1Arnaud Legout INRIA, Sophia Antipolis EPI Planète How to Give a Good Talk?Arnaud LegoutINRIA, Sophia AntipolisEPI Planètecel , version 6October 2013This work is licensed under the Creative CommonsBY-NC-SA License. To view a copy of this license, visit
2Presentations are a fundamental part of research excellence Why?Presentations are a fundamental part of research excellenceWhy should you bother giving talks?
3Research and Marketing The best researchers in the world learned how to sell their workTo the community: visibility, impactTo students: attract graduate studentsTo commissions: funding, promotionTo the public: increase attraction of your field, fame
4Goals of a Presentation Give the audience the intuition of your ideaMake the audience eagerTo read your paperTo ask you questionsTo discuss with youBuild relationshipCreate a reputationGet feedback
5Goals of a Presentation Show you can make great presentationsBig plus in a careerConversely, a poor presentation can kill an application to a new positionEach talk is an interview talk
6Can You Trust Me? Make your own opinion Attend/watch presentationsMimic presentations you understand/likeBig plus if it is not your fieldNever ever consider simplicity and clarity as a proof of weakness: this is talentYou can violate the rules if you have a very good reason to do so
7Focus of This Talk Broadly applicable advices for any kind of talks Some specifics for scientific talksComplex figuresEquationsMethodologyProof
8Outline Why should you bother doing talks? How to structure your talk? How to make your slides?How to give your talk?Great talks examples
10Define First Your Message The audience will remember at most one single messageWhich message you want to audience to remember?Can you express this message in less than a minute in an elevator?Tailor you talk according to this messageDon’t sell more, but sell it wellIt is marketing: Useless to do great research if nobody knows about it
11Do Not Present Too Much Common pitfall “I did a lot and I will present every single bit of my work. They will be impressed!”That shows you are unable to deliver a messageDo not hesitate to cut your resultsBetter to present 10% the entire audience gets than 90% nobody gets
12Adapt to the Audience The entire audience must understand your talk Better to explain notions a part of the audience already knows than to lose another part during the talkDo not overestimate the knowledge of the audience in your field
13Give a Structure to Your Talk Give a backgroundAdapt to the audienceAdapt the technical granularity of your presentationMake it fun and catchyMotivate your workWhy is the subject important and interesting?Focus of your workWhat is this presentation/work about in a single sentence? What is the problem?Background is so that the entire audience understands your talk
14Give a Structure to Your Talk Show methodology and toolsShow resultsClearly show your contributionsConclude with a summary of contributionsImpact of this workFuture work rarely makes sense unless you are really planning future workTell a story from the background to the conclusion
15Give a Structure to Your Talk Give an outlineYou can give it first before or after (better) the backgroundRepeat the outline before each new partUse color to show where you areMake clear the structure of your talk to the audienceNo suspense
16Give a Structure to Your Talk No need to go deep into related work (unless it is a survey)Your contributions must be the coreBut, be prepared to discuss related work
17Alternate Structures You need to know what you are doing More original means more risksAlternate questions and answersAppropriate for tutorials and general talksLess appropriate for technical talksBut, can be used to introduce the problem and each contribution
18Alternate Structures No slides Need to be a very strong speaker Need a very well structured presentationNeed a very high effort from the audienceYou must transmit energySome (lazy) people don’t like such presentation
19Clearly show the take home messages Make SummariesFor each important resultAt the end of each part of your talkClearly show the take home messages
20Anticipate Q&AQ&A are part of the talk, don’t underestimate its importancePrepare backup slidesVery impressive when it worksYou can put technical details or results you did not have time to address in themBe prepared to answer questionsRehearse with colleaguesBe prepared to hard questionsQ&A are part of the talk, don’t underestimate its importance
21Questions You Must Ask Before You Prepare Your Talk My goal?My single message?Audience?Background, knowledge, size, expectationsDuration?For the talk, for the questionsRoom characteristics?Size, position of the screen, my positionAdapt your talk and material to each contextMy goal is “why I am giving this talk”. It is orthogonal to the message you convey in the talk.
