2MEMORY ROM: For BIOS (Basic Input Output System) CMOS RAM: Battery-backed memory used to store system specific parameters required by the system BIOS to boot. It also stores the system clock information.RAM: Dynamic RAM and used for storing Data and programs which disappear after task completed or power turned offSize: 2 - 4GB for Desktops, 2 – 4 GB per Core for ServersSpeed: 1333MHz, 1600 MHz ..Type: DDR3/4 SDRAM (Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic RAM)Packaging: DIMM, SIMM…Cache: Static RAM attached to the CPU and used for storing current data. L1, L2, L3 Cache
3Hard DiskHARD DISKMagnetic storage device. It stores data by magnetizing particles on a disk.Used to store operating system, application software, utilities and data.Metal, plastic, or glass platter(s)2 magnetic surfaces/platter1 or more platters per spindle7,200 – 15,000 rpm1 head/platterHead(s) move in and outInside a Hard Disc Drive
4HOW DATA IS ORGANIZED ON DISK Hard DiskHOW DATA IS ORGANIZED ON DISKTracks-Circular areas of the diskLength of a track one circumference of diskOver 1000 on a hard diskData first written to outer most trackSectors-Divides tracks sectionsCylinders-Logical groupings of the same track on each disk surface in a disk unitClusters-Groups of sectors used by operating system64 sectors in one clusterData stored in blocks (pages) of .5 to 8 KB
5Hard DiskHARD DISKIDE: Obsolete, also called PATA (Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment ), I/O Rate: 16 MB/s originally later 33, 66, 100 and 133 MB/s ,SATA (Serial ATA): Used in Desktops/Laptops, I/O Rate: /3/6/8/16 Gbps, 7200 RPMSCSI (Small Computer System Interface ): Obsolete, Used in Servers, 10/15K RPM, I/O Rate: 160/320/640 MB/sSAS (Serial Attached SCSI ): Used in Servers, 10/15K RPM, I/O Rate: 3, 6,12 GbpsFC (Fiber Channel): I/O Rate 4, 8, 16 Gbps, Expensive and used in StorageiSCSI: I/O Rate 4 Gbps, uses TCP/IP, Expensive and used in StorageSolid State Drive: Non-volatile flash memory , I/O Rate 100MB/s to several GB/s
6Hard DiskHARD DISK FORMATTINGLow-level format- organizes both sides of each platter into tracks and sectors to define where items will be stored on the disk.Partitioning: divide hard disk into separate areas called partitions; each partition functions as if it were a separate hard disk drive.High-level format: defines the file allocation table (FAT) for each partition, which is a table of information used to locate files on the disk.
8MOTHER BOARD Modern motherboards include, at a minimum: Mother Board Sockets in which one or more processors are installedSlots into which the system's main memory is installed (typically in the form of DIMM modules containing DRAM chips)A chipset which forms an interface between the CPU's front-side bus, main memory, and peripheral busesNon-volatile memory chips (usually Flash ROM in modern motherboards) containing the system's firmware or BIOSA clock generator which produces the system clock signal to synchronize the various componentsSlots for expansion cards (these interface to the system via the buses supported by the chipset)Power connectors, which receive electrical power from the computer power supply and distribute it to the CPU, chipset, main memory, and expansion cards
9MOTHER BOARD Mother Board Connectors to support commonly-used input devices, such as USB connectors for a mouse and keyboard.Minimal peripheral support on the motherboard. Typically video and network interface hardware is also integrated into the motherboardI/O ports like Serial, Parallel and USB and their associated driver chipsDisk controller, typically SATA disk controller, for Hard Disk and CD/DVD Drives, SAS disk controllerGiven the high thermal design power of high-speed computer CPUs and components, modern motherboards nearly always include heat sinks and mounting points for fans to dissipate excess heat.Identifying Computer Parts
10BUSSystem BUSBus: Transports data between the CPU, Memory and I/O devicesMulti-Bus Architecture
