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21 Steps to 1 to 1 Success The Netbook Project

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1 21 Steps to 1 to 1 Success The Netbook Project
Bruce Dixon, Director ideaslab Strategic Planning for Technology-rich Learning Victorian Department of Education and Early Childhood Development 1 1

2 21 Steps to 21st Century Learning and 1 to 1 Success
Step 1: Research Step 2: Clarify your vision for 1-to-1 learning Step 3: Engage your school board or parents and citizens association Step 4: Plan a communication strategy Step 5: Conduct a detailed readiness assessment Step 6: Develop a project plan Step 7: Prepare a detailed budget Step 8: Select a preferred ownership and finance model Step 9: Prepare teachers with their own laptops Step 10: Develop a Professional Development Framework and prepare a Change Management Strategy Step 11: Prepare physical learning spaces Step 12: Select software tools to fit pedagogical goals Step 13: Explore supplier partnership opportunities and devices Step 14: Calculate the total cost of participation in the program Step 15: Define essential policies Step 16: Prepare responses to anticipated questions Step 17: Establish onsite service structures Step 18: Conduct parent and/or community sessions Step 19: Order devices and prepare for deployment Step 20: Distribute student laptops Step 21: Review and reform

3 There is a difference in how Generation Y
are wired. They can grasp technology more quickly and are able to effectively multi-task!

4 Seeing No Progress, Some Schools Drop Laptops
“Yet school officials here and in several other places said laptops got in the way because they did not fit into lesson plans” Seeing No Progress, Some Schools Drop Laptops “But it is less clear whether one-to-one computing has improved academic performance — as measured through standardized test scores and grades ..” May 4, 2007 Scores of the leased laptops break down each month, and every other morning, when the entire school has study hall, the network inevitably freezes because of the sheer number of students roaming the Internet instead of getting help from teachers. So the Liverpool Central School District, just outside Syracuse, has decided to phase out laptops starting this fall, joining a handful of other schools around the country that adopted one-to-one computing programs and are now abandoning them as educationally empty — and worse. “a survey of district teachers and parents found that one-fifth of Matoaca students rarely or never used their laptops for learning..” “If the goal is to get kids up to basic standard levels, then maybe laptops are not the tool. But if the goal is to create the George Lucas and Steve Jobs of the future, then laptops are extremely useful.” “After seven years, there was literally no evidence it had any impact on student achievement — none,” said Mark Lawson, the school board president here in Liverpool “I feel like I was ripped off,” said Richard Ferrante, explaining that his son, Peter, used his laptop to become a master at the Super Mario Brothers video game. “Let’s face it, math is for the most part still a paper-and-pencil activity when you’re learning it,”

5 Global Snapshot: Context, imperatives and background research
Step 1:part 2 Global Snapshot: Context, imperatives and background research 5

6 Embracing the whole, Individual child
Imperatives for a New Age of Education.. Digital lifestyle…multi-modal, multi-literate...continually connected.. Embracing the whole, Individual child ^ Education The Globalisation of Education Captioning, programming… Communications as a leveler, collaboration as the glue. 21st Century Challenges The existing model is no longer adequate

7 One view of globalisation..
Globalization 1 (1492 to 1800) where the dynamic force was European countries projecting their power overseas for resources and imperial conquest. Globalization 2 (1800 to 2000) was about companies globalising for markets and resources. Globalization 3 from around is about individuals and small groups collaborating. communications is the leveler, collaboration is the glue. OLPC, 2008 7

8 The Globalisation of Education
Schools…International benchmarking, PISA, global campuses, virtual schools, language barrier lowering with captioning, online translation…schools as global enterprises. Students want… to be better informed about courses… ….access to course ware, podcasts, and videos….. …international experience and broader cultural understanding…..greater mobility as skilled workers in an increasingly knowledge-based economy…. greater competition for students and academics between countries and higher education institutions. OECD overseas students grew 70% from 2.3 million, ’98 to ’03 The Globalisation of Education



