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B.A. (Mahayana Studies) 000-209 Introduction to Computer Science November 2005 - March 2006 6. Choosing a Computer Considering the hardware choices involved.

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Presentation on theme: "B.A. (Mahayana Studies) 000-209 Introduction to Computer Science November 2005 - March 2006 6. Choosing a Computer Considering the hardware choices involved."— Presentation transcript:

1 B.A. (Mahayana Studies) Introduction to Computer Science November March Choosing a Computer Considering the hardware choices involved in choosing a computer.

2 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 2 Overview 1. How to Choose a Computer 2. The Processor 3. The Hard Disk 4. External Data Storage 5. Keyboard / Mouse 6. The Monitor 7. The Sound Card continued

3 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 3 8. Room for Expansion 9. Laptop Battery Life 10. The Printer 11. A Computer's Life 12. The Software

4 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 4 Decide how much to spend, and stick to it. How will you use the computer? what software will you need? Hardware issues desktop or laptop? processor, hard disk external storage, keyboard, mouse, monitor, sound card, printers, etc. when to buy? 1. How to Choose a Computer

5 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 5 Windows XP Minimum hardware for Windows XP: Pentium 500 MHz processor, or higher 256 MB of RAM or more more memory is the best way to improve XP's speed 4 GB hard drive (1.5 GB for XP) a Super VGA monitor with (800x600) resolution try 1024x768 or higher with 24-bit colour CD-ROM or DVD-drive keyboard and mouse sound card and speakers

6 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing Lotus, July 2005 Free Items: printer, ink, table, chair, fax modem, 50 hours on Internet, speakers, cover, mouse pad, adapter, microphone, 10 CD disks, monitor frame and 3 others cover, mouse pad, adapter, microphone, speakers

7 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 7 Some Buzzwords DDR: Double Data Rate SDRAM; faster RAM HDD: Hard Disk Drive FDD: Floppy Disk Drive CD-RW : the CD drive can write data at 52x speed, it can rewrite data at 32x speed, and it can read data at 52x speed USB: Universal Serial Bus a plug-and-play interface between a PC and devices such as hard drives, audio players, scanners, and printers continued Others Later

8 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 8 AGP: Accelerated Graphics Port; speeds up 3D many companies sell AGP-compatible graphics cards 10/100 LAN: Local Area Network dual speed 10/100 Mbps (bits/sec) with auto-sensing HT: hyper threading; multiple threads of execution VIA: VIA Technologies, Taiwan; makes motherboards FSB: Front Side Bus; links motherboard to the CPU

9 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 9 Chip makers assign model numbers or names to processors. the chip model indicates the processors architecture Each new model is faster, with other enhancements. 2. The Processor

10 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 10 Pentium 4 with hyper-threading 3.00 to 3.80 GHz model numbers include 670, 660, 650, 640, , 570J, 561, 560J, 560, 551, 550J, 550, 541, 540J, 540, 531, 530J, 530, 521, 520J, 520 Celeron can do the same operations as the Pentium less expensive, but slower 950 MHz to 2.80 GHz Intel Chips

11 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 11 Intel Chip History 1982: Intel ,000 transistors, 12.5 MHz clock speed 1985: Intel ,000 transistors, 33 MHz 1989: Intel million transistors, 50 MHz 1995: Pentium Pro 5.5 million transistors, 200 MHz continued

12 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing : Pentium 3 28 million transistors, 733 MHz 2000: Pentium 4 42 million transistors, 1.5 GHz (1500 MHz)

13 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 13 Part of Intel's Range in 2005 Desktop PentiumExtreme Edition, Pentium D, Pentium 4 supporting Hyper-Threading, Pentium 4, Celeron D, Celeron Notebook Pentium M, Mobile Pentium 4 supporting Hyper-Threading, Mobile Pentium 4, Mobile Pentium 4 Processor-M, Celeron M, Mobile Celeron Processor

14 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 14 Clock speed indicates how many instructions can be processed per second Level 1 cache - cache built into the processor Level 2 cache - the cache is on a separate chip faster than level 1 cache Benchmark tests a set of standard processing tasks that measure the performance of hardware or software Factors Affecting Price

15 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 15 Processor Overall Performance : July 2005 from

16 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 16 The 'best' amount of RAM depends on the OS and applications you plan to use. at least MB to run Windows XP 256 MB or more is better a very good way of improving performance 2.1. How much RAM?