22Outline Why should you bother doing talks? How to structure your talk? How to make your slides?How to give your talk?Great talks examples
23Clarity and simplicity “You give the talk, slides support it. Never compete with them, you will lose!”Simplicity is a lot of work: first versions of the slides are always too complexClarity is even more work
24The Story Before the Slides Define first your story before making any slideThe slides must not define or constrain the storyMake slides to illustrate and support your story
25Slide Template Avoid overloaded templates How to give a good talk > How to make your slides > Slide TemplateSlide TemplateAvoid overloaded templatesFrequent with some companies that like to justify a costly graphical identityUnless you have a graphical talent, keep it simpleMake a clear distinction between the title and the restDo not use complex headers or footersNo need to give the presentation title, affiliation, authors list, company logo, etc. on each slideArnaud Legout – How to Give a Good TalkMarch 2013- 25
26Use Slide Numbers How do you know which slide it is over 30? “The slide whose title is ‘Use Slide Numbers’”“The slide after ‘Presentation Guidelines’”“I don’t remember, go back, again, again, again, again, stop… yes this one!”Used to ask questions and to practiceUsed during audio or video conferencesAt least 20 ptEven at the back someone may ask a question
27Use Slide NumbersIn some cases, it is useful to also add the total number of slidesFor a defense or a short talkEasy way for the jury or the audience to assess whether you are close to the conclusion and will not exceed your allocated timeFor longer talks don’t show the total numberA large number of remaining slides might be discouraging
28Use non-serif fonts (times) Serif fonts are hard to readLine width is not uniformThin lines may not render well with all projector typesHard to read from the backUseArial: looks formal, very (may be too) popularTahoma: plainCalibri: good alternative to arialCentury Gothic: elegant
29Use non-serif fonts (Arial) Serif fonts hard to readLine width is not uniformThin lines may not render well with all projector typesHard to read from the backUseArial: looks formal, very (may be too) popularTahoma: plainCalibri: good alternative to arialCentury Gothic: Elegant
30Use non-serif fonts (Tahoma) Serif fonts hard to readLine width is not uniformThin lines may not render well with all projector typesHard to read from the backUseArial: looks formal, very (may be too) popularTahoma: plainCalibri: good alternative to arialCentury Gothic: Elegant
31Use non-serif fonts (Calibri) Serif fonts hard to readLine width is not uniformThin lines may not render well with all projector typesHard to read from the backUseArial: looks formal, very (may be too) popularTahoma: plainCalibri: good alternative to arialCentury Gothic: Elegant
32Use non-serif fonts (Century G.) Serif fonts hard to readLine width is not uniformThin lines may not render well with all projector typesHard to read from the backUseArial: looks formal, very (may be too) popularTahoma: plainCalibri: good alternative to arialCentury Gothic: Elegant
33The Ban Comic Sans Campaign Some people hate the comic sans fontReasonsUbiquitousChildish, immature, naïveInappropriately usedDesigned at Microsoft
34The Ban Comic Sans Campaign Safe side to do not use itBe aware you might upset the audienceDon’t use it for a job applicationI used it in my lectures starting in 2005I believed it looks less scary than Arial for studentsDropped it in late 2011 (I prefer Calibri now)It is very rare today in academic presentations
35Use Large Fonts Font must be larger than 24pt (here it is 32pt) Where do you stop to read it from the back?Consider poor projectors, poor screens, poor eyes
36Be neaT Do YOU like slides with sppell check erors Bullet. Struture, Inconsistant:CapitalisationBullet.Struture,font;Ugly slidespoor use of symbol !!!Poor layout
37Be Neat Do you like Slides with spell check errors Inconsistent CapitalizationBulletsStructureFontUgly slidesPoor use of symbolsPoor layout
38No Punctuation Mark. No punctuation mark: At the end of sentences: Period (.) ,Colon (:),Semi-colon (;),Comma (,).Apart from:Question marks (?),Exclamation marks (!).
39No Punctuation Mark No punctuation mark At the end of sentences Period (.)Colon (:)Semi-colon (;)Comma (,)Apart fromQuestion marks (?)Exclamation marks (!)
40Use Meaningful Titles The title should summarize the slide content Do not use a same title with an increasing numberIntroduction 1/5Introduction 2/5Etc.Poor variant “cont.”
41How Many Colors? No more than three colors on a slide Here I have fourUse easy to distinguish colors like darkBlue, Red, and GreenUse colors to emphasize an important wordMay be used to remind you to develop keypointsWhat is green for?