11 We won’t solve them with 20th Century thinking!
21st Century Challenges …who will solve them? We won’t solve them with 20th Century thinking! ..the fight against drugs, and new communicable diseases? Climate Change? Population growth….Threatening our future… “We need new approaches to global problem-solving….Fast! About limits, the new world economy has no clue. Nor do most politicians and thinkers, trained by the prosperous second-part of the 20th Century to be overly market-trusting” Jean-Francois Rischard 2007 How can we make it happen? … Can Education Answer the Big Challenges for Our Future?? 11

12 Sharing our Planet: issues involving the global commons
Dangerous climate change Biodiversity and ecosystem losses Fisheries depletion Deforestation Water deficits Maritime safety and pollution Sharing our Humanity: issues whose solution demands a global commitment Massive step-up in the fight against poverty Peace-keeping, conflict prevention, combating terrorism Education for all Global infectious diseases Digital divide Natural disaster prevention and mitigation Sharing our Rulebook: issues needing a global regulatory approach Reinventing taxation for the 21st century Biotechnology rules Global financial architecture Illegal drugs Trade, investment and competition rules Intellectual property rights E-commerce rules International labor and migration rules 20 years, 20 issues J.F. Rischard 2007 12 12

13 Where do our 21st Century Learners indulge their Digital Lifestyle?
The Economist viewpoint Social Networks “ Screenagers” Virtual Worlds & simulations Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. (Eds.). (2000). How People Learn: Brain, mind, experience and school. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press. Annualized data… If you understand this 14:53 data and act on it, then you will be able to design and build technology implementations that support a different style of learning. So, too with the data about how and where our kids use technology … teens online … What does this data say to you???? Multiple Web 2.0 communities Bransford, How People Learn, 2000

14 challenging traditional approaches to how we learn.
The web is now… challenging traditional approaches to how we learn. challenging our assumptions about classrooms and teaching. challenging our assumptions about knowledge, information and literacy. What are the implications for your school? Web 2.0: the “architecture of participation” Will Richardson, 2007

15 Distributed or collective cognition
“Imagine a world in which every single person is given free access to the sum of all human knowledge.” …almost 6.5 million articles, in some 250 languages by almost 6 million people*. 15


17 The unconnected classroom / learner
during school time occasional expert visits school community occasional class excursions teachers school library snail mail mobiles, phones, fax machines, TV, video

18 any where ~ any time ~ in time
The connected learner any where ~ any time ~ in time Primary sources Secondary sources learning objects learning communities writers world libraries and museums original artefacts and documents people’s experience online learning websites experts digital repositories organisations collective thinking Unis/Colleges all teachers any school RSS feeds speakers peers collaborative projects original works common interest groups networks original photos, images, video, audio world news action learning groups commercial companies global groups world events Carr 2006 MOO chat forum wikis blogs LMS CMS podcast data/tele/video conferencing messaging & listservs video cast/streaming webcasts meeting tools web authoring mobiles, phones, WAP, VOIP, PDAs, tablets, desktop, laptop, future technologies

19 New learning interfaces
“Unlimited” access to distant experts, collaboration, mentors, communities of practice, shared virtual environments Ubiquitous 1-to-1 computing: Wireless devices infusing resources from the real objects; intelligent contexts “Self-service” banking, shopping, travel, ticketing…learning. Informal learning organic, contextualized, activity and experience-based, self-activated under the learner’s control. New learning interfaces Burrows and Kalantzis, 2005



22 If we can google it, should we teach it?

23 Vision for Education: Caperton & Papert
“The transformation of work requires much more than a mastery of a fixed curriculum inherited from past centuries. Success in the slowly changing worlds of past centuries came from being able to do well what you were taught to do. Success in the rapidly changing world of the future depends on being able to do well what you were not taught to do” Vision for Education: Caperton & Papert 18

