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Introduction to software

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1 Introduction to software
This presentation gives you an overview of the MaxIm DL software used for CCD control and data reduction and Excel spreadsheets for data analysis and display. It is intended to familiarise you with some of the procedures you are likely to use, not to provide detailed instructions, so You do not need to take notes All the information is contained in detail in the Observatory Manual which you should read carefully If in doubt – ask a tutor

2 The Observatory Manual
The observational projects require you to: - set-up and move the telescope to acquire targets - set-up and use an instrument to take measurements a CCD camera (projects 1, 2, 5, 8) or a spectrometer (project 3) - ‘reduce’ the data (calibrate it and turn it into useful information - ‘analyse’ the data (obtain scientific results) You will have learnt about the principles of operation of telescopes, CCDs and spectrometers from Observing the Universe The Observatory Manual* provides the details required to perform each of the required tasks using the equipment at the OAM *There are likely to be changes to some procedures due to modifications to the equipment available.

3 Computers and Filename Conventions
Laptops in each dome labelled by telescope name PCs in laboratory numbered 1 to 7 All data stored and saved on lab PCs in folders within C:\OU (=my documents) A folder has been placed on each pc/laptop for each week of SXR e.g. year04week01pc (or year04week01Tycho) (year 2004, SXR208 week 1, PC number 1) For each night: Create a new folder for the raw data, e.g. Sep10_p01_Sun_Tycho (September 10, project 1, group “Sun”, telescope “Tycho”) Create a working folder for all analysis (Sep12_p01_Sun_Tycho_work) to avoid over-writing files

4 Introduction to MaxIm DL
Part 1 Introduction to MaxIm DL Used for: Control of CCD Image processing Menu based system Many functions for image processing Main features for SXR208 described All information in Observatory manual MaxIm DL is used for all the telescope-based projects photometry (1, 2, 5 and 8) and spectroscopy (3)

5 Starting Up To start, double click on the MaxIm DL icon on desktop.
Main menus “View” Toolbar Main display area

6 Top level menus File: File manipulation, e.g. opening, closing, saving, printing Edit: Copying, pasting, adjusting image orientation & display View: Telescope (not used), CCD control, zooming, information Analyse: Astrometry and photometry data reduction Process: Calibrate images and manipulate pixel values Window: Select between open images and adjust display Filter, Color , Plug-in: not required for SXR208 Help: Searchable help and MaxIm DL tutorials

7 Opening an image Remember the name conventions
Opening files: Open command in File menu Directory Files Selected file Click to open Set to All files turn off Information on selected file

8 Navigating an image The images produced with the CCD camera are too large to be displayed on a computer screen at full resolution. Navigate the image using the bars on the right hand side and bottom of image. Zoom in and Zoom out commands in the View menu, or shortcut icons, or the magnification field next to them on toolbar. Zoom Window command in the View menu: shows a magnified part of the image without changing the overall zoom. If the images do not have the desired orientation then use the Flip, Mirror, Rotate Right, Rotate Left, or Rotate commands from the Edit menu.

9 Screen Stretch window Click on the Screen Stretch Window command in the View menu number of pixels vs. intensity level Displayed brightness level limits Automatic level options ‘Quick stretch’ box 5 ways to change contrast/brightness of a displayed image Processes only change image display, not the data

10 Cursor (in aperture mode)
Information window Click on Information Window in the View menu, or use the icon Cursor (in aperture mode) Central aperture Background annulus Operation mode

11 Night vision command To prevent loss of night vision in the dome when observations have started Select Night Vision in the View menu. In the default red mode, all menus, dialog boxes, etc., turn red. (Icons and toolbar buttons are not affected).

12 CCD camera control using MaxIm DL
The laptops in each dome are used to control the CCD cameras These instructions are for the photometry projects

13 Connection to laptop USB port
CCD camera CCD camera mounting screws STL1001E CCD Camera Microfocuser Connection to Controller focus port Connection to controller autoguider port Power cable Indicator lights Connection to laptop USB port

14 CCD control window - setup
Open using CCD control in the View menu or by clicking icon Setup tab used to connect and start up CCD camera Select CCD and Filter wheel, Connect to CCD, Turn on cooler

15 CCD control window - settings
Use to change CCD display orientation (all other settings should not be changed) Adjust orientation of images to match CCD orientation (nominal position needs Flip Horizontally and Flip vertically

16 CCD control window - expose
Used for taking individual images (files are not automatically saved)

17 CCD control window - focus
Provides repeated readout and display to aid in finding and focusing Make sure image type Light and appropriate filter are selected using the Expose tab, before going to the Focus tab.

18 CCD control window - sequence
Automatically saves files with name in a standard form Use sequence number to uniquely identify frames Setup sequences from the options menu (see next slide for details) then use the start button to begin observations

19 Setup Sequence is used to prepare and select a series of exposures
which can be re-used during the night.

20 CCD data reduction using MaxIm DL
Data reduction is performed on laboratory PCs Data are transferred from the dome laptop to a laboratory pc using USB memory sticks (256 Mb ~ 125 images)

21 Preparing calibration files
Set calibration command from the Process menu Used to set up which frames are to be used for subsequent calibration 3 ‘Groups’ containing 1 or more bias, flat field or dark frames are set up This button should do most of it for you!

