?

13 13 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Examining Computer Systems Data The words, numbers, figures, sounds, and graphics that describe people, events, things, and ideas Processing Modifying data

14 14 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Examining Computer Systems MotherboardMotherboard where processing tasks occur located inside the computer the main electronic component of the computer contains the CPU

15 15 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Examining Computer Systems The data you type into the computer is called input.The data you type into the computer is called input. The result of the computer processing your input is called output.The result of the computer processing your input is called output. Peripheral devices accomplish the input, output, and storage functions.Peripheral devices accomplish the input, output, and storage functions.

16 16 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Examining Computer Systems MicroprocessorMicroprocessor a silicon chip designed to manipulate dataa silicon chip designed to manipulate data its speed is determined by:its speed is determined by: Clock speedClock speed Word sizeWord size Processor typeProcessor type

17 17 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Examining Input Devices Some input devices are: KeyboardKeyboard MouseMouse TrackballTrackball Touch padTouch pad Pointing stickPointing stick ScannerScanner MicrophonesMicrophones Cordless mouse

18 18 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Using Assistive Devices People who cannot use their arms or hands instead can use foot, head, or eye movements to control the pointer. People with poor vision can use keyboards with large keys for input, screen enlargers to enlarge the type and images on the monitor, or screen readers to read the content of the screen aloud.

19 19 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Examining Output Devices Monitors and printers are common output devices.Monitors and printers are common output devices. CRT monitors and flat panel monitors are two types of monitors.CRT monitors and flat panel monitors are two types of monitors.

20 20 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Examining Output Devices Factors that influence a monitors quality are: Screen SizeScreen Size ResolutionResolution Dot PitchDot Pitch

21 21 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Examining Output Devices Types of printers LaserLaser Dot MatrixDot Matrix InkjetInkjet Inkjetprinter Inkjet printer

22 22 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Investigating Data Processing A computer file is a named collection of stored data. An executable file contains the instructions that tell a computer how to perform a specific task; for instance, the files that are used while the computer starts are executable. A data file is created by a user, usually with software.

23 23 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Investigating Data Processing Computers interpret every signal as on or off.Computers interpret every signal as on or off. 1 (on) and 0 (off) are referred to as bits.1 (on) and 0 (off) are referred to as bits. Eight bits is a byte. Each byte represents a unique character.Eight bits is a byte. Each byte represents a unique character.

24 24 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Investigating Data Processing Kilobyte (KB) = one thousand bytesKilobyte (KB) = one thousand bytes Megabyte (MB) = one million bytesMegabyte (MB) = one million bytes Gigabyte (GB) = one billion bytesGigabyte (GB) = one billion bytes Terabyte (TB) = one trillion bytesTerabyte (TB) = one trillion bytes

25 25 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Investigating Data Processing Each ASCII number represents an English character Computers that run the Windows operating system use the set of Extended ASCII definitions defined by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). ANSI standard sample ASCII code

26 26 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding Memory Computer memory is a set of storage locations on the motherboard.Computer memory is a set of storage locations on the motherboard. There are five types of memory:There are five types of memory: Random access memory (RAM)Random access memory (RAM) Cache memoryCache memory Virtual memoryVirtual memory Read-only memoryRead-only memory Complementary metal oxide semiconductor memory (CMOS)Complementary metal oxide semiconductor memory (CMOS)

27 27 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding Memory RAMRAM Temporary memory that is constantly changing while the computer is on.Temporary memory that is constantly changing while the computer is on. Also called volatile memory and temporary memory.Also called volatile memory and temporary memory. Cache memoryCache memory Special high-speed memory chip on the motherboard or CPUSpecial high-speed memory chip on the motherboard or CPU Stores frequently and recently accessed data and commands.Stores frequently and recently accessed data and commands.

28 28 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding Memory Virtual memory is extra memory that simulates RAM if more is needed.Virtual memory is extra memory that simulates RAM if more is needed. Read-only memory (ROM) is the permanent storage location for a set of instructions the computer uses.Read-only memory (ROM) is the permanent storage location for a set of instructions the computer uses. CMOS memory is semi-permanent information about where essential software is stored.CMOS memory is semi-permanent information about where essential software is stored.