42How Many Colors? No more than three colors on a slide Here I have threeUse easy to distinguish colors like darkBlue, Red, and BlackUse colors to emphasize an important wordMay be used to remind you to develop keypointsOne color for the title, one for the text, and one to stress words.You may use more colors, but in this case you have to explain the meaning of each color (in this case is it really clearer to use colors)
43Background Colors Never use light colors or low contrast They may not render wellNoNever use light colors or low contrastThey may not render wellNoNever use light colors or low contrastThey may not render wellYesNever use light colors or low contrastThey may not render wellYes, but ugly
44Background Colors I like this one Seems to work well with colors too Quite relaxing to look at such slidesLooks clean and simpleSeems to work well with colors tooRed, Blue, Green (favor light colors)Be careful with contrastWhen there is light in the room, contrast is lowerYou don’t have control on it, consider the worst case
45Background Colors Don’t use thin fonts They may not render wellI don’t have much experience with this backgroundSeems to become more popularTry it and make your own opinion
46Colors and Projectors The universal rule Be prepared to Projectors never render colors as you expectBe prepared toRed that looks pink or orangeBlue that looks purpleYellow that is invisible (never use yellow)Never use colors that are too closeDark green, red, and blue is the safe side
47Be ConciseDo not write complete sentences as they make your message obfuscated in long lines of textNever forget that nobody can read your slides and listen to you at the same time unless you are reading what is in your slides. But, you must not read your slides, this is boringOmit technical details, there is no chance to explain everything in a single presentation. Instead, you should make the audience eager to read your workDo not believe complexity will impress your audience, it will simply make you look unable to express your idea
48Be Concise Write small sentences Do not compete with your slides You give the message, the slides support itDo not dig into detailsJust deliver a messageGive a preview of your work/paperBe simple in your explanations
49Should I Show One Bullet at a Time? Perfectly fine to show the entire slide if it is conciseNo need to over animateWhen appropriate, I like to show the title alone to introduce the slideBut, if you feel you compete with your slides, show one (or a few bullets) at a timeRule of thumb: do not animate bullets (or block of bullets) on which you discuss less than 20 to 30s
50Should I Show One Bullet at a Time? But, never everAnimateBulletsToo FastBest way to compete with your slideIn case of doubt, don’t animateSafe side
51Figures, pictures, animations “Replace text with illustrations”Simplicity is a lot of work: first versions of the slides are always too complexClarity is even more work
59Evolution of Communication (Poor) RadioTVWebSmartphonesAssume I want to convey that communication improved with the device
60Evolution of Communication (Still Poor) RadioTVWebSmartphonesI mix text and pictures, which is useless and disturbingPictures are just used as an illustration, not as the core of the slideThe picture are not chosen with care, they do not convey a sense of progress in modernity (the flat screen looks more modern than the blackberry device)
61Evolution of Communication (Good) The device pictures convey the evolution of technology along with the evolution of communication(old radio, CRT TV, Firefox on windows XP, iphone 5 with Twitter).The talk should build on this visual support.
62Do Not Over Illustrate Do not use Irrelevant illustrations Weak metaphorsAnimated imagesThe case of a student using the image of a missile launcher targeting the BitTorrent logoReused the large missile launcher image everywhereUsing a road map on the left half of each outline slides (mac feature) leaving me wondering what is was for.
