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McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 18 Secured Transactions and Bankruptcy.

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Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 18 Secured Transactions and Bankruptcy."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 18 Secured Transactions and Bankruptcy

2 18-2 Chapter 18 Case Hypothetical On September 7, 2010, Albert OLeary extended a $10,000 loan to his friend Corey Johnson. As security for the loan, Corey gave a document to Albert with the following language: I, Corey Johnson, hereby give a security interest in my 2009 Chevrolet Camaro to Albert OLeary in return for his $10,000 loan to me on September 7, Signed, Corey Johnson. Does Albert OLeary have a perfected security interest in Corey Johnsons 2009 Chevrolet Camaro?

3 18-3 Chapter 18 Case Hypothetical Jerry Eller purchases a laptop computer for $995 from the local Preferable Purchase electronics store. He charges the $995 amount on Preferable Purchase instant credit, and the store has guaranteed him no finance charges if he pays the $995 amount within one year from the date of purchase. Jerry purchased the computer for use in his business, Ellers Civil War Battlefield Tours, Inc. On any given week, Eller uses the laptop approximately 20 hours for the purposes of Ellers Civil War Battlefield Tours, Inc., and 10 hours to play the online video game Gloom (his favorite hobby.) One year passes, and Jerry does not pay any of the credit balance. After repeated attempts by Preferable Purchases Credit Department to collect on the debt, Jerry still refuses to pay. Does Preferable Purchase have a perfected security interest in the laptop computer? If not, why not? If so, what advantage(s) does that afford Preferable Purchase?

4 18-4 Chapter 18 Internet Research Exercise Go to and research the Chapter 7 bankruptcy exemptions allowed in your particular state (Exemptions represent property the debtor is allowed to keep, even though he/she is filing for Chapter 7 liquidation bankruptcy.) Based on your research, are your states Chapter 7 exemptions more or less generous than the federal bankruptcy exemptions outlined in Exhibit 32-4 of the textbook? Although bankruptcy is primarily a matter of federal jurisdiction (delegated to the federal government in Article I, Section 8 of the United States constitution), the federal government does allow the individual states to craft their own Chapter 7 exemptions for individuals filing in their particular state. If the state chooses to enact its own Chapter 7 exemptions, the state can then require those filing in its jurisdiction to use the state exemptions, or it can allow the bankrupt debtor to choose the federal exemptions outlined in Exhibit 32-4 of the textbook. If the state chooses not to enact its own Chapter 7 exemptions, the federal exemptions apply by default. In your reasoned opinion, should Chapter 7 bankruptcy exemptions be uniformly applied in all states (by applying the federal bankruptcy exemptions in every state), or do you favor the idea of allowing the individual states to craft their own Chapter 7 exemptions?

5 18-5 Chapter 18 Ethical Dilemma Effective October 2005, the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 (BAPCPA) represents the most sweeping change to the United States Bankruptcy Code in almost forty years. Applauded by the credit card industry, which had lobbied the United States Congress for several years before its enactment, the BAPCPA makes it extremely difficult, if not impossible, for middle income Americans to file for Chapter 7 (liquidation) bankruptcy (Traditionally, the United States Bankruptcy Court used Chapter 7 for debtor rehabilitation, allowing the debtor to discharge pre-existing debts in return for his/her relinquishment of non-exempt property, and the non-exempt property was used to partially satisfy creditor claims.) Instead, the BAPCPA channels bankrupt debtors into Chapter 13 (reorganization) bankruptcy, with strict restrictions against debt forgiveness. The BAPCPA has come under criticism, in part because it allows no exceptions for unanticipated medical expenses (a Harvard University study concluded that more than fifty percent of bankruptcies are attributable to unpaid medical bills,) loss of employment, or financial difficulties resulting from dissolution of marriage. BAPCPA critics argue that individuals so affected should be allowed to file Chapter 7 (liquidation) bankruptcy protection. Critics further contend that without such a change in the BAPCPA, the only real discharge for many debtors will be death. From a legal standpoint, should the United States Congress rewrite the BAPCA and create exceptions for unanticipated medical expenses, loss of employment, or financial difficulties resulting from dissolution of marriage (and allow the bankrupt debtor to file for Chapter 7 bankruptcy protection?) From an ethical standpoint, should not our society give these people a break? Are not such people, and their financial situations, substantially different from consumers who max out their credit cards on mad shopping sprees? (For reference, see