29 29 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding Storage Media Magnetic storage devices Store data as magnetized particles on mylar, which is then coated on both sides with a magnetic oxide coating

30 30 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding Storage Media Common magnetic storage devices hard disks several magnetic oxide covered metal platters usually sealed in a case inside the computer tape inexpensive, slow, archival storage for large companies who need to back up large quantities of data. floppy disks flat circles of magnetic oxide-coated mylar enclosed in a hard plastic case; almost obsolete

31 31 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding Storage Media Optical storage devices polycarbonate discs coated with a reflective metal on which data is recorded using laser technology as a trail of tiny pits or dark spots in the surface of the disc the data that these pits or spots represent can then be read with a beam of laser light

32 32 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding Storage Media Types of optical storage devicesTypes of optical storage devices CDcan store 700 MB of dataCDcan store 700 MB of data DVDcan store between 4.7 and 15.9 GB of dataDVDcan store between 4.7 and 15.9 GB of data Blu-ray discs and HD-DVD can store between 15 and 50 GB of dataBlu-ray discs and HD-DVD can store between 15 and 50 GB of data

33 33 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding Storage Media Flash memorysimilar to ROM except that it can be written to more than once. Flash memory cards small, portable cards encased in hard plastic to which data can be written and rewritten used in digital cameras, handheld computers, video game controllers, and other devices

34 34 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding Storage Media USB flash storage device (USB drive, flash drive) popular type of flash memory available in a wide range of sizes from 32 MB to 16 GB plug directly into the USB port of a personal computer are about the size of a pack of gum and often have a ring that you can attach to your key chain.

35 35 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Erasing and Rewriting on CDs and DVDs CD-ROMs are for read-only access.CD-ROMs are for read-only access. CD-R drives allow you to record data on a CD-R disk.CD-R drives allow you to record data on a CD-R disk. CD-RW drives allow you to write data on a CD-RW disk and access and modify data.CD-RW drives allow you to write data on a CD-RW disk and access and modify data. DVD-R and DVD+R are recordable.DVD-R and DVD+R are recordable.

36 36 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Exploring Data Communications Data communications is the transmission of text, numeric, voice, or video data from one computer to another. The four essential components of data communications are: SenderSender ChannelChannel ReceiverReceiver ProtocolsProtocols

37 37 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Exploring Data Communications A sender is the computer that originates the message.A sender is the computer that originates the message. The message is sent over a channel, such as a telephone.The message is sent over a channel, such as a telephone. The receiver is the computer at the messages destination.The receiver is the computer at the messages destination. Protocols are the rules that establish the transfer of data between sender and receiver.Protocols are the rules that establish the transfer of data between sender and receiver.

38 38 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Exploring Data Communications Device driver (or simply driver) handles the transmission protocol between a computer and its peripheral devices a computer program that can establish communication because it contains information about the characteristics of your computer and of the device Data bus the data path between the microprocessor, RAM, and the peripherals along which communication travels

39 39 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Exploring Data Communications Components needed to connect a printer to a computer

40 40 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Exploring Data Communications PCs have several types of ports: ParallelParallel SerialSerial SCSISCSI USBUSB MIDIMIDI EthernetEthernet

41 41 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Exploring Data Communications Parallel porttransmits data eight bits at a timeParallel porttransmits data eight bits at a time Serial porttransmits data one bit at a timeSerial porttransmits data one bit at a time SCSI portprovides an interface for one or more peripheral devices at the same portSCSI (small computer system interface, pronounced scuzzy) portprovides an interface for one or more peripheral devices at the same port USB porta high- speed serial port which allows multiple connections at the same portUSB (Universal Serial Bus) porta high- speed serial port which allows multiple connections at the same port

42 42 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Exploring Data Communications Sound card portusually includes jacks for speakers and a microphone, which are designed to work with a MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface, pronounced middy) cardSound card portusually includes jacks for speakers and a microphone, which are designed to work with a MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface, pronounced middy) card Ethernet portused to connect to another computer, a LAN, a modem, or sometimes directly to the Internet; allows data to be transmitted at high speeds.Ethernet portused to connect to another computer, a LAN, a modem, or sometimes directly to the Internet; allows data to be transmitted at high speeds.

