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CS330 Management Information Systems IT Infrastructure: Introduction and Overview 1.

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1 CS330 Management Information Systems IT Infrastructure: Introduction and Overview 1

2 Computers and Computing Recall: Input, Processing and Output are the 3 key elements in every computer system – Look at simple devices today such as graphing calculators and cell phones – any device with a microchip… – They are complex computers that are far more computationally powerful than computers that existed 30 years ago! What does that really mean to you? – Answer: They can do input, output and processing much better than ever Example a cell phone in MegaFlops: – My first computer – 2.7 megaflops – Samsung Galaxy S2 – 85 megaflops (calculations per second) – My home computer – 108,000 megaflops 2

3 Input Input to a computer system: – Can be human oriented Keyboard, mouse, touch, voice, digital imagery HCI – Human Computer Interfacing – Or can be generated by machines (computers) for machines (computers) to consume Temperature/Heat Sensor, Light Sensor, Example: Automated/Robotic Manufacturing Processes 3

4 Output Again, can be human oriented (HCI) – Monitor, LCD Screen, Audio, Haptic Feedback, Heat/Cold Or machine oriented – Barcodes (humans usually cant read these) – RFID/NFC tags (later in the course) 4

5 IO devices complement each other Printer vs. Scanner Speakers vs. Microphone Screen vs. Camera Haptic Feedback (vibration) vs G- sensor/accelerometer – Participation: Identify IO failures – – – 5

6 Observe Neither input nor output need to be physical, tangible or felt by humans One device can do both: Example wireless radio transmitter and receiver – The transmit (O) and receive (I) functions are assumed to be done by a single unit/device called radio – Same antenna can be used for receiving and broadcasting – A device can interleave these operations and so quickly that it looks that these are often happening in parallel 6

7 Some classic Business IO examples OMR/OCR: Optical Mark/Character Recognition Cellphones can do OCR now 7

8 Magnetic Ink (remember cheques) 8

9 Modern forms of input Direct interaction of users with corporate information systems – Through the internet, through the phone Voice recognition (Siri) – barely works in 2013 Machine vision and recognition Different types of data such as location of objects (humans, parcels, trucks, even individual cans of coke) – Consequences? 9

10 Processing Everything in the middle done by processing units – Electronics designed to operate on input to generate relevant output. Instruction that have been programmed is called software or code CPUs: Central Processing Units – are basically complex binary calculators 10

11 Processing Power Processing power of a system is often measured in different terms – Million Instructions per second (MIPS) – Floating point operations per second (FLOPS) Other not so good proxies for processing power – Ghz (Hertz?, Mega? and Giga?), # of cores, etc. Electrical processors are essentially complex calculators 11

12 Every computing device today – Does nearly all aspects of computing better (than it did when we were born) and is improving rapidly Ability to accept more complex inputs and create output is dictated by the speed at which we can process them – For example: a basic temperature sensor can take 40,000 readings per second – Example in Automotive Technology: Rain sensing windshield wipers that can respond to sudden splashes of water in less than 1/100 of a second – Lets not forget the CPU controlling selective activation of the 12 air bags… Ability to produce better output experiences is dictated by processing ability – Speed, accuracy, visual appeal etc. 12 FLOPS SHMOPS? Who cares?

13 My phone today vs. my first computer 13 Old 386DX ComputerMy new phone – Galaxy S2 Input108 button keyboard, mouse, mic Capacitive touch-screen with thousands of buttons, voice, g-sensor, magnetic sensor, light sensor, camera, GPS, radios of various types Processing40Mhz processor – 2.7Mflops 1.5Ghz dual core – 85 Mflops Output640x480 screen, speakers, printer HD screen 720x480, vibration/haptic feedback, various radio transmitters Storage40MB spinning disk (slow as hell) 32GB (access times thousands of times faster) Network1.4kbp/s modem50+MBPS LTE Price when purchased$2000 or ($16,000 adjusted for inflation today) $400

14 IO + Processing = Everything 14 Source:

15 Be very afraid… The speed of change and improvement is astounding Moores Law: Every 1.5 [to 3 years], the number of transistors that can be integrated on a circuit doubles – Transistor count is often considered a proxy for the number of computations possible per second – Caution: Transistor count does not always imply speed for a given task done by a computer system but rather the complexity of a processor What is a transistor? [Luckily not in this course] 15