22 Aligning and combining frames
Calibrating frames Open the images that you wish to calibrate using the Open Command from the File menu. To calibrate the currently selected image: Click the Calibrate command from the Process menu To calibrate all open images that have not already been calibrated during this MaxIm DL session: Click the Calibrate All command from the Process menu. Aligning and combining frames Used in some projects for combining frames provides improved signal-to-noise of observations Use the Combine command from the Process menu.

23 Aperture photometry Click the Photometry command in the Analyse menu to open the Photometry window and the Information window Procedure: - select the image (or series of images) for photometry - select an aperture size within which photometry is performed, and an annulus within which sky background is measured - ‘tag’ objects: Reference star: all photometry is performed relative to this star Check star: object(s) used to check that the reference star is constant in brightness Object: target object for photometry Moving Object: moving target object for photometry (asteroid) - inspect light curve to check data and remove ‘bad’ data - write data to a file (to load into excel)

24 ‘right click’ menu to change
Aperture etc

25 Reference star Check star Object Data can be saved to a .csv (comma separated variable) file

26 Data analysis and graph plotting using Excel
Part 2 Data analysis and graph plotting using Excel Excel is used for processing of the reduced data Files output from MaxIm DL photometry can be read by Excel

27 Spreadsheet structure
Worksheet can be formatted: - Autocorrect options can be turned off - Row and column widths can be changed - Rows, columns or cell can be deleted or cleared - Fonts, colours, backgrounds etc can be changed

28 Data entry and formulae
Numbers or text can be entered directly into a cell Formulae are entered using cell references, mathematical operators and stored functions. Example: Cell B2 contains contents of cell A1 added to contents of cell A2 Apply formula Cancel formula Input line Function library

29 Using formulae Formulae follow basic rules for arithmetic: Operations performed in order: ^ (to the power of); * and / (multiply and divide); and  (add, and subtract). There are many built-in functions, e.g. =SUM(A1:A10) sum of cells A1+A2+…+A10. =AVERAGE(A1:A10) average of the values in cells A1+A2+…+A10. =STDEV(A1:A10) standard deviation of values in cells A1+A2+…+A10. =INT(A5) integer part of the number in cell A5. =EXP(A5) e to the power of the number in cell A5. =SIN(A5) sine of the number (in radians) in cell A5. =LOG(A5,n) logarithm to the base n of the number in cell A If n is not specified it defaults to 10.

30 ‘Dragging’ To select several cells at once:
Place the cursor (an open cross) over the cell, hold left mouse button down while sliding the cursor across the spreadsheet. To copy the contents or formula in one cell to other cells: Either: - Select a cell or cells use the copy or cut commands in the Edit menu; - click on the destination cell (top left if several cells copied) use the paste command from the Edit menu. Or: - Place the cursor on the small square in the corner of the cell (the cursor will change into a narrow cross) hold down the left mouse button and drag the cursor down a column and/or across a row the value or the formula will be copied to all the cells dragged over.

31 ‘Dragging’ formulae Cell references in a formula are relative to the selected cell If you drag or copy a formula: the cell references are automatically updated in the new cells. B3 contains =A2+A3 To drag a formula without updating the cell references use $ character e.g. =$A$1+A2 B3 now contains =$A$1+A3. $A$1 fixes column and row $A1 fixes column only A$1 fixes row only Be careful when dragging, copying and pasting formulae. Check the results.

32 Entering data from files
Click Open in the File menu and the Open window appears. - select the required folder - select All files in the File of Type field - double-click on chosen file name or icon. - data from the .csv file will appear in a new Excel spreadsheet - paste the data into your working spreadsheet (select the cells you require and use the Copy and Paste commands from the Edit menu)

33 Formatting data in cells
Click the Cells command in the Format menu.

34 Plotting graphs – the Chart Wizard
Select Chart command from the Insert menu X-Y scatter option



37 The resulting graph needs

38 Formatting the chart To change the appearance of a chart an item must be selected. Move the cursor over the graph to illuminate item labels Place the cursor over an item and single click The region or object will be highlighted in some way where appropriate, ‘handles’ will appear for moving or resizing Place the cursor over an item and double click: When appropriate a window will open with options you can adjust. Resize the image and plot area, remove the grey background, remove gridlines, adjust legend etc.

39 To reformat Y axis double click over Value Y axis
Changes style and values of axis and labels Click here to reverse axes (most negative magnitude is brightest)

40 To format data set - double click over data point

41 Reformatted plot

42 Best-fit straight line
Using Add Trendline command: - Click over one of the symbols to select the data series to be fitted. - Click on Add Trendline command in the Chart menu

43 Or use formula LINEST

44 Remember… Always read the instructions
Detailed of the software can be found in the Observatory Manual Seek help within your group Ask a tutor

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