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SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 New Technologies for Rural Accessibility Introduction to ITU-D Focus Group 7s Final.

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Presentation on theme: "SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 New Technologies for Rural Accessibility Introduction to ITU-D Focus Group 7s Final."— Presentation transcript:

1 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 New Technologies for Rural Accessibility Introduction to ITU-D Focus Group 7s Final Report INFOETHICS2000 Yasuhiko KAWASUMI November 13, 2000, Paris

2 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 Focus Group 7 Background n Topic of study formulated at WTDC98 (Valleta, Malta) n Study various mechanism by which to promote the development of new telecommunication technologies for rural applications n Funded by a Voluntary Contribution from the Government of Japan

3 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 FG7 Activities 1999 - 2000 n Case Library: 57 project reports collected and available on-line n FG7 Web Site: Over 1000 visitors from more than 60 countries n Number of FG7 registered members: 81 n Discussion groups via email, archived on- line

4 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 Collection of Case Reports on; a) ongoing projects using technologies specially designed for rural areas of developing countries including Multipurpose Community Tele-center, Telemedicine and Tele-education; b) planned projects that make new combinations linked with WLL networks; c) examples of how equipment has been adapted for use in particular, harsh climatic or other conditions of remote and rural areas, such as solar powered telephone

5 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 Focus Group aimed; n a)to select those types of project or system that have social or economic importance but limited commercial profitability, so that the ITU can focus special support upon such projects in helping to develop technology for rural applications; n b)to list new measures to be taken by ITU-D to encourage manufacturers and relevant organizations to create technology tailored to developing countries; n c)among those measure, to recommend priorities that ITU-D should follow to help achieve the development of technology for rural applications.

6 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 Characteristics of Rural Areas - scarcity of absence of public facilities such as reliable electricity supply, water, access roads and regular transport; - scarcity of technical personnel - difficult topographical conditions, e.g. lakes, rivers, hills, mountains or desserts which render the construction of telecommunications networks very costly - severe climatic conditions that make critical demands on the equipment - low level of economic activity mainly based on agriculture, fishing, handicrafts, etc.; - low per capita income - underdeveloped social infrastructure(health, education, etc): - low population density;

7 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 FG7 Findings: Applications Source: Freeplay Foundation Women in Mozambique listening to broadcasts on a clockwork-powered radio

8 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 Disadvantage of Rural Areas a) Low educational level, high illiteracy rate b) Hardly any job opportunities c) Low income per capita and per family d) Increasing migration of the young to urban n centers e) Unreliable and badly functioning public n transport f) Irregular, if any, power supply g) Poor health care and medical services h) Lack of other government services i) Little participation in national affairs

9 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 Community and Business Development Applications Multipurpose Community Telecenters (MCTs) Equipment layout at the Valle de Angeles MCT Telephone-based Interactive Voice Response (IVR) Three access options for delivering relevant information to rural communities over the PSTN (Source: RiSTi - Telkom Indonesia)

10 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 Videophone Telemedicine in Indonesia Telemedicine Electrocardiogram monitor that transmits patient data over a regular telephone line

11 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 African Virtual University Tele-education AVU classroom at the Ethiopian Civil Service College (left) New Skies Satellite Uplink Facility (Washington D.C., Europe, Canada Content Provider (university or studio) Partner Institutions (Africa) Classroom

12 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 Trends in rural applications n Specialized expertise used to design applications in education, health care, administration, etc. n Widespread adoption of Internet platform and multimedia content n Presence of multiple actors: PTOs, Governments, NGOs, UN Agencies n Lack of telecom connectivity still #1 barrier in rural areas

13 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 FG7 Findings: Technologies

14 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 n GSM 400 n IMT-2000 n Wireless routers n Two-way satellite Internet access n VHF radio n PMP/Cordless WLL n VSAT n Digital satellite radio EMERGINGEXISTING Wireless Access Technologies

15 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 Example: Point-to-Multipoint / PHS - Wireless Local Loop NMS Base Station (control part) Radio Unit Base Station (radio part) TDMA 2.4 GHz PHS WLL 1.9 GHz Remote Tower Remote StationFixed Station Source: Japan Radio Company, Ltd Local Exchange with V5.2 interface New Wireless Combinations