17 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 17 Storage capacity is measured in gigabytes (GB). get at least 40 GB Hard disk speed is usually measured in revolutions per minute (RPM) the higher the RPM, the less time you'll spend waiting for your computer to access files best for desktops: 5400, 7200 RPM best for laptops: 4200, 5400 RPM 3. The Hard Disk

18 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 18 Disk drives are classified by their type of controller the hardware that rotates the hard disk, and moves the read-write head Popular drive controllers are: Ultra ATA, EIDE, SCSI Ultra ATA is twice as fast as EIDE SCSI is slightly faster than EIDE Hard Drive Controllers

19 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 19 Floppy disk drives are on their way out. Rewritable CDs (CD-RW) are popular. increasingly with DVD support Many computers include USB ports for flash drives get a USB port supporting version 2.0 (potentially 40x faster than 1.1) 4. External Data Storage

20 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 20 Flash Drive Uses flash memory a rewritable memory chip that remembers its content without needing a power supply (non-volatile) A flash drive can be added/removed from the PC while the macine is switched on (hot-swappable). Storage capacities: MB

21 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 21 Microsofts Natural Keyboard may help prevent computer related injuries. 5. Keyboard/ Mouse Wireless

22 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 22 Mouse Types Mechanical, optical, laser mice Cord or cordless? How many buttons? Mouse wheel? Connector type serial port, USB port

23 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 23 Track pointTrackballTouchpad Laptop Input Choices

24 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 24 CRT (cathode ray tube) monitors use similar technology to television sets inexpensive and dependable LCD (liquid crystal display) monitors produce images by manipulating light within a layer of liquid crystal cells. compact, lightweight, easy to read standard on laptops flat-panel displays are available for desktops 6. The Monitor

25 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 25 Advantages of LCD display clarity low radiation emission portable compact 3x the price of a CRT Flat Panel Displays

26 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 26 Screen size is the measurement in inches from one corner of the screen diagonally across to the opposite corner. The viewable image size (vis) excludes the screen's black border from the calculation. A monitors viewable image size is less than the screen size. Monitor Sizes

27 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 27 Dot pitch - a measure of image clarity smaller dot pitch means a crisper image Maximum resolution: the maximum number of pixels a monitor can display a typical max. resolution is 1280 x 1024 pixels Monitor Resolution

28 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 28 Often the graphics card may be a part of the motherboard especially in laptops the card should have MB of video memory The most powerful graphics cards are used for 3D graphics sometimes called GPUs (graphics processing units) Graphics Cards continued

29 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 29 The main 3D graphics card manufacturers are: ATI Technologies cards: Radeon 7/8/9000 Series, Radeon X Series NVIDIA Corporation cards: GeForce including GeForce FX Series, GeForce 6 Series, GeForce 7 Series

30 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 30 SVGA Graphics Cards Super Video Graphics Array (Super VGA or SVGA) is the most popular display type. SVGA graphics cards have a standard resolution of 800x600 (480,000 pixels). They should be able to offer resolutions up to 1280x1024, with 24-bit colour (16 million colours).

31 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 31 Passive matrix screen - relies on timing to make sure the liquid crystal cells are illuminated. Active matrix screen - updates rapidly essential for crisp display of animation, video found on newer laptops Laptop Display Screens

32 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 32 A sound cards improves a computer's sound quality, and adds other sound capabilities: makes it possible to use speakers, a stereo, and a microphone to record and play sound some sound cards also include MIDI Some sound card manufacturers Turtle Beach, Diamond, Creative Labs 7. Sound Cards

33 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 33 MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface MIDI enables electronic instruments, such as synthesizers, samplers, sequencers, and drum machines, to communicate with one another and with computers.