43 43 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Exploring Data Communications Computer ports and connections Power connection Mouse port FireWire port Network port Phone line connection Speaker and microphone connections USB ports Monitor port Audio connection Keyboard port

44 44 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Learning about Networks NetworkNetwork connects one computer to other computers and peripheral devicesconnects one computer to other computers and peripheral devices Network interface card (NIC)Network interface card (NIC) creates a communications channel between the computer and the networkcreates a communications channel between the computer and the network a cable connects the NIC port to the networka cable connects the NIC port to the network Network softwareNetwork software establishes the communications protocols that will be observed on the networkestablishes the communications protocols that will be observed on the network controls the traffic flow of data traveling through the networkcontrols the traffic flow of data traveling through the network

45 45 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Learning about Networks ServerServer acts as the central storage location for programs provides mass storage for most of the data used on the network Clientcomputers on a network dependent on a serverClientcomputers on a network dependent on a server Client/server networka network with server that acts as the central storage locationClient/server networka network with server that acts as the central storage location Peer-to-peer networkPeer-to-peer network a network without a servera network without a server all of the computers are equalall of the computers are equal

46 46 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Learning about Networks Standalone computeraStandalone computera personal computer that is not connected to a network WorkstationaWorkstationa personal computer that is connected to a network Nodeany device connected to the networkNodeany device connected to the network

47 47 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Learning about Networks Network configuration Workstation Your local workstation Server Printer

48 48 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Learning about Networks LAN (local area network)LAN (local area network) computers and peripherals located close to each othercomputers and peripherals located close to each other WAN (wide area network)WAN (wide area network) more than one LAN connected together the Internet is the largest example of a WAN WLAN (wireless local area network)WLAN (wireless local area network) computers and peripherals that use high- frequency radio waves instead of wires to communicate and connect in a network Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) describes WLANs connected using a standard radio frequency established by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

49 49 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Learning about Networks PAN (personal area network)PAN (personal area network)a network that allows two or more devices located close to each other to communicate or to connect a device to the Internet infrared technologyinfrared technologyuses infrared light waves to beam data from one device to another BluetoothBluetoothuses short range radio waves to connect a device wirelessly to another device or to the Internet WiMAXWiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) allows computers to connect over many miles to a LAN a WiMAX tower sends signals to a WiMAX receiver built or plugged into a computer

50 50 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Learning about Networks Using modems to send and receive data Sending site Digital signal Modem Analog signal Modem Digital signal Receiving site

51 51 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Learning about Security Threats Security refers to the steps a computer owner takes to prevent unauthorized use of or damage to the computer

52 52 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Learning about Security Threats Malware describes any program that is intended to cause harm or convey information to others without the owners permission Viruses harmful programs that instruct your computer to perform destructive activities, such as erasing a disk drive Antivirus software (virus protection software) searches executable files for the sequences of characters that may cause harm and disinfects the files by erasing or disabling those commands

53 53 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Learning about Security Threats Spyware programs contained with other programs that track a computer users Internet usage and send this data back to the company or person that created it usually installed without the computer users permission or knowledge Anti-spyware software detects spyware and deletes them Adware software installed with another program usually with the users permission generates advertising revenue for the programs creator by displaying targeted ads to the programs user

54 54 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Learning about Security Threats Firewall prevents other computers on the Internet from accessing a computer and prevents programs on a computer from accessing the Internet without the computer users permission can be either hardware or software router a device that controls traffic between network components usually has a built-in firewall. software firewalls track all incoming and outgoing traffic

