Presentation on theme: "Introduction to software"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to software This presentation gives you an overview of the MaxIm DL software used for CCD control and data reduction and Excel spreadsheets for data analysis and display.It is intended to familiarise you with some of the procedures you are likely to use, not to provide detailed instructions, soYou do not need to take notesAll the information is contained in detail in the Observatory Manualwhich you should read carefullyIf in doubt – ask a tutor
2 The Observatory Manual The observational projects require you to:- set-up and move the telescope to acquire targets- set-up and use an instrument to take measurements a CCD camera (projects 1, 2, 5, 8) or a spectrometer (project 3)- ‘reduce’ the data (calibrate it and turn it into useful information- ‘analyse’ the data (obtain scientific results)You will have learnt about the principles of operation of telescopes, CCDs and spectrometers from Observing the UniverseThe Observatory Manual* provides the details required to perform each of the required tasks using the equipment at the OAM*There are likely to be changes to some procedures due to modifications to the equipment available.
3 Computers and Filename Conventions Laptops in each dome labelled by telescope namePCs in laboratory numbered 1 to 7All data stored and saved on lab PCs in folders within C:\OU (=my documents)A folder has been placed on each pc/laptop for each week of SXR e.g. year04week01pc (or year04week01Tycho)(year 2004, SXR208 week 1, PC number 1)For each night:Create a new folder for the raw data, e.g. Sep10_p01_Sun_Tycho (September 10, project 1, group “Sun”, telescope “Tycho”)Create a working folder for all analysis (Sep12_p01_Sun_Tycho_work) to avoid over-writing files
4 Introduction to MaxIm DL Part 1Introduction to MaxIm DLUsed for: Control of CCDImage processingMenu based systemMany functions for image processingMain features for SXR208 describedAll information in Observatory manualMaxIm DL is used for all the telescope-based projects photometry (1, 2, 5 and 8) and spectroscopy (3)
5 Starting Up To start, double click on the MaxIm DL icon on desktop. Main menus“View” ToolbarMain display area
6 Top level menusFile: File manipulation, e.g. opening, closing, saving, printingEdit: Copying, pasting, adjusting image orientation & displayView: Telescope (not used), CCD control, zooming, informationAnalyse: Astrometry and photometry data reductionProcess: Calibrate images and manipulate pixel valuesWindow: Select between open images and adjust displayFilter, Color , Plug-in: not required for SXR208Help: Searchable help and MaxIm DL tutorials
7 Opening an image Remember the name conventions Opening files: Open command in File menuDirectoryFilesSelected fileClick toopenSet toAll filesturn offInformation onselected file
8 Navigating an imageThe images produced with the CCD camera are too large to be displayed on a computer screen at full resolution.Navigate the image using the bars on the right hand side and bottom of image.Zoom in and Zoom out commands in the View menu, or shortcut icons, or the magnification field next to them on toolbar.Zoom Window command in the View menu: shows a magnified part of the image without changing the overall zoom.If the images do not have the desired orientation then use the Flip, Mirror, Rotate Right, Rotate Left, or Rotate commands from the Edit menu.
9 Screen Stretch windowClick on the Screen Stretch Window command in the View menunumber of pixels vs. intensity levelDisplayed brightness level limitsAutomatic leveloptions‘Quick stretch’box5 ways to change contrast/brightness of a displayed imageProcesses only change image display, not the data
10 Cursor (in aperture mode) Information windowClick on Information Window in the View menu, or use the iconCursor (in aperture mode)CentralapertureBackgroundannulusOperation mode
11 Night vision commandTo prevent loss of night vision in the dome when observations have startedSelect Night Vision in the View menu.In the default red mode, all menus, dialog boxes, etc., turn red.(Icons and toolbar buttons are not affected).
12 CCD camera control using MaxIm DL The laptops in each dome are used to control the CCD camerasThese instructions are for the photometry projects
13 Connection to laptop USB port CCD cameraCCD cameramounting screwsSTL1001E CCD CameraMicrofocuserConnection toController focus portConnection tocontrollerautoguider portPowercableIndicator lightsConnection to laptop USB port
14 CCD control window - setup Open using CCD control in the View menu or by clicking iconSetup tab used to connect and start up CCD cameraSelect CCD and Filter wheel, Connect to CCD, Turn on cooler
15 CCD control window - settings Use to change CCD display orientation(all other settings should not be changed)Adjust orientation of images to match CCD orientation(nominal position needsFlip Horizontally and Flip vertically
16 CCD control window - expose Used for taking individual images (files are not automatically saved)
17 CCD control window - focus Provides repeated readout and display to aid in finding and focusingMake sure image type Light and appropriate filter are selected using the Expose tab, before going to the Focus tab.