16 Impact of Moores Law More and more computational problems have become solvable – Imagine: Walmart doing 5000 cash register transactions per second for 8 years – Then management asks you to find out what was the total revenue per day/hour for those years? – Can your cell phone do this today? When will it be able to do so? Economics – puting_records puting_records – Can be done vs. can be done at a reasonable cost 16

17 Remember IO and processing have improved side by side because they complement each other Faster processing means we can accommodate more input and produce more output Moores law also held true for storage cost/capacity [later] 17

18 Will this always hold? Probably not – Moores law is expected to test its limits somewhere between (in our lifetimes) – Physically fitting so much electrical circuitry in a tiny space becomes gradually difficult – Quantum computers might be our future [Read more if youre nerdy and interested] If they show up, will be an interesting time to live through But Dad I need the new cell phone, its quantum based? 18

19 Till then and for now Moores law has led towards parallelization – multi-core, dual, quad The parallelization trend, obviously! Duh – Doing multiple tasks at the same time [in parallel] Having two CPUs/cores does not always mean twice the speed – it depends on the task at hand! Amdahl's Law: The speedup of a program using multiple processors in parallel computing is limited by the time needed for the sequential fraction of the program – Some tasks simply cant be split and parallelized – Example: A large crowd in front of a door as a bottleneck (technical term) 19

20 Amdahl's Law at work: Store Receipt Verification Doubling the number of open tills does not double your throughput if the bottleneck is the security guard checking your receipts! Does not matter which line or where you wait in if everyone in the pipeline has to go through a single bottleneck eventually Can you visualize this! 20

21 Bottlenecks Bottleneck: Flow rate is determined by the size of the neck of the bottle! Can you name some technological bottlenecks in everyday computing tasks that you find slow: – Web browsing: On your phone? Downloading: ? [Can you download faster than your hard disk can store/save a movie?] – Disks and networks are often the bottlenecks for home/small business tasks Sadly human limitations are the biggest bottlenecks in most situations 21

22 Technology and Bottlenecks Embracing a new technology that does not improve on the system wide bottleneck will result in minimal performance gains Think of a bottleneck as a crippling constraint that holds back the performance of a system 22

23 Scenario: I want to watch lots of movies on my phone! My phone has 32GB of storage Assume that Rogers LTE allows me to download at 50MB per second (thatll be the day) At full speed it will take exactly 655 seconds (11 minutes) to fill up my phone with roughly 6-8 HD movies What is the bottleneck? – Storage Really storage? Yes but no Storage is a technological bottleneck Never forget to consider the feeble human users of technology 23

24 Lesson When considering systems as ways of doing things – Look at the process end to end – The slowest sequential (non-parallelizable) part is your bottleneck MIS performance bottlenecks can be caused by – Human delay (oh I forgot to enter the data) – Human inaccuracies (my bad) Or by technology 24

25 Scalability If it takes me 10 seconds to add two numbers, it should take me 20 seconds to add three numbers – But what if you give me 50, 500 or 5000 numbers? – What if I was asked to multiply instead of adding? – Class participation: Full points for this one – Multiplication by 3 example! – Need someone good in math to multiply – Time taken increases with the size of the number 25

26 Computing Scalability Computing tasks can also scale differently – Linear: Time taken to complete grows in direct proportion to the amount of the input. [Examples] – Quadratic: Time taken to complete grows as the square of the input [Example shortly] – Exponential: Time taken to complete grows at an exponential rate [Examples] Almost always linear is the best we can hope for! 26

27 Scalability 27

28 Why linear scalability is awesome Simple: Always need to add 1 unit of computing power to accomplish 1 additional unit of processing [or equivalent wait one more time unit] Quadratic: Its getting bad…for example to double processing power (halve time taken) we have to quadruple the number of processing units 28

29 Exponential Scalability Increasing the size of the input data by 1 can have drastic consequences on time required – Consider a problem that scales to the following formula: 5 x – If my data size is 10 and increases to 11 (just 1 unit) – The time taken increases by – By increasing the problem size by 1 unit or 10% I have increased time taken (cost) by 400% 29