55 55 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Learning about Security Threats Spoofed site a Web site set up to look like another Web site, but which does not belong to the organization portrayed in the site the URL (address on the Web) looks similar to a URL from the legitimate site usually set up to try to convince customers of the real site to enter personal information Phishing the practice of sending s to customers or potential customers of a legitimate Web site asking them to click a link in the the link leads to a spoofed site Pharming when a criminal breaks into a DNS server (a computer responsible for directing Internet traffic) and redirect any attempts to access a particular Web site to the criminals spoofed site

56 56 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Protecting Information with Passwords Logging inLogging in signing in with a user name and passwordsigning in with a user name and password Strong passwordStrong password at least eight charactersat least eight characters consists of upper- and lowercase letters and numbersconsists of upper- and lowercase letters and numbers does not include common personal informationdoes not include common personal information

57 57 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding System Software System software helps the computer carry out it s basic operating tasks. The four types of system software are: Operating systemsOperating systems UtilitiesUtilities Device driversDevice drivers Programming languagesProgramming languages

58 58 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding System Software Operating systemOperating system controls the input and output (I/O)controls the input and output (I/O) allocates system resourcesallocates system resources manages files on storage devicesmanages files on storage devices guards against equipment failureguards against equipment failure Operating environmentOperating environment provides a graphical user interface (GUI) that acts as a liaison between the user and the computerprovides a graphical user interface (GUI) that acts as a liaison between the user and the computer

59 59 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding System Software Utilities a category of system software that augment the operating system by taking over some of its responsibility for allocating hardware resources Device drivers handle the transmission protocol between a computer and its peripherals when you add a device to an existing computer, part of its installation includes adding its device driver to the computers configuration Programming languages used by a programmer to write computer instructions the instructions are translated into electrical signals that the computer can manipulate and process.

60 60 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding System Software Windows Vista starting screen Icons (you might see additional icons on your screen) Start button Taskbar Quick Launch toolbar Gadgets (small programs; you might see additional or different gadgets on your screen)

61 61 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding Application Software Application software enables you to perform specific computer tasks

62 62 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding Application Software Document production software includes word processing software, desktop publishing software, editors, and Web authoring software has a variety of features that assist you in writing and formatting documents, including changing the font (the style of type) and spell checking to help you avoid typographical and spelling errors Spreadsheet software a numerical analysis tool used to create a worksheet composed of a grid of columns and rows you type data into the cells, and enter mathematical formulas into other cells that reference the data

63 63 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding Application Software Spell checking a document A wiggly red line indicates a possible spelling error

64 64 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding Application Software Typical worksheet with numerical data and a graph Cell B5 contains result of calculation performed by spreadsheet software Graph

65 65 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding Application Software Database management software lets you collect and manage data Database a collection of information stored on one or more computers organized in a uniform format of records and fields recorda collection of data items in a database fieldone piece of information in the record An example of a database is the online catalog of books at a library; the catalog contains one record for each book in the library, and each record contains fields that identify the title, the author, and the subjects under which the book can be classified.

66 66 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding Application Software Graphics softwareGraphics software allows you to create illustrations, diagrams, graphs, and chartsallows you to create illustrations, diagrams, graphs, and charts Presentation softwarePresentation software allows you to project a presentation before a group, print it out for quick reference, or transmit it to remote computersallows you to project a presentation before a group, print it out for quick reference, or transmit it to remote computers Clip artClip art simple drawings that are included as collections with many software packagessimple drawings that are included as collections with many software packages

67 67 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding Application Software Photo editing software allows you to manipulate digital photos you can make the images brighter, add special effects to the photo, add additional images to a photo, or crop the photo to include only relevant parts of the image Multimedia authoring software allows you to record digital sound files, video files, and animations Web site creation and management software allows you to create and manage Web sites

68 68 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding Application Software Information management software keeps track of schedules, appointments, contacts, and to-do lists

69 69 Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Premium Video Edition Understanding Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) Object linking and embedding (OLE) refers to the ability to use data from another file, called the source Embedding occurs when you copy and paste the source data in the new file Linking allows you to create a connection between the source data and the copy in the new file the link updates the copy every time a change is made to the source data Integration the seamless nature of OLE among some applications


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