34 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 34 When you buy a computer, make sure it has expansion options. Motherboard expansion slots to add peripheral drivers. Internal bays : mounting brackets in the computer case for devices. 8. Room for Expansion continued

35 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 35 External bays: openings in the case so that devices can be (temporarily) connected to the computer.

36 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 36 PCMCIA expansion slots are found in many laptops. Classified according to size: Type 1 - thinnest, for memory expansion Type 2 - for modems, sound cards, network cards (most common) Type 3 - thickest, for hard disk drives Make sure the laptop has plenty of USB ports (2- 6). Laptop Expansion

37 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 37 The length of time a laptop's battery will last depends on: the processor speed the screen type (e.g. active matrix LCD) how many peripherals are attached Hot swap: the ability to swap batteries while the computer is on. 9. Laptop Battery Life

38 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 38 Details to consider when choosing a printer: Resolution printer resolution is measured in dpi (dots per inch), the number of dots it can print per linear inch more dpi means the final image will be clearer Colour capability can the printer support colour? 10. The Printer continued

39 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 39 Print speed print speed is measured by pages per minute (ppm) or characters per second (cps) colour printing takes longer than black and white text prints faster than graphics ten pages per minute is a typical speed duty cycle: the number of pages that can be printed per month Printer cost from $100 to $5000 continued

40 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 40 Per-copy cost these are the ongoing costs for the printer, including ribbons, ink cartridges, and toner the cost estimate assumes that a page uses an average amount of text, graphics, and colour Warranty how long does the warranty last for? does it cover all printer parts?

41 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 41 The most popular type of printer it produces low-cost colour and black-and-white printouts Black ink cartridge Inkjet Printers Colour ink cartridge continued

42 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 42 The print head uses a series of nozzles that spray coloured inks onto the paper

43 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 43 The laser in the printer charges an electrostatically sensitive drum to accept toner which is then fused to the paper. Laser Printers

44 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 44 Features Higher quality output than inkjets More expensive to buy than inkjets Less expensive to operate than inkjet The toner cartridge and drum cost approx. $70

45 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 45 Dot matrix printers prints by striking groups of wires or thin rods onto an ink-coated ribbon against paper. Dot-matrix Printers?

46 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 46 Features Old/reliable technology: introduced in the 1970s Low quality output Can print onto multipart carbon forms Used for back-office applications that need low operating cost and dependability. A $4 ribbon can print 3 million characters

47 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 47 The lifecycle of a computer has five phases: product development product announcement introduction maintenance retirement Vaporware: computers (and software) that are announced but never produced. 11. A Computer's Life

48 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 48 Toshiba Satellite Pentium M, 1.50GHz, 256MB RAM 60 GB Hard Disk CD RW / DVD modem 15.4 inch active matrix display high price low price average price Weeks up to July 2005 Price Drops over Time

49 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 49 Computer Companies Top-tier companies computer business for many years Apple, Compaq, IBM more expensive computers responsible for many innovations Second-tier companies newer companies Gateway, Packard Bell, Dell less expensive computers, same quality limited research and development continued

50 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 50 Third-tier companies smaller startup companies sell locally less expensive may use poorer quality components more likely to go out of business technical support depends on the owner Build your own readily available parts relatively easy assembly customize to your own needs

51 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 51 Software publishers produce software Alpha test: first phase of testing done in-house Beta test: conducted by off-site tester 12. The Software

52 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 52 The original version (release) of software is typically version 1.0 a new version is indicated by a new number (e.g. 2.0) a new version is usually a major improvement Revision: a release that fix bugs or makes small changes the revision number is separated from the version number with a period (e.g. 1.1) Software Versioning

53 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 53 Street price: average discounted price Version upgrade price: discounted price for owners of an earlier version of the software must show proof to the vendor Competitive upgrade: special price for switching to a competitors product Upgrading software is important less technical support for older versions may lose eligibility for special pricing Software Pricing Issues

54 Intro to CS. 6/Choosing 54 Other Software Issues Compatibility with hardware/OS Warranty Technical Support help-lines, local user groups, personal service Web-based technical sites, newsgroups, mailing lists

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