24 a shift in focus.. Learning will not take place only inside schools and colleges, but in communities, workplaces and families. The shift to thinking about learning beyond the classroom requires a shift in our thinking about the fundamental organizational unit of education…from the school, an institution where learning is organized, defined and contained… …to the learner, an intelligent agent with the potential to learn from any and all of her encounters with the world around her. Tom Bentley, DEMOS

25 The teacher in a contemporary classroom understands…
the more powerful technology becomes the more indispensable good teachers are that learners must construct their own meaning for deep understanding to occur technology generates a glut of information but is not pedagogically wise teachers must become pedagogical design experts, (leveraging) the power of technology [Fullan, 1998]

26 What have we learnt about technology and its role in learning, and therefore what expectations should you have leading a technology-rich learning environment ?

27 Technology-driven ideals Ill-defined expectations
In too many of our schools.. the technology emperor has had no clothes! Technology-driven ideals Ill-defined expectations Trivializing teacher competence Access is a major issue….5:1, 4:1 are just slightly better versions of the same thing! 59% < 59 minutes We need to build a better understanding of the “Art of the Possible”

28 eLearning Environments
Knowledge Creation Classroom e-Learning Knowledge Deepening Complete digital curriculum integration PC Labs Knowledge Acquisition Student-centred learning Some digital curriculum integration Basic ICT Project-based learning Focus on learning PCs Most people, thorough instruction Group collaboration More people, deeper instruction computers become mobile and connectivity increases, shift from basic ICT and PC lab environments to true eLearning environments Let’s focus on 1:1 eLearning and classroom eLearning – these are the optimal eLearning environments where you can really begin to develop 21st century skills Broad, fast coverage (WiFi, WiMAX) Digital Curriculum Lab instructor only Wireless in classroom Improved Learning Methods Wired, lab only Professional Development Dialup Connectivity Laptops (1:1) Computers-on-wheels or shared desktops (~ 5:1) > 25:1 ~ 10:1 Technology 28 28