16 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 Gateway to PSTN Wireless IP Phone Network WAN link over rough terrain Wireless IP-Based Networks at PSTN Edge

17 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 Solar Power Wind Energy Micro Hydro Powering rural and remote telecom installations

18 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 Source: World Bank,Users' Guide to Off-Grid Energy Solutions. http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/energy/off_grid DeviceTypical use per day 12 - 18Black and white TV2 - 6 40 - 120Colour TV2 - 6 20 - 40Video casette player1 - 4 5 - 80Radio cassette player w/speakers2 - 12 350 - 500Desktop computer and monitor4 - 8 20 - 40Laptop computer4 - 8 5 - 10Two-way radio (standby)12 40 - 50Two-way radio (transmitting)0.5 - 3 30 - 60Fax/answering machinecontinuous (hours) Typical power consumption (watts) Meeting small-scale rural power requirements

19 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 $0 $200 $400 $600 $800 $1000 Email Appliance Digital Satellite Radio Cellular Phone PC + monitor Retail Prices, US$ Price Range for Low-End Multimedia Devices, September 2000 Handheld Computer Taking advantage of low-cost multimedia devices

20 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 The client/ server model is the design paradigm of the World Wide Web. Providing rural access to information through client/server computing

21 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 To install a pre-configured email appliance: n insert batteries n plug in telephone line n turn on machine To install PC-based email: n connect hard disk drive, monitor, keyboard and mouse n plug computer & monitor into 110/220 AC outlet n boot up the hard drive n navigate the file management system n install email software n configure dial-up access number, modem rate, SMTP server, etc. Lowering the technical skills barrier using information appliances

22 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 Source: Byte Magazine, www.byte.com Shifting hardware and software maintenance to urban areas using thin client networks

23 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 n Modularity and scalability n Use of wireless technologies n Low frequency bands n Remote network management n Simple configuration & operation 16. Guidelines for rural ICT designers I Guidelines for Rural ICTs

24 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 n Accessible user interface n Long life cycle n Multi-user terminals n Standards compliance n Low power requirements Guidelines for Rural ICTs (cont.)

25 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 Barriers in Question n Coordination of Frequencies under 1GHz with regional and national authorities; n Concern about the high license fee for frequency spectrum; n International Charging Arrangements for Internet Services(ICAIS)

26 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 4.Focus Group Recommendations

27 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 1. Promote the development of low-cost information appliances for rural use. 2. Create a renewable energy handbook on small-scale power systems for rural ICTs. 3. Increase collaboration with microfinance organizations to develop communication-based rural businesses and applications. 4. Conduct pilot projects of packet-based wireless access infrastructure for multimedia applications. 5. Maintain and expand FG7 Web site. 6. Hold a symposium on new technologies for rural applications. Focus Group 7 Recommendations

28 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 Conclusions n The goal of Missing Link report in 1985; To bring telephone service within the easy reach of all humankind n As the gap of haves and have-nots are closing, new gaps are widening n The new goal of the ITU Secretary General To bring internet services to all humankind within a decade in the new millennium

29 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 Conclusions-contd n 1)Choice of technology for rural access is one of the key issues. n 2)Linking suppliers and implementers on the web. By providing the comprehensive catalogue with contact information is useful n 3) Shared use concept is useful for making ICT terminals and facilities at community centers available at affordable cost. n 4)Wireless access system such as FWA, VSATs are effective means of establishing infrastructure in rural areas; less cost and easy installation over the wired system.

30 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 Conclusions-contd n 5)IP based network is more economical and flexible than circuit switched network. Emerging packet based wireless access technologies such as IMT-2000 and wireless routers, are being designed to deliver wide range of traffic types more efficiently than traditional wired and cellular telephony network.

31 SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation Geneva, 21 September 2000 Conclusions-contd n 6)Collaboration for promotion of rural projects among multi-actors such as PTOs, Governments, UN Agencies, and NGOs etc. should be encouraged. n 7) Participation of women and the youth for promotion of information access for rural community should be encouraged. n 8) Visit to


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