Objectives Students should be able to: Define and describe an incident response plan and business continuity plan Define recovery terms: interruption window, service delivery objective, maximum tolerable outage, alternate mode, acceptable interruption window Describe incident management team, incident response team, proactive detection, triage Define and describe computer forensics: authenticity, continuity, forensic copy, chain of custody, imaging, extraction, ingestion or normalization, case log, investigation report Develop a high-level incident response plan
How to React to…? Viruses Denial of Service Hacker Intrusion Accidents System Failure Theft of Proprietary Information Social Engineering Lost Backup Tape Stolen Laptop Fire!
Incident Response vs. Business Continuity Incident Response Planning (IRP) Security-related threats to systems, networks & data Data confidentiality Non-repudiable transactions Business Continuity Planning Disaster Recovery Plan Continuity of Business Operations IRP is part of BCP and can be *the first step*
Recovery Terms Interruption Window: Time duration organization can wait between point of failure and service resumption Service Delivery Objective (SDO): Level of service in Alternate Mode Maximum Tolerable Outage: Max time in Alternate Mode Regular Service Alternate Mode Regular Service (Acceptable) Interruption Window Maximum Tolerable Outage SDO Interruption Time… Disaster Recovery Plan Implemented Restoration Plan Implemented
Vocabulary IMT: Incident Management Team IS Mgr leads, includes steering committee, IRT members Develop strategies & design plan for Incident Response, integrating business, IT, BCP, and risk management Obtain funding, Review postmortems Meet performance & reporting requirements IRT: Incident Response Team Handles the specific incident. Has specific knowledge relating to: Security, network protocols, operating systems, physical security issues, malicious code, etc. Permanent (Full Time) Members: IT security specialists, incident handlers, investigator Virtual (Part Time) Members: Business (middle mgmt), legal, public relations, human resources, physical security, risk, IT
Incident Response Plan (IRP) Preparation Identification Containment & Escalation Analysis & Eradication Recovery Lessons Learned Plan PRIOR to Incident Determine what is/has happened Limit incident Determine and remove root cause Return operations to normal Process improvement: Plan for the future Notification Ex-Post Response Notify any data breach victims [If data breach] Establish call center, reparation activities
Stage 1: Preparation What shall we do if different types of incidents occur? (BIA helps) When is the incident management team called? How can governmental agencies or law enforcement help? When do we involve law enforcement? What equipment do we need to handle an incident? What shall we do to prevent or discourage incidents from occurring? (e.g. banners, policies) Where on-site & off-site shall we keep the IRP?
(1) Detection Technologies Organization must have sufficient detection & monitoring capabilities to detect incidents in a timely manner Proactive Detection includes: Network Intrusion Detection/Prevention System (NIDS/NIPS) Host Intrusion Detection/Prevention System (HIDS/HIPS) Includes personal firewalls Security Information and Event Management (Logs) Vulnerability/audit testing Centralized Incident Management System Input: Server, system logs Coordinates & co-relates logs from many systems Tracks status of incidents to closure Reactive Detection: Reports of unusual or suspicious activity
(1) Management Participation Management makes final decision As always, senior management has to be convinced that this is worth the money. Actual Costs: Ponemon Data Breach Study, 2013, Sponsored by Symantec Expenses Following a BreachAverage Cost Detection and Escalation: forensic investigation, audit, crisis mgmt., board of directors involvement $400,000 Notification: legal expertise, contact database development, customer communications $570,000 Post Breach Response: help desk and incoming communications, identity protection services, legal and regulatory expenses, special investigations $1,410,000 Lost Business: abnormal customer churn, customer procurement, goodwill $3,030,000
Workbook Incident Types IncidentDescriptionMethods of Detection Procedural Response Intruder accesses internal network Firewall, database, IDS, or server log indicates a probable intrusion. Daily log evaluations, high priority alerts IT/Security addresses incident within 1 hour: Follow: Network Incident Procedure Section. Break-in or theft Computers, laptops or memory is stolen. Security alarm set for off-hours; or employee reports missing device. /call Management & IT immediately. Management calls police. Security initiates tracing of laptops via location software, writes Incident Report, evaluates if breach occurred. Social Engineering Suspicious social engineering attempt OR information was divulged later recognized as inappropriate. Training of staff leads to report from staff Report to Management & Security. Warn employees of attempt as added training. Security evaluates if breach occurred, writes incident report.
Stage 2: Identification Triage: Categorize, prioritize and assign events and incidents What type of incident just occurred? What is the severity of the incident? Severity may increase if recovery is delayed Who should be called? Establish chain of custody for evidence
(2) Triage Snapshot of the known status of all reported incident activity Sort, Categorize, Correlate, Prioritize & Assign Categorize: DoS, Malicious code, Unauthorized access, Inappropriate usage, Multiple components Prioritize: Limited resources requires prioritizing response to minimize impact Assign: Who is free/on duty, competent in this area?