29 A vision of learning built around a very powerful idea...
“More and more I was thinking of the computer not just as hardware and software but as a medium through which you could communicate important things. ….an instrument whose music is ideas. The best thing a teacher can do is to set up the best conditions for each kid to learn. Once you have that, then the computer can help immeasurably. Conversely, just putting computers in the schools without creating a rich learning environment is useless -- worse than useless!” For me, the key is education. And in my mind the patron saint of how to teach kids is Maria Montessori. A hundred years ago, Montessori understood that children always are trying to learn about their environment, and so the best way to help them was to give them carefully organized, rich environments, where the toys and the play have 20th-century side effects. In my opinion, this is one of the great ideas in the history of education. Even today, most of the best cognitive science about education harks back to Montessori's original insights. Seymour Papert used to talk about the kid who has difficulty in mathematics. Typically, the teacher will say, "Well, this kid is not math-minded. Let's try the kid on something else." But if the kid were having difficulty in French, we couldn't say that that kid is not French-minded, because we know that had the kid been born in France he or she would have no trouble learning French. So Papert's idea was that there's something environmentally wrong about the way math is taught to kids. If the environment were right, they would learn. Well, the computer is a tool with which you can actually make rich environments, in which learning can have the character of play. I think that for kids, play is the most important means of learning, and so you want to harness it for as many years as you possibly can. Play is nature's built-in mechanism for the child's deepest learning. And if the environment isn't rich enough, you lose the element of play. But if you can make the environment rich and can keep the play going, then you win in a big way. Because maybe the biggest question about education is, "What is this kid going to do when teachers and parents are not around?" If children love the learning process, they want to spend all their time at it. If they don't love it, it doesn't matter much what you do in a classroom. See, every question you ask me, I come back to my interest in education. Because without that, well, I don't care about the other things that might be done with the Dynabook. B&C : And that takes us full circle. If we go back to the first question, which is what's missing, why isn't the Dynabook a reality -- what's missing is that the population to use them isn't there yet. We haven't taught people how to use them. AK : Exactly. Because the music is not inside the piano. ******************** AK : There were several sets of ideas that came together in thinking about the Dynabook. But there was one event that catalyzed my thinking. In 1968, I visited Seymour Papert, at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. Seymour was working with kids, teaching them to use the LOGO program that they had designed there. By learning to use the program and doing some simple programming, these kids were able to learn meaningful mathematics and to understand the foundations of some very powerful mathematical ideas. The computers made this possible. I had been working on a desktop personal computer in the late '60s. But on the plane ride back from Cambridge, I realized that the desktop computer was really just a phase, and that what we needed to be doing was working on a computer for children. For me, the potential of computers as an aid to learning was, in itself, a validation of them. Another thing I was thinking about at around that time was the question, "What is the new kind of argument that's important?" I knew, of course, that we were going to be able to use computers to make lots of unimportant arguments. But what was the new kind of important argument we could make? I remembered reading about how the printing press led to a huge change in how ideas were argued. The reliability and accuracy of printing allowed people to present their ideas with fewer claims and more logic, with less allegory but tighter reasoning. So I wondered how computers could change the way ideas are presented and tested. The thing that jumped into my head was that simulation would be the basis for this new argument. Of course, I wasn't the first to see the potential for simulation. But in that context, it was a realization for me. If you're going to talk about something really complex, a simulation is a more effective way of making your claim than, say, just a mathematical equation. If, for example, you're talking about an epidemic, you can make claims in an essay, and you can put mathematical equations in there. Still, it is really difficult for your reader to understand what you're actually talking about and to work out the ramifications. But it is very different if you can supply a model of your claim in the form of a working simulation, something that can be examined, and also can be changed. More and more, I was thinking of the computer not just as hardware and software but as a medium through which you could communicate important things. Before I got involved with computers I had made a living teaching guitar. I was thinking about the aesthetic relationship people have with their musical instruments and the phrase popped into my mind: "an instrument whose music is ideas." Just as the book was an extension of the oral medium, so is the computer an extension of the print medium. There are many things that books can do, but computers have an extra dimension that seemed to me incredibly important, and this is key to the Dynabook idea. To really use a computer, you've got to be the author as well as the reader. Or in terms of music, a computer is something through which you can compose and play. So the relationship with the computer is different than your relationship to a book. Or at least it has that possibility.





34 A simple idea that just might work!
…every student with their own laptop..why not? A one-to-one initiative A simple idea that just might work! Where will the funding come? Why is it important for each child to have a computer? What's wrong with community-access centers? “One does not think of community pencils—kids have their own. They are tools to think with, sufficiently inexpensive to be used for work and play, drawing, writing, and mathematics. A computer can be the same, but far more powerful. ….and these belongings will be well-maintained through love and care.” Nicholas Negroponte 2005 How can we make it happen? equity not inequality!

35 The drivers to 1 to 1… Equity-Narrows the Digital Divide? Economic-budget imperatives? Unlocks the possibility of personalised learning? Improves assessment alternatives? Provides opportunity for textbook replacement? Marketing-competitive advantage? Expanded pedagogical opportunities? Research on the impact on learning? Offers 21st Century Learning opportunities -extends formal learning communities and expand global communication and collaboration, and develop creative expression ..offering more compelling learning experiences for all students.

36 What the research tells us…
Student attendance increases and students are more motivated and more engaged (Russell, 2004, New Brunswick, ) Students write more, more often and better. (Silvernail, 2004, Warschauer, 2005) Overall improvement in test scores (New Brunswick, ) Students engagement in critical thinking, problem-solving, and higher-order thinking on a task increased with 1-to-1 students; more willing to address/assess controversy within an assignment (Rockman, 1998)

37 What the research also tells us…
Increase in 21st century learning skills – including multimedia engagement, greater quality/quantity of writing, multiple/deeper investigation of information (Warschauer, 2005) Motivation, engagement, independent work, interaction, and class preparation/participation of students with disabilities improved (Harris, 2004) Access to a laptop for teachers and their students often forced a change in teachers’ level of risk and openness to learning (Rockman, 1997) As digital confidence grows, and teachers are more ambitious… More students are accessing more mathematics in deeper ways. Students explore new dimensions of accessing new knowledge Students are more engaged in in-depth research (Warschauer, 2004)

