Presentation on theme: "Hardware Architecture Contd…. MEMORY Memory ROM: For BIOS (Basic Input Output System) CMOS RAM: Battery-backed memory used to store system specific parameters."— Presentation transcript:
Hardware Architecture Contd…
MEMORY Memory ROM: For BIOS (Basic Input Output System) CMOS RAM: Battery-backed memory used to store system specific parameters required by the system BIOS to boot. It also stores the system clock information. RAM: Dynamic RAM and used for storing Data and programs which disappear after task completed or power turned off Size: 2 - 4GB for Desktops, 2 – 4 GB per Core for Servers Speed: 1333MHz, 1600 MHz.. Type: DDR3/4 SDRAM (Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic RAM) Packaging: DIMM, SIMM… Cache: Static RAM attached to the CPU and used for storing current data. L1, L2, L3 Cache
HARD DISK Hard Disk Magnetic storage device. It stores data by magnetizing particles on a disk. Used to store operating system, application software, utilities and data. Metal, plastic, or glass platter(s) 2 magnetic surfaces/platter 1 or more platters per spindle 7,200 – 15,000 rpm 1 head/platter Head(s) move in and out Inside a Hard Disc Drive
HOW DATA IS ORGANIZED ON DISK Hard Disk Tracks- Circular areas of the disk Length of a track one circumference of disk Over 1000 on a hard disk Data first written to outer most track Sectors- Divides tracks sections Cylinders- Logical groupings of the same track on each disk surface in a disk unit Clusters- Groups of sectors used by operating system 64 sectors in one cluster Data stored in blocks (pages) of.5 to 8 KB
HARD DISK Hard Disk IDE: Obsolete, also called PATA (Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment ), I/O Rate: 16 MB/s originally later 33, 66, 100 and 133 MB/s, SATA (Serial ATA): Used in Desktops/Laptops, I/O Rate: 1.5/3/6/8/16 Gbps, 7200 RPM SCSI (Small Computer System Interface ): Obsolete, Used in Servers, 10/15K RPM, I/O Rate: 160/320/640 MB/s SAS (Serial Attached SCSI ): Used in Servers, 10/15K RPM, I/O Rate: 3, 6,12 Gbps FC (Fiber Channel): I/O Rate 4, 8, 16 Gbps, Expensive and used in Storage iSCSI: I/O Rate 4 Gbps, uses TCP/IP, Expensive and used in Storage Solid State Drive: Non-volatile flash memory, I/O Rate 100 MB/s to several GB/s
HARD DISK FORMATTING Hard Disk Low-level format- organizes both sides of each platter into tracks and sectors to define where items will be stored on the disk. Partitioning: divide hard disk into separate areas called partitions; each partition functions as if it were a separate hard disk drive. High-level format: defines the file allocation table (FAT) for each partition, which is a table of information used to locate files on the disk.
MOTHER BOARD Mother Board Modern motherboards include, at a minimum: Sockets in which one or more processors are installed Slots into which the system's main memory is installed (typically in the form of DIMM modules containing DRAM chips) A chipset which forms an interface between the CPU's front-side bus, main memory, and peripheral buses Non-volatile memory chips (usually Flash ROM in modern motherboards) containing the system's firmware or BIOS A clock generator which produces the system clock signal to synchronize the various components Slots for expansion cards (these interface to the system via the buses supported by the chipset) Power connectors, which receive electrical power from the computer power supply and distribute it to the CPU, chipset, main memory, and expansion cards
MOTHER BOARD Mother Board Connectors to support commonly-used input devices, such as USB connectors for a mouse and keyboard. Minimal peripheral support on the motherboard. Typically video and network interface hardware is also integrated into the motherboard I/O ports like Serial, Parallel and USB and their associated driver chips Disk controller, typically SATA disk controller, for Hard Disk and CD/DVD Drives, SAS disk controller Given the high thermal design power of high-speed computer CPUs and components, modern motherboards nearly always include heat sinks and mounting points for fans to dissipate excess heat. Identifying Computer Parts
System BUS BUS Bus: Transports data between the CPU, Memory and I/O devices Multi-Bus Architecture