(2) Chain of Custody Evidence must follow Chain of Custody law to be admissible/acceptable in court Include: specially trained staff, 3 rd party specialist, law enforcement, security response team System administrator can: Retrieve info to confirm an incident Identify scope and size of affected environment (system/network) Determine degree of loss/alteration/damage Identify possible path of attack
Stage 3: Containment Activate Incident Response Team to contain threat IT/security, public relations, mgmt, business Isolate the problem Take infected server off network Change firewall configurations to stop attacker Obtain & preserve evidence
(3) Containment - Response Technical Collect data Analyze log files Obtain further technical assistance Deploy patches & workarounds Managerial Business impacts result in mgmt intervention, notification, escalation, approval Legal Issues related to: investigation, prosecution, liability, privacy, laws & regulation, nondisclosure
Stage 4: Analysis & Eradication Determine how the attack occurred: who, when, how, and why? What is impact & threat? What damage occurred? Remove root cause: Rebuild System Talk to ISP to get more information Perform vulnerability analysis Improve defenses with enhanced protection techniques Discuss recovery with management, who must make decisions on handling affecting other areas of business
(4) Analysis What happened? Who was involved? What was the reason for the attack? Where did attack originate from? When did the initial attack occur? How did it happen? What vulnerability enabled the attack?
(4) Remove root cause If Admin or Root compromised, rebuild system Implement recent patches & recent antivirus All passwords should be changed
Stage 5: Recovery Restore operations to normal Ensure that restore is fully tested and operational
Workbook Incident Handling Response Incident Type: Malware detected by Antivirus software Contact Name & Information: Computer Technology Services Desk: (O) Emergency Triage Procedure: Disconnect computer from Internet/WLAN. Do not reconnect. Allow anti-virus to fix problem, if possible. Report to IT first thing during next business day. Escalation Conditions and Steps: If laptop contained confidential information, investigate malware to determine if intruder obtained entry. Determine if Breach Law applies. Containment, Analysis & Eradication Procedure: If confidential information was on the computer (even though encrypted), malware may have sent sensitive data across the internet; A forensic investigation is required. Next, determine if virus=dangerous and user=admin: Type A: return computer. (A=Virus not dangerous and user not admin.) Type B: Rebuild computer. (B=Either virus was dangerous and/or user was admin) Password is changed for all users on the computer. Other Notes (Prevention techniques): Note: Antivirus should record type of malware to log system.
Stage 6: Lessons Learned Follow-up includes: Writing an Incident Report What went right or wrong in the incident response? How can process improvement occur? How much did the incident cost (in loss & handling & time) Present report to relevant stakeholders
Planning Processes Risk & Business Impact Assessment Response & Recovery Strategy Definition Document IRP and DRP Train for response & recovery Update IRP & DRP Test response & recovery Audit IRP & DRP
Training Introductory Training: First day as IMT Mentoring: Buddy system with longer-term member Formal Training On-the-job-training Training due to changes in IRP/DRP
CISA Review Manual 2009 Types of Penetration Tests External Testing: Tests from outside network perimeter Internal Testing: Tests from within network Blind Testing: Penetration tester knows nothing in advance and must do web research on company Double Blind Testing: System and security administrators also are not aware of test Targeted Testing: Have internal information about a target. May have access to an account. Written permission must always be obtained first
Incident Management Metrics # of Reported Incidents # of Detected Incidents Average time to respond to incident Average time to resolve an incident Total number of incidents successfully resolved Proactive & Preventative measures taken Total damage from reported or detected incidents Total damage if incidents had not been contained in a timely manner
Challenges Management buy-in: Management does not allocate time/staff to develop IRP Top reason for failure Organization goals/structure mismatch: e.g., National scope for international organization IMT Member Turnover Communication problems: Too much or too little Plan is to complex and wide
Question The MAIN challenge in putting together an IRP is likely to be: 1. Getting management and department support 2. Understanding the requirements for chain of custody 3. Keeping the IRP up-to-date 4. Ensuring the IRP is correct
Question The PRIMARY reason for Triage is: 1. To coordinate limited resources 2. To disinfect a compromised system 3. To determine the reasons for the incident 4. To detect an incident
Question When a system has been compromised at the administrator level, the MOST IMPORTANT action is: 1. Ensure patches and anti-virus are up-to-date 2. Change admin password 3. Request law enforcement assistance to investigate incident 4. Rebuild system
Question The BEST method of detecting an incident is: 1. Investigating reports of discrepancies 2. NIDS/HIDS technology 3. Regular vulnerability scans 4. Job rotation
Question The person or group who develops strategies for incident response includes: 1. CISO 2. CRO 3. IRT 4. IMT
Question The FIRST thing that should be done when you discover an intruder has hacked into your computer system is to: 1. Disconnect the computer facilities from the computer network to hopefully disconnect the attacker 2. Power down the server to prevent further loss of confidentiality and data integrity 3. Call the police 4. Follow the directions of the Incident Response Plan
Computer Investigation and Forensics Computer Crime Investigation Chain of Command Computer Forensics
Computer Crime Investigation Call Police Or Incident Response Copy memory, processes files, connections In progress Power down Analyze copied images Preserve original system In locked storage w. min. access Take photos of surrounding area Evidence must be unaltered Chain of custody professionally maintained Four considerations: Identify evidence Preserve evidence Analyze copy of evidence Present evidence Copy disk
Computer Forensics Did a crime occur? If so, what occurred? Evidence must pass tests for: Authenticity: Evidence is a true and faithful original of the crime scene Computer Forensics does not destroy or alter the evidence Continuity: Chain of custody assures that the evidence is intact.
