Presentation on theme: "Observational Measures of Technological, Pedagogical, Content Knowledge (TPACK) in the Integration of Laptop Computers in Elementary Writing Instruction."— Presentation transcript:
Observational Measures of Technological, Pedagogical, Content Knowledge (TPACK) in the Integration of Laptop Computers in Elementary Writing Instruction Julie Mueller Wilfrid Laurier University Waterloo, Ontario CANADA SITE 2010 San Diego, CA March 29 – April 2, 2010
Dual Purpose Paper Teacher Knowledge and Practice Empirical Research and Faculty Expertise Do you see what I say?
Technological Pedagogical Content (TPACK) Relatively young framework (Mishra & Koehler, 2006) expanding Shulmans model of teacher knowledge into the digital era Need to assess the construct as it applies to teacher education for two reasons (Groth et al., 2009) : – To compare approaches to its development – Accountability
Measuring TPACK Interviews Examination of Artifacts Case Studies Lesson Study Focus Groups Surveys WHAT I SAY WHAT I DO
Development of Faculty-School Partnership French Immersion public school in mid-sized urban centre in Ontario, Canada, undergoing district review, examining practice and setting goals related to writing outcomes Collaborative planning of six-week cycle of instruction in non-fiction report writing Looked at mobile laptop carts as a technology that might assist instruction and learning
Wiki Communication Potential communication tool Barriers included lack of teacher access to computer; competing priorities on both ends; lack of experience with 2.0 technology; not a clear purpose Open and welcoming for classroom visits and technology support Use existing communication tools Collaborate with a key teacher or champion
Data Collection Individual Surveys Individual Interviews AudioTaped Planning Meeting VideoTaped Class Observations Student Writing Artifacts Diagnostic and Summative Assessment Levels
Initial Survey Results Teachers indicate average experience with computers, range of teaching experience, barriers of time, knowledge and technical problems, while supports were human resources Already using computers in a range of subjects in a computer lab (sometimes to often) – Tool based software (e.g., Word, Excel, etc.) – Subject specific tutorials (e.g., math games, music ace, etc.) – On-line research (internet searches)
Interview Responses to Question of Barriers Before laptop integrationAfter laptop integration
Interview Responses to Impact on Teaching Before the laptop integration No impact expected Motivational tool Improve home/school connection Students more independent After the laptop integration No impact Students more independent Writing is a quicker process, provides strategies Changed approach, have to plan ahead More interactive, inquiry approach
Interview Responses to Factors Considered During Planning Before the laptop integration Time (scheduling, prep time, availability of computers) 64% Task (how to integrate, time, ease of use) 27% Student ability 9% After the laptop integration Time (scheduling, prep time, availability of computers) 61% Technical problems (e.g., loading issues) 17% Resources (e.g., software, desk set up) 11% Student ability 5% How other teachers use the technology 5% TK Context TPCK
Coding of Planning Meeting Transcript DefinitionExamples Content Comments that referred to the content that was to be taught and/or assessed, the curriculum content. In this case the content knowledge was in reference to non-fiction report writing and what the necessary skills and components are. To me when we talk about reports, you have your beginnings. Your beginnings become your headings, am I right? Yes, we have that in here, that subtopics are critical.
DefinitionExamples Pedagogy Discussion about teaching strategies and assessment methods which are not specific to the content but more general. Reference to planning, student learning and classroom management. What I would personally like to see, is where their weaknesses are. So lets not mark it, lets look at the body of evidence. We can group these kids and give them lessons that are helpful. We could do a formative assessment.
DefinitionExamples Pedagogical Content Discussion is about teaching strategies and assessment methods related to the content, i.e., how should the specific content of non-fiction report writing be taught and assessed in particular. Even if we teach them how to write jot notes, we can mark them in class. So maybe thats the advantage to this non-fiction writing…so that we have the same language to use and report. I told themwe have an expository piece to hand inthey all look at me and saywhats expository?they didnt know what it meant. I dont think its bad to define the term for them.
DefinitionExamples Technological Pedagogical Discussion is about how technology fits with the pedagogical decisions that is technology is connected to the teaching and learning strategies, not isolated. So you didnt have a cut and paste button? I told them they could do whatever they wanted. They could cut and paste, they could use colours, they could use numbers.
Planning Meeting Pedagogy 23% Content 49% Technology 0% PC 17% TP 1% TC 0% TPACK 0% Technology was not part of planning process
Classroom Observations Research ToolWord Processor Instructional Tool
Classroom Observations Expected to code according to the same categories as the planning meeting Technology was part of the pedagogy and content as a tool used for writing and research Result rather than the knowledge apparent in the intentional planning TK often part of setting up and saving, trouble shooting TP –students working independently through writing process Technology seen as a tool for learning but technological pedagogy not fully developed.
Triangulating Findings Survey & Interview Planning Meeting Classroom Observations - TPACK is considered - technology not part of process - technology integrated as tool - influence on pedagogy
Observational Measures of TPACK Coding of transcripts is useful but time consuming Coding of observations is difficult and not useful with same categories Overall assessment of TPACK in instructional period may be more useful Technological Pedagogy is still developing