CD/DVD Drive CD/DVD CD (Compact Disk) Capacity is 700 to 800 MB Optical storage device. Data is read from CD by a laser. Stores data as light and dark spots on the disk surface. They have an unlimited life-span. RO, R & RW CDs I/O Rate is Nx where 1x is 150KB/s, Read & Write speeds are not same, upto 52x speeds available DVD (Digital Video Disk) 4.7 – 17 GB RO, R & RW DVDs I/O Rate is Nx where 1x is 1.35MB/s, Read & Write speeds are not same, upto 24x speeds available Blu Ray Upto 128 GB (25, 50, 100, 128) Uses Blue Laser I/O Rate 4.5 MB/s to 54 MB/s
Adaptors (Expansion Cards) Adapters Use PCI Bus - Peripheral Components Interconnect (64bit, Data Transfer Rate: 133 MB/s) Mini PCI – used in laptops, 32/64 Bit, 33 MHz PCI Express – Replacing PCI, 32/64 Bit, Data Transfer Rate: 8 GB/s Adapters (Often Integrated on Motherboard) Video (HD Graphics card) Sound Network Interface Card (NIC) (10G HBA card) Modem TV Tuner
Power Supply SMPS (Switched Mode Power Supply) AC mains input is converted to DC voltage which feeds the Motherboard, drives and other devices. ATX (Advanced Technology Extended) Generally 90 - 250 watts
DISPAY Display CRT ( Cathode Ray Tube) Electron Gun & Florescent Screen Single Gun for Monochrome and 3 Guns for Colour Screen LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) About blocking light when not needed TFT LCD (Thin Film Transistor LCD) 19 in Desktop and 15 in Laptops Power Consumption CRT – 110 watt LCD – 30-40 watt Colour Depth: 65,000 colours, 24 million colours Resolution: 1024x768, 1280x1024, 1600x1200
KEYBOARD Keyboard 101-key Enhanced keyboard 104-key Windows keyboard, 3 more keys. Press the Key - Detect the position on the key matrix (16 bytes)
MOUSE Mouse Mechanical Use two rollers (one vertical and one horizontal) to track motion Rolled by the Track ball Optical Use a tiny camera to tracking the motion LED (red light beamer) IntelliMouse Extra wheel
Network Interface NIC 10/100/1000 Integrated Ethernet Network Interface PCI 10G Network Cards/Adaptors Servers may have multiple (at least two) Network Interfaces 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac Wireless Interface in Laptops in addition to wired Ethernet Network Interface
I/O Ports Serial port (Com port) One bit at a time-- Uses thin cable Obsolete Parallel port Parallel because it can move a whole byte at a time Mainly used for connection to a printer Mostly Obsolete Universal Serial Bus (USB) replaces those 4 wires (2 for power & 2 for communication) USB 2 (280 Mbps), USB 3 (4 Gbps), USB 3.1 (10 Gbps with upto 100W output) USB Pen Drives, Printers, External Disks, Drives etc.
Cooling Requirements Server Farm On average, each server consumes 300W power and generates heat correspondingly Air condition required to cool the system in Tons is = Wattage/3.4 A 42U server rack with 40 Dual CPU servers will require about 3.5 Ton Airconditioning. The temperature maintained in data centres/ server rooms is 22C – 23C
Performance Server Performance Compute Performance –Measured in TFLOPS (Tera Floating Point Operations per second) –Depends mainly on CPU performance I/O Performance –Measured in IOPS (Input/Output per second) –Depends mainly on FSB and Word Size Performance Monitoring –CPU Utilization (per core) –Memory Utilization –Load Average
References Please search wiki for memory, hard disk, pci..
Assignment 3 Assignment 1.Find out the total, used and free disk space in your laptop. Why is that the sum of used and free disk space, less than the total disk capacity? 2.What are the file systems used in different partitions of your laptop? 3.What is the maximum data transfer rate possible from the RAM of your laptop? 4.Boot your laptop in Linux. See the memory utilization. Can you find out the software components which are currently resident in the memory. 5.In Linux, what are the various partitions you have. Do you have a swap partition? Read what is swap and we will discuss it in the class. 6.Try to rename a big file in your laptop. You will observe that it has taken almost no time whereas time taken to write such a big file would generally be reasonable. What is the reason? 7.Find out the PCI bus specs being used in your laptop.