30 A problem is… Unsolvable – If there exists no solution (algorithm) to solve it! Computationally Unsolvable – If the best known method to solve it using a computer system scales exponentially (or worse) – Not unsolvable, but relatively much harder to solve for progressively larger input sizes Can Moores laws help? Yes and No – Will come back to this later in the course But we dont give up: Approximate solutions are possible Examples of these hard problems: – Sudoku [size of board], Tetris, Battleship, Travelling Salesman [Logistics], Prime Number Finding [will revisit] 30

31 Problem growth visualized We are a large company and we want to build a network between our service cities…. 31

32 Cost of a fully connected network example N-1 in linear What about fully connected? – Do the math How much will connecting the 1001st city cost – 1000 of course – easy to see why What about linear cost vs quadratic cost here? – Cost of reliability? 32

33 Travelling Salesman Example Logistics Problem: Have to visit many sites with different distances between them – I can start where I want and end where I want – What is the shortest path that goes through all of them If we have n cities (size of input) we need to examine an exponential number of permutations/combinations (stats anyone?) 33

34 TSP Continued Checking each option requires many computations – Modern computers can handle inputs sizes in tens of thousands but fail miserably when n = 100,000 – Is the problem solvable today? Works well for small sizes e.g UPS delivery truck handling 1000 or so packages… What about flow of electricity in a power grid? – How many points of electricity consumption do we have in our grid in Ontario? In Canada? Across North America? m m 34

35 Remember Have realistic expectations from computers and MIS – Especially when it comes to IO and processing Can you as the vice president of Walmart expect to ask a question over 5 years worth of sales data and get the result instantly? – Yes/No/Maybe – Depends on your question, IT infrastructure etc. – It is not uncommon for some computing tasks to take days or even weeks to complete! 35

36 Ask questions if not sure This stuff is important… 36

37 You can help at home You can help solve one of the most difficult and computer problems and make a difference – Remember your computing resources cost money (energy, CPU time) Folding at home is one of the largest parallel distributed supercomputing effort! – 37

38 Moores law vs. Adoption Someone can read Moores law and come to the conclusion that technology is continuously improving and getting cheaper But are we continuously adopting it? – Do you buy a new phone, laptop, TV every day? – What convinces you to buy a new item X every 3 years and item Y every 5 years – Is it just Moores law at work? Quite often twice as fast/better is hard to identify 38

39 Human side of Moores Law Rogers curve 39

40 Adoption can happen in leaps While technology improves continuously adoption can be extremely slow for years and then jump in leaps and bound Example Microwave ovens: Invented in 1950s – By 1986, roughly 25% of households in the U.S. owned a microwave oven, up from only about 1% in [8] Current estimates hold that over 90% of American households own a microwave oven. – wikipedia [8] What about the internet (1960s) – 50% household penetration much later 40

41 Moores law vs. Human Adoption Geoffrey Moore (Business author), not related to Gordon Moore of Moores Law (Intel) 41

42 Crossing the Chasm Why does this happen? – (a) We hate change and (b) social and economic costs – Technology needs to mature and not go away before people trust it or see its value – Lots of factors you can read in Geffoery Moores book or its summaries all over the internet. Google:Crossing the Chasm Accelerants – Marketing: Convinces you to buy. You need this product now! – Global phenomena (wars, natural disasters etc.), – Political change (e.g space race) – Standardization and Consolidation – Many others… 42

43 Missed leap? HD-DVD anyone? We need a high storage system to archive our documents. Ive assessed the marketplace and recommend switching to HD-DVDs Other products that were ahead of their time – Failed to catch on and early majority refused to buy – Examples? Where are the following technologies in their lifecycle – Fax machines, Smart phones, High speed internet, Online TV 43

44 Why worry about this IS and technology adoption are inseparable As much as information systems are influenced by Moores law they are also influenced by human perception of technology – Expectations of our systems and ourselves are key Dont let Moores law mislead you! 44

45 5 Minute Question Break Cost of not adopting new technology – : Touchscreens and RIM products Management Fails: – 640K ought to be enough for everybody – Bill Gates Apples first PDA 45

46 46 The big picture of IT infrastructure

47 47 The shared technology resources that provide the platform for the firms information system applications. – Includes investment in hardware, software, and services, such as consulting, education, and training. IT Infrastructure Image Source:

48 Measures of Capacity and Speed 48

49 Specialty Computers Supercomputers and Mainframes – For very specialized server oriented tasks, or support analysis of large amounts of data – For complex calculations like simulations, weather forecasting and scientific computations – Example: Deep BlueDeep Blue Embedded computers – Micro-controller – Example: chips in iPod, home appliance, car etc. Portable computing devices 49

50 50 Figure 5-3 IT Infrastructure Evolution

51 N-Tier Client/Server Network Figure

52 Recent trends Like Home we can combine the resources of thousands of cheap, different, replaceable computers in a decentralized fashion and view it as 1 large pool of resources Cloud/Virtualization (discussed later in the course) 52

53 But arent we missing something 53

54 Software Side For large businesses software is often more costly than the hardware – May have to be customized to specific needs of a business Companies can often replace hardware over time but will get stuck with software solutions that become their processing bottlenecks Software upgrades are often not transparent to the users of the system – What problems does this cause? Re-learning? Unexpected results 54

55 Operating System A system software that allows effective utilization of input, output and processing hardware by various programmed applications – Windows, IOS, Android, Linux/Unix – Typically accomplishes this because it had knowledge about the hardware or through drivers Allows resource sharing for many concurrently running programs – Offers some fairness and prioritization facilities – e.g Multimedia vs. disk copying task! – Hides complication of hardware from software developers and users – e.g file system Offers isolation so that if one program crashes the others can keep running smoothly Other features [independent reading] 55

56 Microsoft Windows dominates the market of client machine software – 87% of PCs run on Windows as of August 2011 – Note that most PCs have OS preinstalled Unix or Linux widely used as server software and Windows Server is gaining popularity as well – 63.1% of servers in US use Unix or Linux as of August 2011, 36.9% use Windows – Linux and some versions of Unix are available as open- source software – Note that most server machines come with their own OSs. Android and Apple dominate with their OS for smart phones today 56 Operating System Platforms

57 57 PC OS Market Share Windows XPWindows XP (35.21%) Windows 7Windows 7 (31.21%) Windows VistaWindows Vista (11.27%) Mac OS XMac OS X (7.31%) iOSiOS (3.38%) AndroidAndroid (1.30%) LinuxLinux (1.11%)

58 Services that enable the IS to function – Consulting and system integration services Most firms today, even large firms, cannot develop their systems without significant outside help Identify what part of the business can be improved by IT Must ensure new systems integrate with legacy systems EA and DBMS suppliers often offer IT consulting services – Maintenance – Training, security Often done by consultancy / IT firms! This trend is probably here to stay Service Platform Image Source: 58

59 Set of computer programs used by organizations that integrate business applications and services. Largest suppliers of enterprise software are – SAP – Oracle – IBM – Microsoft – HP Cloud-based – CRM CRM – 59 Enterprise Applications Image Source:

60 What are these platforms? Lots of buzz words ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) CRM (Customer Relationship Management) SCM (Supply chain management) ECM (Enterprise Content Management) Marketing Information Management System DSS (Decision Support Systems) – Big decisions: EIS (Executive Information Systems) – Small decisions: Expert Systems Analytics and Data warehouse systems Gianormous market for the above Information Systems – And for subsystems of these systems – Social media management? Survey management? 60

61 Vendor/Service Lock-in costs Service platform providers have an incentive to lock you in – for good reason – Let us manage everything for you Is it fair? – Why does Apple make a Windows version of iTunes but why doesnt it make one for Linux? Are Oracle, SAP, IBM etc competing or helping each other? – Look at their agenda, how do they make money? – Google maps for IOS fiasco anyone? 61

62 Consultancy Firms and MIS Try to offer a one stop shop based systems that do everything – Try to integrate all aspects of your business – Aim for better communications between the hundreds of computer systems within an organization (e.g CRM and billing) – Even have competing industry wide solutions UW Quest and UW Learn for example are made and maintained by different service providers – The role of a consultancy firm (typically the maker of the larger more expensive one of these systems) is to integrate the two together so that the organization can benefit from both 62

63 Humans in the IT infrastructure Skills Knowledge Understanding of technology Moores law does not apply to peoples abilities and or salaries [Examined in the later part of the course] 63

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