6 18-6 Secured Transactions: Definitions Secured Interest: Interest in personal property/fixtures which secures payment/performance of obligation Secured Party: Person/party that holds interest in secured property Debtor: Person/party that has obligation to secured party Security Agreement: Agreement in which debtor gives secured interest to secured party Collateral: Property that is subject to security interest

7 18-7 Collateral Under UCC Goods (Consumer goods, farm products, inventory, equipment, fixtures, and accessories) Indispensable Paper (Documents of title, negotiable instruments, investment property, and chattel paper) Intangibles (Accounts, goodwill, literary rights) Proceeds

8 18-8 Creation (Attachment) of Security Interest Requires: Written Agreement: Agreement that describes collateral and is signed by debtor Value: Item of value given from creditor to debtor Debtor Rights in Collateral: Rights of debtor over collateral

9 18-9 Purchase-Money Security Interest Definition: Interest formed when debtor uses borrowed money (e.g., buying on credit) from secured party to buy collateral

10 18-10 Perfected Security Interest Definition: Security interest in which creditor has legally protected his/her claim to collateral

11 18-11 Methods of Perfection Perfection By Filing: Perfection of interest by filing financing statement with state agency -Place and Duration of Filing: Generally, financial statement for consumer goods must be filed with county clerk; statement valid for five (5) years Perfection By Possession: Perfection of interest by holding collateral of debtor until loan is paid in full

12 18-12 Methods of Perfection (Continued) Automatic Perfection: Perfection that automatically occurs when retailer sells a consumer good Perfection of Movable Collateral: Collateral that moves to another state must be re- perfected after four (4) months

13 18-13 Perfection of Security Interests in Automobiles and Boats: Note interest on certificate of title

14 18-14 Scope of Security Interest After-Acquired Property: Creditor has security interest in property acquired by debtor after security agreement made, if clause to this effect included in agreement Proceeds: Creditor automatically has rights to proceeds from sale of collateral for ten (10) days

15 18-15 Termination Statement Definition: An amendment to a financing statement stating debtor has no further obligation to secured party

16 18-16 Priority Disputes Occur when two corporations/individuals claim rights to same collateral: Secured Versus Unsecured: Secured interest prevails Secured Versus Secured: Individual who perfected his/her interest first prevails Purchase Money Security Interest (PMSI) Conflicts: If party with perfected purchase money security interest disputes another party, PMSI party will almost always have right to collateral, regardless of when agreement perfected

17 18-17 Priority Disputes (Continued) Secured Party Versus Buyer: If debtor sells his collateral, creditor may dispute with buyer over collateral Buyer in Ordinary Course of Business: If person buys collateral in ordinary course of business without realizing that it is collateral, he/she has right to good Buyers of Consumer Goods: If consumer does not know product secured, buyers new product is free from security interest Buyers of Chattel Paper and Instruments: If buyer purchases chattel paper and instruments, he/she is free from security interest

18 18-18 Default Occurs when debtor fails to fulfill his/her loan; remedies include: Taking possession of collateral: If debtor defaults on loan, secured party can take possession of collateral -Disposition of Collateral: Creditor may sell, lease, or transfer collateral -Retention of Collateral: Creditor may choose to keep collateral as payment of debt Proceeding to Judgment: Secured party may sue debtor for entire amount of debt, instead of dealing with collateral

19 18-19 Bankruptcy and Reorganization

20 18-20 The Purpose of The Bankruptcy Act And Its Goals Provide protection to creditors Provide opportunities for debtors to gain a fresh financial start

21 18-21 Bankruptcy Law Is A Matter Of Federal Jurisdiction United States Constitution Article I, Section 8: Congress shall have the power…To establish…uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States

22 18-22 The Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 (BAPCPA) Most comprehensive change to bankruptcy law in over 25 years BAPCPA Effect: More difficult for individual debtor to qualify for Chapter 7 (Liquidation) bankruptcy

23 18-23 Types of Bankruptcy Relief Chapter 7 Bankruptcy: Sale of debtors non-exempt assets by trustee, and distribution of money to creditors Chapter 9: Adjustment of municipalities debts Chapter 11 Bankruptcy: Reorganization of debtors financial affairs under supervision of bankruptcy court Chapter 12 Bankruptcy: Reorganization of family farmers debts Chapter 13 Bankruptcy: Reorganization of individuals debts Chapter 15: Recognition of insolvency proceedings pending in foreign country, and relief for foreign debtors