18 CCD control window - sequence Automatically saves files with name in a standard formUse sequence number to uniquely identify framesSetup sequences from the options menu(see next slide for details) then use the start buttonto begin observations
19 Setup Sequence is used to prepare and select a series of exposures which can be re-used during the night.
20 CCD data reduction using MaxIm DL Data reduction is performed on laboratory PCsData are transferred from the dome laptop to a laboratory pc using USB memory sticks (256 Mb ~ 125 images)
21 Preparing calibration files Set calibration command from the Process menuUsed to set up which frames are to be used for subsequent calibration3 ‘Groups’ containing 1 or more bias, flat field or dark frames are set upThis button should do most of it for you!
22 Aligning and combining frames Calibrating framesOpen the images that you wish to calibrate using the Open Command from the File menu.To calibrate the currently selected image:Click the Calibrate command from the Process menuTo calibrate all open images that have not already been calibrated during this MaxIm DL session: Click the Calibrate All command from the Process menu.Aligning and combining framesUsed in some projects for combining frames provides improved signal-to-noise of observationsUse the Combine command from the Process menu.
23 Aperture photometryClick the Photometry command in the Analyse menu to open the Photometry window and the Information windowProcedure:- select the image (or series of images) for photometry- select an aperture size within which photometry is performed, and an annulus within which sky background is measured- ‘tag’ objects:Reference star: all photometry is performed relative to this starCheck star: object(s) used to check that the reference star is constant in brightnessObject: target object for photometryMoving Object: moving target object for photometry (asteroid)- inspect light curve to check data and remove ‘bad’ data- write data to a file (to load into excel)
25 Reference starCheck starObjectData can be saved to a .csv (comma separated variable) file
26 Data analysis and graph plotting using Excel Part 2Data analysis and graph plotting using ExcelExcel is used for processing of the reduced dataFiles output from MaxIm DL photometry can be read by Excel
27 Spreadsheet structure Worksheet can be formatted:- Autocorrect options can be turned off- Row and column widths can be changed- Rows, columns or cell can be deleted or cleared- Fonts, colours, backgrounds etc can be changed
28 Data entry and formulae Numbers or text can be entered directly into a cellFormulae are entered using cell references, mathematical operators and stored functions.Example: Cell B2 contains contents of cell A1 added to contents of cell A2Apply formulaCancel formulaInput lineFunctionlibrary
29 Using formulaeFormulae follow basic rules for arithmetic: Operations performed in order:^ (to the power of); * and / (multiply and divide); and (add, and subtract).There are many built-in functions, e.g.=SUM(A1:A10) sum of cells A1+A2+…+A10.=AVERAGE(A1:A10) average of the values in cells A1+A2+…+A10.=STDEV(A1:A10) standard deviation of values in cells A1+A2+…+A10.=INT(A5) integer part of the number in cell A5.=EXP(A5) e to the power of the number in cell A5.=SIN(A5) sine of the number (in radians) in cell A5.=LOG(A5,n) logarithm to the base n of the number in cell A If n is not specified it defaults to 10.
30 ‘Dragging’ To select several cells at once: Place the cursor (an open cross) over the cell, hold left mouse button down while sliding the cursor across the spreadsheet.To copy the contents or formula in one cell to other cells:Either: - Select a cell or cells use the copy or cut commands in the Edit menu;- click on the destination cell (top left if several cells copied) use the paste command from the Edit menu.Or: - Place the cursor on the small square in the corner of the cell (the cursor will change into a narrow cross) hold down the left mouse button and drag the cursor down a column and/or across a row the value or the formula will be copied to all the cells dragged over.
31 ‘Dragging’ formulaeCell references in a formula are relative to the selected cellIf you drag or copy a formula: the cell references are automatically updated in the new cells.B3 contains =A2+A3To drag a formula without updating the cell references use $ character e.g. =$A$1+A2 B3 now contains =$A$1+A3.$A$1 fixes column and row$A1 fixes column onlyA$1 fixes row onlyBe careful when dragging, copying and pasting formulae. Check the results.
32 Entering data from files Click Open in the File menu and the Open window appears.- select the required folder- select All files in the File of Type field- double-click on chosen file name or icon.- data from the .csv file will appear in a new Excel spreadsheet- paste the data into your working spreadsheet(select the cells you require and use the Copy and Paste commands from the Edit menu)
33 Formatting data in cells Click the Cells command in the Format menu.
34 Plotting graphs – the Chart Wizard Select Chart command from the Insert menuX-Y scatter option
38 Formatting the chartTo change the appearance of a chart an item must be selected.Move the cursor over the graph to illuminate item labelsPlace the cursor over an item and single click The region or object will be highlighted in some way where appropriate, ‘handles’ will appear for moving or resizingPlace the cursor over an item and double click: When appropriate a window will open with options you can adjust.Resize the image and plot area, remove the grey background, remove gridlines, adjust legend etc.
39 To reformat Y axis double click over Value Y axis Changes style and values of axis and labelsClick here to reverse axes (most negative magnitude is brightest)
40 To format data set - double click over data point