64Use Illustrations Make your point clear and simple Give a mental image people are more likely to rememberAlways use a figure instead of a table
65Without Illustrations (Poor) Prior to distributionContent split multiple piecesMetainfo file created by the content providerTo join a torrentPeer P retrieves metainfo file from a well-known websiteP contacts the trackerThe tracker responds back with a peer set of randomly selected peersP contacts peers in this set and start requesting different pieces of the content
67Use Enlightening Animations Animations must make complex idea simple to graspNo magic, it is a lot of work to makeHere are two examples
68Use Enlightening Animations: P2P case Client-server
69Use Enlightening Animations: Sieve of Eratosthenes A number is prime if it can only be divided by 1 or by itself69Credit: G. Berry, Collège de France, 25/01/08
70Use Enlightening Animations: Sieve of Eratosthenes70Credit: G. Berry, Collège de France, 25/01/08
71Use Enlightening Animations: Sieve of Eratosthenes71Credit: G. Berry, Collège de France, 25/01/08
72Use Enlightening Animations: Sieve of EratosthenesWe are done when the square of the smallest remaining integer (here 11) is larger than the largest remaining integer (here 71)72Credit: G. Berry, Collège de France, 25/01/08
73Use Enlightening Animations: Sieve of EratosthenesWe are done when the square of the smallest remaining integer (here 11) is larger than the largest remaining integer (here 71)73Credit: G. Berry, Collège de France, 25/01/08
74Do Not Over Animate It is disturbing Annoying Useless You cannot keep the audience focused
75Design and Presentation Zen Should you focus on the design of the slides?Question of time and moneyAddress issues by order of priorityA well defined and clear messageA well structured (and fun) storyAdapt to the audienceTell your story with passion (you are already top 1%)Make beautiful slidesPresentation Zen. Garr ReynoldsMoney is not only about buying the material, but also about the time you spent (your time is money for a company) on the slides.You cannot afford 3 days making perfect slides if you need to make weekly presentations about progress of your project (otherwise, when would you work on your project). In that case foster simplicity instead of design (it will already be a lot of work)Slides are not the talk, they just support it
76Design and Presentation Zen You cannot compete with Steve JobsHe had an army of collaborators working on the keynotesHe had a visionary designer talent and stunning charismaBut, you can get close by targeting clarity and simplicityTo improve your design skills readPresentation zen by Garr ReynoldsSlide:ology by Nancy Duarte
77Clarity and simplicity (Poor) You give the talkslides support itNever compete with them, you will lose!This is the regular powerpoint way to convey idea. Not really good
78Clarity and simplicity (good)Clarity and simplicity“You give the talk, slides support it. Never compete with them, you will lose!”We get rid of bullets and just focus on the message
79Clarity and simplicity (good)Clarity and simplicity“You give the talk, slides support it. Never compete with them, you will lose!”Same with an illustration giving a feel of simplicity and clarity
80Why You Have So Much Text in Your Slides? I am giving a lectureThere is not a single or a few messages, but a lot of technical details that you have to learnI am using my slides as the material for my lectureThis can be disputed, the other option is to use a companion text documentBut, I am putting in slides what I would write on a board (I have horrible hand written skills, believe me!)
81Why You Have So Much Text in Your Slides? For any other public talk from 5 to 30 minutes (that is, 99% of the talks you will have to give)Very few textA lot of illustrationsSee annex 1 (at the end of the slide set) for one of my 20 minutes talkFor longer talks (tutorial, lectures…)You might need textBut, focus on clarity, simplicity, and illustrations
82Outline Why should you bother doing talks? How to structure your talk? How to make your slides?How to give your talk?Great talks examples
84How to Show Something on a Slide? You can touch the screenReally touch the screenDon’t shake the hand 5 meters in front of the screenNot always possibleScreen might be too high or too farNot the most professional solution
85How to Show Something on a Slide? You can use neat animationsWorks in any caseSafe sideMany excellent optionsSquare, circles, ovals, arrows, etc.See examples in the followingBut, never use a laser pointerShow you are lazy and unprofessionalAren’t you shaking?
92Explain All Slides Never present a slide you do not explain in details Always drop a slide if you present it for less than 30 secondsSpend time on complex figures or drop themSpend time on equations or drop themTalk on transition slides (e.g., outline reminders) or drop themUse transition to summarize the previous part and introduce the next one
93Minimum Explanation For each figure you must Give for each of the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axisLabel, unit, scale (if log scale)Give the legendExplain all symbolsTake an example to illustrate a specific point in the figureVery useful if the figure is complex
94Example for a Figure High peer availability Increasing number of seedsIncreasing peer availabilityHigh peer availabilityLow peer availability3 to seeds0 to 1 seed20th50th80thThis is not a graphical art presentation
95Example for an Equation You will not look more clever if you show equations and don’t explain them
97Introduce and Summarize Slides For each important slideSay a one sentence introductionWhat you are going to discuss nowSay a one sentence summaryIf the audience has to remember a single sentence it is this oneFor very important results, show the take home message
98Be Redundant Repeat several times Never too much redundancy I’m going to explain…My explanation is…I just explained…Never too much redundancy
99Never Go Back It is bad habit to go back to a previous slide If you forgot something, just tell itIf you need a previously shown image, add it againNavigating within slides will lose your audience
100Never Exceed Your Allocated Time This is a lack of respect for the audience and the next speakersNot admissible, not professionalShould never happen if you are well preparedCase of best paper award starting with poorly explained equations that was still speaking after 45 minutes (20 minutes talk including questions) in front of 400 people.I just remind the pain.