24 18-24 Bankruptcy Proceedings Each bankruptcy case begins with filing of bankruptcy petition Once petition filed, bankruptcy court grants automatic stay freezing creditor actions against debtors estate (i.e., creditors legal actions against debtor outside of bankruptcy court must cease)

25 18-25 Chapter 7 Bankruptcy: Voluntary Versus Involuntary Petition Voluntary Petition: Debtor files Involuntary Petition: Creditor(s) file, forcing debtor into bankruptcy

26 18-26 Chapter 7 Bankruptcy Terminology Automatic Stay: Moratorium on creditor litigation against debtor outside bankruptcy case Order of Relief: Court order allowing bankruptcy proceedings to continue Creditors Meeting: Meeting of all creditors listed in Chapter 7 schedules for liquidation Trustee: Party responsible for collecting debtors non- exempt, pre-filing assets, and liquidating property to cash that will be distributed among creditors Exempt Property: Property debtor allowed to retain pursuant to state and/or federal law

27 18-27 Federal Bankruptcy Exemptions Up to $15,000 for residence (homestead exemption) Interest in motor vehicle up to $2,400 Interest, up to $400 for particular item, in personal and household goods (aggregate total limited to $8,000) Interest in jewelry up to $1,000 $800 of any property debtor chooses (wild- card exemption)

28 18-28 Federal Bankruptcy Exemptions (Continued) Up to $1,500 in tools of trade and professional books Any unmatured life insurance contract owned by debtor Professionally prescribed health aids Interest in any other property up to $800, plus any unused part of homestead exemption up to $7,500 Right to receive certain personal injury awards up to $15,000 Retirement funds in IRA/SEP

29 18-29 Voidable Transfers Preferential Payments: Trustee can recover (and include in bankruptcy estate) payments made by insolvent debtor that give preferential treatment to one creditor over another, if debtor made such payments within 90 days of bankruptcy filing Fraudulent Transfers: Trustee can recover (and include in bankruptcy estate) transfers made with intent to defraud creditors, if debtor made such transfers within two years of bankruptcy filing

30 18-30 Classes of Priority Claims Among Unsecured Creditors Class 1: Alimony/child support Class 2: Court costs, trustee fees, attorney, fees, other costs associated with administration of bankruptcy estate Class 3: Unsecured claims in involuntary bankruptcy that arise through debtors ordinary business expenses, from date of filing petition to date of trustee appointment Class 4: Unsecured claims for unpaid wages, salaries, and commissions (up to $10,000 per individual) earned within 180 days of filing of petition Class 5: Unsecured claims for contributions to employee retirement plans (up to $10,000 per employee)

31 18-31 Classes of Priority Claims Among Unsecured Creditors (Continued) Class 6: Unsecured claims by farmers and fishers (up to $4,000) against grain operators of grain storage facilities/fish storage/processing facilities Class 7: Claims for deposits given to debtor in connection with property/services never given Class 8: Certain taxes and penalties due government Class 9: Claims in bankruptcies related to federal depository institutions Class 10: Unsecured claims for personal injuries and deaths caused by debtors operation of motor vehicle under influence of alcohol/drugs

32 18-32 Non-Dischargeable Debts Under The Bankruptcy Code Claims for back taxes/government fines within 3 years of bankruptcy filing Claims for liabilities against debtor for his/her obtaining money/property under false pretenses, false representation, or fraud Claims by creditors not listed on schedule and who did not have notification of bankruptcy proceedings Claims based on fraud, embezzlement, and larceny by debtor while he/she acting in fiduciary capacity Alimony, child support, and certain property settlements

33 18-33 Non-Dischargeable Debts Under The Bankruptcy Code (Continued) Claims of willful/malicious conduct by debtor that caused injury to another person/property Specific student loans, unless payment of loans would impose undue hardship on debtor Judgments against debtor for claims resulting from debtors driving under the influence Debts not discharged in previous bankruptcies Claims for money borrowed to pay tax to federal government that would be non-dischargeable Cash advances beyond $1,500 on credit card

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