Chain of Custody 10:53 AM Attack observed Jan K 11:04 Inc. Resp. team arrives 11:05-11:44 System copied PKB & RFT 11:15 System brought Offline RFT 11:45 System Powered down PKB & RFT 11:47-1:05 Disk Copied RFT & PKB 1:15 System locked in static-free bag in storage room RFT & PKB Who did what to evidence when? (Witness is required) Time Line
Preparing Evidence Work with police to AVOID: Contaminating the evidence Voiding the chain of custody Evidence is not impure or tainted Written documentation lists chain of custody: locations, persons in contact – time & place Infringing on the rights of the suspect Warrant required unless… Company permission given; in plain site; communicated to third party; evidence in danger of being destroyed; or normal part of arrest;...
Computer Forensics The process of identifying preserving, analyzing and presenting digital evidence for a legal proceeding
Creating a Forensic Copy Original Mirror Image 3) Forensically Sterile: Wipes existing data; Records sterility 4) One-way Copy: Cannot modify original 5) Bit-by-Bit Copy: Mirror image 2) Accuracy Feature: Tool is accepted as accurate by the scientific community: 1) & 6) Calculate Message Digest: Before and after copy 7) Calculate Message Digest Validate correctness of copy
Computer Forensics Data Protection: Notify people that evidence cannot be modified Data Acquisition: Transfer data to controlled location Copy volatile data Interview witnesses Write-protect devices Imaging: Bit-for-bit copy of data Extraction: Select data from image (logs, processes, deleted files) Interrogation: Obtain info of parties from data (phone/IP address) Ingestion/Normalization: Convert data to an understood format (ASCII, graphs, …) Reporting: Complete report to withstand legal process
Legal Report Describe incident details accurately Be understandable and unambiguous Offer valid conclusions, opinions, or recommendations Fully describe how conclusion is reached Withstand legal scrutiny Be created in timely manner Be easily referenced
Forensics: Chain of Custody Forms Chain of Custody Form: Tracks where & how evidence was handled. Includes: Name & Contact info of custodians Detailed identification of evidence (e.g, model, serial #) When, why, and by whom evidence was acquired or moved Where stored When/if returned Detailed Activity Logs Checklists for acquiring technicians Signed non-disclosure forms
Forensics: Case Log Case log includes: Case number Case basic notes, requirements, procedures Dates when requests were received Dates investigations were assigned to investigators Date completed Name and contact information for investigator and requestor
Forensics: Investigation Report Name and contact info for investigators Case number Dates of investigation Details of interviews or communications Details of devices or data acquired (model, serial #) Details of software/hardware tools used (must be reputable in law) Details of findings, including actual data Signature of investigator
Question Authenticity requires: 1. Chain of custody forms are completed 2. The original equipment is not touched during the investigation 3. Law enforcement assists in investigating evidence 4. The data is a true and faithful copy of the crime scene
Question You are developing an Incident Response Plan. An executive order is that the network shall remain up, and intruders are to be pursued. Your first step is to… 1. Use commands off the local disk to record what is in memory 2. Use commands off of a memory stick to record what is in memory 3. Find a witness and log times of events 4. Call your manager and a lawyer in that order
Question What is NOT TRUE about forensic disk copies? 1. The first step in a copy is to calculate the message digest 2. Extraction and analysis for presentation in court should always occur on the original disk 3. Normalization is a forensics stage which converts raw data to an understood format (e.g., ASCII, graphs, …) 4. Forensic copies requires a bit-by-bit copy