101Never Exceed Your Allocated Time In case you feel you will exceed the allocated timeDrop slidesNo problem to drop a full partNever drop summary of contributionsNever stop in the middle of somewhere
102One Slide Every Two Minutes Usually everybody agreesNow, count!10 minutes means 5 slides20 minutes means 10 slidesHow many slides do you have for a 20 minutes talk?I have seen for 20 minutes people with more than 50 slides full of text!
103One Slide Every Two Minutes You can violate this rule ifYou have time to explain in details all slidesYou will not exceed your allocated timeYou will not speak much fasterHard to spend on average per slideless than 1 minute (really short)more than 3 minutes (start to be boring)
104Use a Watch On a room wall, in front of you On your desk On PowerPoint So that you can see it, but not the audienceOn your deskDigital one with large enough numbersOn PowerPointPresenter modeVery convenient, you can get comments and a few slides before and after the current one
105For Long Talks Several hours to several days Make often summaries At the end of each partAfter each breakAt the beginning of each new dayInvolve the audience“Jon, what do you remember from the last hour?”“Jim, can you in few words explain me this part?”But, don’t be too pushy: it is not an exam!And, always make again the summary yourself
106Q&A Reformulate questions Be concise in your answer Make sure you understood themMake sure everybody hear themBe concise in your answerDo not start a discussion“I propose to continue this interesting discussion during the break. Another question?”
107Q&A Never bluff or lie Acknowledge when you don’t have the answer “Thank you for that point, I don’t have an answer now. We will definitely look at it.”“I don’t know this article, but it looks similar to what we did. Can you send me the pointer?”Never forget to send back your answer by
108Q&A Questions might be In any case never Aggressive Stupid (most of the time, such questions show you made a poor presentation)Hard to answerShowing you are wrongIn any case neverLie, aggress, or complaincomplain: it is not my fault, I had a problem with my laptop/supervisor/family/etc.
109Q&A During a conference, if you don’t understand the question Try to reformulate based on what you gotIf after one try you still don’t understand itAsk the session chairIf after two tries nobody got itDon’t start a discussion at that pointPropose to take it off-line after the talk
110Use Your Body Use eye contact Use your hands You can walk, but Do not stare (no more than 10 seconds)Do not avert or switch fastUse your handsTo support visually what you sayYou can walk, butDo not stand in front of your slidesDo not continuously walk along a lineWalk on a triangle and stop at each vertexShow how to merge to sets with hands (ant rostrow)Show how to designate two users (one per hand)
111Use Your Body Stay in front of the audience Aside the slides, but not in front of themDo not show your back or your sideDo not persistently move while speaking
112Use Your Voice Make a short pause before each important message In the order of a few secondsPauses are even more effective than raising voiceThe rhythm of the speech is what makes a big difference to catch the attention
113Use Your Voice Vary your voice level Never read your slides or notes Speaking softly catch better the attention than speaking even louderAlternating loud and soft speech catch the best the attentionYou need to practice a lot to find the right balanceMy rule of thumbMake a pause and speak softly before a very important resultNever read your slides or notes
114Show EnthusiasmIf you don’t show enthusiasm presenting your own work, do you really believe that the audience will be enthusiasticListening to youReading your workInviting youDiscussing with you
115Use a Second Screen Do not look at your slides on the primary screen You must not show your back to the audienceHard to keep the eye contact this wayUse instead a second screen (in clone or extended view)Place it appropriatelyStay in front of the audience when you look at the slidesHard to see you are looking at the slides
116Use a Remote Controller Seamlessly synchronize your talk with your slidesFreedom to moveMost professionalUse a simple remote controllerForward, backward, hide slides (black screen)Small enough to fit well in the handNever use a wireless mouseDo not shake or point-toward-the-slides the hand when you switch slides
117Practice Best speakers practice the most No improvisation or spontaneityTo look spontaneous you even need to practice moreStand up and speak with loud voice to practicePractice at least once using a projectorPractice with colleagues (once well trained)The shorter the talk the more you have to practiceBe prepared to answer hard/aggressive questions
118Practice To prepare a 20 minutes talk Three days for a first version of the slidesAround 10 rehearsal in front of my deskAround 5 “in situation” rehearsalFinal version of the slidesStand upSpeak loudMay use a real projectorStringent time constraintIn front of colleagues
