Presentation on theme: "Office Ergonomics Washington State University"— Presentation transcript:
1 Office Ergonomics Washington State University Department of Environmental Health & Safety
2 Presentation Overview What is ergonomics?Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs)Signs/symptoms of WMSDsRisk factors associated with WMSDsComputer workstation design and work practices to reduce risk factors
3 Ergonomics Ergonomics is the science and practice of designing tasks, equipment and workplacesconsidering human capabilities andlimitations.ORFitting the task to the person!
4 Applied Ergonomics Where can ergonomic principles be applied? Office ShopsLaboratoryAgricultureConstructionManual Material HandlingAnywhere!
5 Benefits of Ergonomics Prevention of WMSDsReduced fatigue and discomfortIncreased productivityImproved quality of workEnhanced quality of life
6 What are Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders? WMSDs are soft-tissue injuries to muscles,tendons, ligaments, cartilage, blood vessels andnerves that usually develop gradually.Can be serious, if not taken care of early.Also know as:Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs)Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSIs)Overuse Injuries
7 Common WMSDs WMSDs affect parts of the body when demands on them go beyond what they can handle. Typicallythey occur in the moving parts of the body likethe neck, back, shoulder, elbow, wrist and knee.Low Back InjuryCarpal Tunnel SyndromeTendonitisTenosynovitisEpicondylitisDe Quervain’s Syndrome
8 WMSDs Signs & Symptoms Discomfort Pain Swelling Loss of range of motionStiffness or tight musclesHands or feet feel like they are falling “asleep”NumbnessTinglingBurning SensationsShooting/Stabbing PainsWeakness or clumsiness in the hands; dropping things
9 When are symptoms a concern ? Having one or more symptoms does not necessarilymean a person has a WMSD.However, a task should be evaluated when:The person associates symptoms with specific movements/postures and/or tasksThe symptoms are chronicThey appear to worsen throughout the work day & week, with some relief in the evenings and on the weekends
10 Why is it important to act early? Early modifications to work conditions are more successfulIgnoring symptoms can lead to injuries requiring more intensive treatment, including surgeryEarly treatment is more successfulUntreated symptoms and injuries might result in permanent disability
11 What Causes WMSDs? The causes of WMSDs are considered multifactorial. Exposure to the following risk factors or combinationof risk factors might lead to a WMSD.Awkward and Static PosturesHigh Hand ForceHighly Repetitive MotionsMechanical/Contact Stress
12 Awkward and Static Postures Reaching up and over the keyboard to use the mouseUsing the keyboard/mouse with unsupported armsLeaning forward to read papers on the deskTyping with bent/deviated wristsTurning the head to one-side to view monitorPhone cradling
13 High Hand Force Office tasks can require only moderate amounts of force, but applied with very small muscle groups.Tightly gripping the mouse or telephone“Pounding” on the keysGrasping thick file foldersLifting heavy manuals with one handStapling, stamping, or 3-hole punching
14 Highly Repetitive Motions Repeatedly performing same or similar motionswithout recovery time can lead to discomfort ortrauma.Using the keyboardUsing the mouse10-keyingFiling
15 Mechanical/Contact Stress Caused by hard/sharp surfaces pressing into softtissues.Resting wrists on desk edgeLeaning elbows on hard armrests or work surfacesSitting in a chair that places pressure on the back of the thighs
16 Computer Vision Syndrome Collection of symptoms associated with viewing amonitor for prolong periods:Burning, itchy, watery or dry eyesHeadachesEyestrain/blurred visionNeck & back achesPrevention: workstation design, a clean monitor,20/20/20 rule, frequent blinking, prescription eyewear
17 Risk Factor Exposure Risk of developing a WMSD depends on: The duration of exposure- Usually need hours of exposure- Can be all at one time or cumulative over daysThe frequency of exposureThe intensity of exposureExposure to combinations of risk factors increases thechances of developing a WMSD.
18 WMSD Prevention Preventing WMSD involves: Designing or modifying workstation configurationChairDesk & Keyboard/Mouse TrayInput DevicesMonitorOffice lightingDeveloping and modifying tasksTask variability
19 Computer Workstation Design Good design minimizesawkward and static postures →by allowing the user to:Sit in a neutral posture →Frequently change posturesLocate equipment and materials based on use
20 Computer Workstation Design Ten factors to consider when designing/modifying acomputer workstation:Chair adjustabilityDesk height and keyboard/mouse trayInput devicesMonitor type, location & heightLocation of work materials
21 Computer Workstation Design Ten factors to consider when designing/modifying acomputer workstation:Multi-user vs. single user workstationsTasks – multi-tasking vs. single taskHandednessLightingThe interaction of the above factorsGood Design = Desired Behavior
22 Computer Workstation Design – Chair Chair should be equipped withthe following adjustablefeatures:HeightArm restsBack rest/lumbar supportSeat pan depth and tiltIdeally the chair is fitted to theuser and then the workstation isadjusted to seated user.
23 Computer Workstation Design – Desk Desk and keyboard/mouse tray height :Dependent on the height of the seated userShould keep the body in neutral posturesTray should be adjustable to accommodate changing postures and different usersTray location dependent on tasks andhandedness
24 Computer Workstation Design – Desk Tasks and user handedness impacts workstationdesign:Work station configuration – standard, “L” or “U” shapedRequired desk top writing/work spaceSingle task vs. multi-taskingDocument holders vs. desk slantsTelephone useOther equipment (i.e., ten-key)
25 Computer Workstation Design – Work Layout Proper placement of equipment and materials assures the user will work in neutral postures
26 Computer Workstation Design – Input Devices Types and LocationsThe key is for wrists and arms to be neutralpostures
27 Computer Workstation Design – Monitor Computer monitor should be:Far away from user as possible and still comfortably seeDirectly in front of userTop tilted away from userTop of screen level with eyes(Lower for bifocal wearers)Other considerations: CRT vs.LCD; lighting and glare
29 Computer Workstation Design – Lighting Computer workstation lighting considerations:Frequency and duration of computer useComputer and non-computer tasksSources of glareFull-spectrum lightingLighting levels (35-50 foot candles)
30 Task Development & Variability Developing or modifying tasksdepends on 3 interacting factorsTask variability offers severaladvantages:Opportunity to change posturesUsers will be more alert and productiveDifferent tasks use different muscle groupsProvides recovery time and pauses for stretchesTasks with highly repetitive motions and high hand forces can be spread out during the day
31 Laptop ComputersLaptop computers pose unique ergonomic considerations when used like a PC. Laptops violate a number of basic ergonomic principles Use an external mouse and keyboard (and possibly a monitor)
32 Schedule an ergonomic evaluation by contacting : Your RoleLet your supervisor know if you are experiencing symptomsEvaluate your workstation and tasksConsider different equipmentChange the way you perform tasksTake micro-breaks & increase task variabilityAssess home computer workstation and tasksKeep fit – exercise (aerobic, flexibility and strength)Consult with your physician and eye care professionalListen to your body!Schedule an ergonomic evaluation by contacting :Sarah Greer