38 What the research tells also us…
Teachers perceive that students exhibit a range of learning behaviors that are better because of the laptops (Silvernail, 2004) There is a greater level of effective delivery to students with special needs and individualized learning programs. (New Brunswick, ) There is a statistically significant change towards a constructivist teaching practice; teachers indicated the laptops were important in making these changes (Rockman, 2000) Teachers’ attitudes and beliefs significantly affect implementation and success (Penuel, 2005)

39 What the research tells also us…
Baldwin (1999) documented effects on student behaviors at home such that students reported spending less time watching television and more time on homework. Substantially more time is spent on science and mathematics knowledge deepening in comparison to what has been found in studies that focus on non-1:1 laptop settings (Ravitz, Wong, & Becker, 1999; Russell, O’Brien,Bebell, & O’Dwyer, 2003).

40 Building a Vision for 1-to-1 Learning: the Foundation for Success
Step 2 Building a Vision for 1-to-1 Learning: the Foundation for Success

41 The challenge of Re-imagining…
How do we become aware of our reality beyond our concepts….. and then take time to reflect on what we see.. “What does it take to shake people loose?...imagination deteriorates with experience ..we need radical re-imagining”. Peter Senge 2007 ‘Perspective is worth 80 IQ points.’ Alan Kay

42 Philadelphia School of the Future
continuous relevant adaptive Establishing the Environment Principles 1 where learning is not dependent on time and place 3 where instruction adapts to the needs of the individual student 2 where content, curriculum and tools are current and relevant 49

43 Fundamental change, or incremental improvement;
the question is not so much which is right, but rather why has there been so little discussion about the question?

44 Where do you see your school?
Incremental Improvement Fundamental Change 1 2 3 4 Incremental improvement. Continual small changes to the way school might function to provide measurable improvement. Fundamental change/transformation looks very different. It is not “tweaking” at the edges; this is not doubling the length of classes or developing cross-curricular programs. Rather than build on the successes of the past, fundamental change requires a complete rethinking of the nature of school and learning from the “ground up”. Such a concept has its ultimate manifestation in W. Edwards Deming’s constant improvement philosophy which became the foundation for much of the quality movement in manufacturing around the world. The parallel to what we look to as incremental improvement in our schools pales by comparison; but many schools have a mission to seek to improve incrementally, building on the successes of their past 44

45 Technology and Change So technology can be used To sustain and support what we are already doing (conservative use – does not lead to change) To supplement and extend what we are doing (leads to improvement and reform) To subvert and transform what we are doing (leads to transformation and innovation) George Thomas Scharffenberger, 2004

46 “My goal in life is to find ways in which children can use technology as a constructive medium to do things that they could not do before; to do things at a level of complexity that was not previously accessible to children” Prof. Seymour Papert 1998

47 Assessing school readiness
Steps 3 to 5 Sharing your vision-engaging school council, Communication strategies & Assessing school readiness

48 Setting Strategy.. development of an effective implementation model
sustaining broad community support re-imagining curriculum opportunities associated professional development software issues project management - policies & procedures finance options & insurance infrastructure planning security & storage program logistics management - vendors management of ongoing service & support classroom management issues

49 Building Broad Community Support
Develop a Community communications strategy Staff & students Parents Broader business and civic community Be specific and detailed about key issues Set realistic expectations from the outset - underpromise and overdeliver Be proactive and totally transparent at all times Educate and inform around all issues, ideas and challenges Celebrate successes frequently and publicly Bruce Intro Chuck Describe the path that Clovis took--one grade, voluntary program vs a school wide, required program. Bruce Look to the future Communication must be two-way With Board of Governors,parents, administration, teachers, support staff--provide for fewer surprises.