119Practice vs. EnergyHow to project energy if you lost it during rehearsals?Don’t repeat the day of your presentation and only once the day beforeSleep well the night beforeConvert your stress into energy
120Practice vs. Energy Practice permits to control the energy Theatre actors performing on stage every day have to project a lot of energyThe more they perform, the more the energy they project is appropriateThe less you practice the more you will use your energy toKeep the focusFind what to sayFight against your stress
121Practice and Experienced Speakers Experienced means +50 presentations or +100 hours of presentationsIf it is not your case, you will never practice too muchIf you are that experienced, you will probably not have time to practice that muchYour experience will somewhat compensate a lack of practiceBut, if you have a tight schedule and want to impress, you will have to practice
122Dress Well Always dress better than the audience Show that you respect the audienceIf you don’t care for your presentation or of the audience, how will you dress?As every day!But, do not be overdressedAsk the dressing convention of your community/audience
123Avoid Bad SurprisesAsk weeks before your talk to your session chair or organizerTalk duration, questions durationPresence of a projectorIf you have a laptopCan you use it or do you have to use the computer of the conference?If you don’t have a laptopIs there a computer that you can use?Which OS, which version of PowerPoint, PDF only?
124Avoid Bad SurprisesAsk weeks before your talk to your session chair or organizerAudienceIf it is a well known conference, better ask your colleagues/advisorIf it is not a regular talk at a conference (tutorial, interview, visit, etc.) you must ask
125Avoid Bad SurprisesMake backup copies of your slides on two different supportsDon’t put everything in a same luggageMake your slides available on-lineMake copies in several versionsIn addition to the latest version, for compatibility issues, use backups in older versions (for PowerPoint it is usually )Check that all copies are the last version of your presentation
126Avoid Bad SurprisesIntroduce yourself to the session chair or organizer well before your talk beginsMight be hard to find during big conferencesYou have to give a short biography to the session chair3 sentencesArrive early in the conference roomDon’t hesitate to move chairs or tables to make you more comfortable
127Avoid Bad Surprises Test your presentation Test the remote controller Go through all slides to see if everything is okMust check colors and animationsTest the remote controllerBatteries
128Avoid Bad Surprises If you use your laptop Restart it half an hour before your presentationStop all applicationsAvoid popupsStop wifiAvoid system update popups or rebootUse a power cableDeactivate sleep mode, screen saver
129Avoid Bad Surprises Sleep well and eat enough to do not pass out A small bottle of water might help
130Some Facts on the Audience They want to be elsewhereEarly in the morning: in their bedAround noon: eatingEarly in the afternoon: sleeping at the swimming poolLate in the afternoon: dinner or social eventIn the middle: waiting for the coffee break
131Some Facts on the Audience They don’t know youThey don’t know your workThey don’t know your fieldThey have no reason to like your workThey have no reason to listen to you
132Some Facts on the Audience They have already ingested boring presentationsThey are laptop addictsThey are reading their s, browsing the web, reading online newspapers, skyping, etc.You have to wake them up and catch their attention
133How to react to…? People you lost You lost them, so work for the ones you haven’t lost yetDon’t repeat what you feel the lost audience didn’t getYou will lose the last ones that follow youNasty people (aggressive, commenting…)Focus on other peopleDon’t give them the opportunity to disrupt you even more
134Outline Why should you bother doing talks? How to structure your talk? How to make your slides?How to give your talk?Great talks examples
135Wonderful Examples Technical talks Scott Shenker: The Future of Networking, and the Past of Protocols, Open Networking Summit 2011TryHans Rosling: Stats that reshape your worldview, TED 2006.TrySee
136Wonderful Examples General talks (not scientific) Randy Pausch Last Lecture (in english)How to communicate passion?TryOr search google for “Randy Pausch Last Lecture”
137Wonderful Examples General talks (not scientific) Michel Serres aux 40 ans de l’INRIA (in french)How to keep an audience of specialists focused during one hour?Remember: a clear, well structured and fun story adapted to the audience and told with passion are way more important than any visual supportTry
138Wonderful Examples Watch talks on http://www.ted.com/ Extremely high quality standardElizabeth Gilbert on nurturing creativity
139How to Give a Good Talk Arnaud Legout email@example.com Thank you!Put here title and contactEverything that facilitates access to your work, URL, etc.How to Give a Good TalkArnaud Legout