11CD/DVD Drive CD (Compact Disk) DVD (Digital Video Disk) Blu Ray CD/DVD Capacity is 700 to 800 MBOptical storage device. Data is read from CD by a laser.Stores data as light and dark spots on the disk surface.They have an unlimited life-span.RO, R & RW CDsI/O Rate is Nx where 1x is 150KB/s, Read & Write speeds are not same, upto 52x speeds availableDVD (Digital Video Disk)4.7 – 17 GBRO, R & RW DVDsI/O Rate is Nx where 1x is 1.35MB/s, Read & Write speeds are not same, upto 24x speeds availableBlu RayUpto 128 GB (25, 50, 100, 128)Uses Blue LaserI/O Rate 4.5 MB/s to 54 MB/s
12Adaptors (Expansion Cards) AdaptersAdaptors (Expansion Cards)Use PCI Bus - Peripheral Components Interconnect (64bit, Data Transfer Rate: 133 MB/s)Mini PCI – used in laptops, 32/64 Bit, 33 MHzPCI Express – Replacing PCI, 32/64 Bit, Data Transfer Rate: 8 GB/sAdapters (Often Integrated on Motherboard)Video (HD Graphics card)SoundNetwork Interface Card (NIC) (10G HBA card)ModemTV Tuner
13Power Supply SMPS (Switched Mode Power Supply) AC mains input is converted to DC voltage which feeds the Motherboard, drives and other devices.ATX (Advanced Technology Extended)Generally watts
14DISPAY CRT ( Cathode Ray Tube) LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) Electron Gun & Florescent ScreenSingle Gun for Monochrome and 3 Guns for Colour ScreenLCD (Liquid Crystal Display)About blocking light when not neededTFT LCD (Thin Film Transistor LCD)19” in Desktop and 15” in LaptopsPower ConsumptionCRT – 110 wattLCD – wattColour Depth: 65,000 colours, million coloursResolution: 1024x768, 1280x1024, x1200
15KEYBOARD 101-key Enhanced keyboard 104-key Windows keyboard, 3 more keys.Press the Key - Detect the position on the key matrix (16 bytes)
16MOUSE Mechanical Optical IntelliMouse Use two rollers (one vertical and one horizontal) to track motionRolled by the Track ballOpticalUse a tiny camera to tracking the motionLED (red light beamer)IntelliMouseExtra wheel
17Network Interface 10/100/1000 Integrated Ethernet Network Interface NICNetwork Interface10/100/1000 Integrated Ethernet Network InterfacePCI 10G Network Cards/AdaptorsServers may have multiple (at least two) Network Interfacesa/b/g/n/ac Wireless Interface in Laptops in addition to wired Ethernet Network Interface
18I/O Ports Serial port (Com port) Parallel port One bit at a time -- Uses thin cableObsoleteParallel portParallel because it can move a whole byte at a timeMainly used for connection to a printerMostly ObsoleteUniversal Serial Bus (USB) replaces those4 wires (2 for power & 2 for communication)USB 2 (280 Mbps), USB 3 (4 Gbps), USB 3.1 (10 Gbps with upto 100W output)USB Pen Drives, Printers, External Disks, Drives etc.
21Server FarmCooling RequirementsOn average, each server consumes 300W power and generates heat correspondinglyAir condition required to cool the system in Tons is = Wattage/3.4A 42U server rack with 40 Dual CPU servers will require about 3.5 Ton Airconditioning.The temperature maintained in data centres/ server rooms is 22C – 23C
22Performance Compute Performance I/O Performance Performance Monitoring Server PerformancePerformanceCompute PerformanceMeasured in TFLOPS (Tera Floating Point Operations per second)Depends mainly on CPU performanceI/O PerformanceMeasured in IOPS (Input/Output per second)Depends mainly on FSB and Word SizePerformance MonitoringCPU Utilization (per core)Memory UtilizationLoad Average
23ReferencesReferencesPlease search wiki for memory, hard disk, pci ..
25Assignment 3 Assignment Find out the total, used and free disk space in your laptop. Why is that the sum of used and free disk space, less than the total disk capacity?What are the file systems used in different partitions of your laptop?What is the maximum data transfer rate possible from the RAM of your laptop?Boot your laptop in Linux. See the memory utilization. Can you find out the software components which are currently resident in the memory.In Linux, what are the various partitions you have. Do you have a swap partition? Read what is swap and we will discuss it in the class.Try to rename a big file in your laptop. You will observe that it has taken almost no time whereas time taken to write such a big file would generally be reasonable. What is the reason?Find out the PCI bus specs being used in your laptop.