50 School Readiness Consider…. Technical Support Physical Security
Connectivity Learning Environment Wireless Access Staff Readiness Network Storage Parental Support Power Supply Community Support It is typically the small details that cause the most disruption when overlooked such as storage, security, battery life, required software upgrades, internet access speed etc. School leaders must work with staff to spend significant time defining key productivity tools, including software packages and hardware requirements, recognizing student needs may vary significantly. Research shows a critical factor for the effective implementation of 1-1 computing is the existence and maintenance of a high quality network infrastructure, including wireless access, broadband and storage. Local school infrastructure should meet a set of minimum acceptable standards prior to advancing a 1-to-1 and planning, monitoring and improvements must be ongoing. Quality maintenance and technical support staff are essential and systems must be introduced early in the process to address technical support and repair issues. Many schools use student trainees to assist in providing on-site technical support / maintenance. Security Leadership Support 50 50

51 Project Implementation, Budgeting & Ownership models
Steps 6 to 8 Project Implementation, Budgeting & Ownership models

52 Barwon South West Implementation Plan
Initial Principal Briefing, 27th January, keynote address and workshops, Bruce Dixon 21 Steps to 1 to 1 Success 11th February Teacher Professional Learning (attendance expected) Full Days 28th 29th and 30th January OR Series of two after school sessions based in each network

53 On-site support from Ultranet Coaches
Presentations to staff Parent Information Sessions On-site coaching for teachers and students Professional Learning Team Meetings eLearning Planning ePotential Follow-up

54 macpherson.wendy.w mclean.richard.b
perry.simon.c stevens.david.j

55 Baseline Project Plan:
What is a realistic, manageable timeline? What are the project priorities? How will change be managed? How are the project tasks divided? The success of any laptop program should be measured on the improvements in student learning whether it be in the classroom or at home. Pedagogical reform can begin prior to widespread technology deployment and should be ongoing and monitored. What is the communication strategy? What are the policies & procedures to be defined? 55 55

56 Baseline Project Plan

57 Establishing a Deployment Plan (timeline, milestones, tasks)

58 Implementation models..
variety of paths to take a class a grade level a school pilot vs. expanded program optional vs. mandatory across subjects or grades? mixed classrooms or laptop-only classrooms determine best funding model Bruce Intro Chuck Describe the path that Clovis took--one grade, voluntary program vs a school wide, required program. Bruce Look to the future Communication must be two-way With Board of Governors,parents, administration, teachers, support staff--provide for fewer surprises. …above all, set yourself up for success!

59 Infrastructure planning…
constantly refer to your learning objectives designing your best environment set a high bar for acceptable performance-a different order of magnitude: clear expectations. prerequisite, preferred and optional integrate tightly into your implementation schedule

60 Service and support management
Student helpers sustainable, replicable, scalable. who is responsible for support, and to what level? what can be reasonably handled in-house vs outsourced hardware…warranty, insurance software...helpdesk, outsourcing how is the support cost going to be covered?

61 ..and what are some funding options?
To build a one-to-one program that is sustainable, replicable and scalable, we need to… Build a shared vision Develop a coherent strategy to deliver on those goals Set clear expectations for everyone Monitor effective execution ..and what are some funding options?

62 One-to-One Funding Equity
Core Principles Funding should ensure all students can participate Everyone who benefits should make some contribution Funding should be structured to ensure it can be sustained indefinitely Laptop funding must be supported by a commitment to professional development

63 A unique funding option…
P&C/Region/State School Shared Cost Model Fluid Participatory Family Networked …that is sustainable, replicable and scalable.

64 Start with some assumptions….
Student laptop $480 Bag $30 3 years insurance Self-insured Total Cost $550 Over 3 years $32/month Software * $40

65 A unique funding option…
P&C/Region State -24%- $4.17 School- 39%-$6.68 Shared Cost Model $17.12/month Fluid Participatory Family-37%$6.28 Networked …and this is sustainable, replicable and scalable…every child can benefit.

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