141Annex 1 Example of one of my talk (with annotated slides) You can access the video recording of the talk (in French) here:
142Check List My goal? My single message? Audience? Convince the audience that I am doing interesting and strong researches with practical impactMy single message?We collected the entire Twitter social graph and extracted its macrostructureAudience?200 computer scientists, but not in my field
143Check List Duration? Room characteristics? 20 minutes for the talk Theatre, impossible to move (fixed mic) or touch the screen
144Macroscopic Exploration of the Twitter Social Graph Arnaud LegoutEPI DIANA, Sophia AntipolisMy first challenge is to explain what Twitter is. For sure, everybody already heards about it, but when it comes at modeling it with a directed social graph (which is what we did), the audience needs to have a good feel of the Twitter specificities and of what is a directed social relationship.The talk should be fun and entertaining from the beginning, I cannot start with abstract definitions or graph drawings. I decided to start with full screen picture illustrating the two main social relationships in the real life: friends and producer/consumer.
145Friends A single high quality photography and a single word. This picture introduces well the notion of symmetric communication among a group of friends/colleagues/etc.
146Producer Consumer A single high quality photography and a single word. I gave this talk in front of a French audience. TF1 is the number one (in terms of audience) TV channel in France and Claire Chazal (the lady in the picture)the most famous TV journalist in France.This picture gives immediately the feeling she produces news and we consume them, without any way to send back information to her.At that step, everybody should agree that the mode producer/consumer widely influences what we know, so it is central to understand information propagation.So I claim that Twitter, unlike facebook and other widely used social networks, allows this notion of producer/consumer and friends.
147Follow Relationship in Twitter Bob follows AliceAlice follows BobAliceBobNow I need to make the link between the social relationships friends and producer/consumer, and a graph.I take a very simple example with a simple animation clearly emphasizing the flow of information.
148Twitter Social Graph Alice Bob And I conclude by saying that Twitter is a mix of both friends and producer/consumer relationships. So Twitter is really close to how information propagates in real life. It is therefore, very interesting and important to study it, because it will improve our understanding of real life information propagation.
149Give a physical meaning to the decomposition +500 million nodes+24 billion edgesChallengesCollect the graphDecompose the graphGive a physical meaning to the decompositionNow, I need to explain that it is complex to make this study.So I start with the size of the graph and stress that it is huge.Then I present each of the three challenges explaining that we overcame all three.Due to the limited time, I cannot present all three challenges, so I explain that in the following I only focus on the last one. I decided to focus on the last one because it is the one with the clearer practical impact, so I believe it is the one with the strongest impact on the audience.
150Macrostructure of the Twitter social graph Directed acyclicGraphSCC DecompositionHere I explain with a very simple drawing how we decompose the graph. SCC is in red so that I remember to take time to explain what it is.The directed acyclic graph is a graph in which each node is an SCC. Out of all SCCs there is one that is larger than the others, the Largest SCC (LSCC).This is my transition to the next slide in which I present the Twitter macrostucture starting with the LSCC
151Instead of presenting the macrostructure in one shot (which will either scare the audience or distract them from what I am explaining because they will focus on a complex slide), I explain how we built it. This is simple to follow.
161Macroscopic Exploration of the Twitter Social Graph Arnaud LegoutEPI DIANA, Sophia AntipolisFinally I wrap up on that slide, remind the three main challenges, explain we overcame the two first, and argue that I just show the we overcame the last one.
164CreditHow to give a bad talk? By David A. Patterson, Rolf Riedi, John Ousterhout, Tom AndersonBrowse google for an instance of the presentationPresentation Zen by Garr ReynoldsHow to give a good research talk by Simon Peyton Jones, Microsoft Research, Cambridge
165Credit Colleagues The wonderful and awful presentations I attended Much better to be ashamed in front of a colleague than in front of 300 peersThe wonderful and awful presentations I attendedMy students, their mistakes and their successesMany thanks to TCCC mailing list people who helped me fix typos in the slides and made good suggestions