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Export Controls 101 Training

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1 Export Controls 101 Training

2 What is Export Control? Export Control is a federal government mandate designed to ensure that each employee comply with regulations that restrict the export of goods, technology and related technical information to countries that have been identified as a threat to our homeland security or economic status.

3 What is an export? Any oral, written, electronic or visual disclosure, shipment, transfer or transmission outside the U.S. to anyone, including a U.S. citizen, of any commodity, technology (information, technical data, or assistance) or software/codes. Such exports include transfers of items or information to foreign embassies, overseas corporate affiliates and contractors.

4 Exports – Actual and Deemed
“Actual Export.” Technology and information leaving the shores of the United States. “Deemed Export.” Transmitting the technology or information within the United States to an individual other than a U.S. citizen or permanent resident.

5 Technical Data Technical Data means information required for the design, development, production, manufacture, assembly, operation, repair, testing, maintenance or modification of controlled articles. This includes information in the form of blueprints, drawings, plans, instructions, diagrams, photographs, etc.

6 US Export Controls and Responsible Agencies
U.S. Department of Commerce: Controls “Dual-Use” technologies (designated for civilian use, but with military application) – Export Administration Regulations (EAR). U.S. Department of State: Controls inherently military technologies –International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). U.S. Department of Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC): Prohibits transactions with countries subject to boycotts, trade sanctions and embargoes.

7 Export Administration Regulations (EAR)
Goods and related technology listed on the Commerce Control List (CCL, 15 CFR 774, Supp. 1) Lists 10 categories for which a license is required Materials (chemicals, microorganisms, toxins), Materials Processing, Electronics, Computers, Telecommunications, Lasers and Sensors, Navigation and Avionics, Marine, Propulsion Systems, Space Vehicles and Related Equipment Goods may have dual use. Classic examples are lasers, Global Positioning Systems, and computers. The release of technical data includes “oral exchanges of information in the United States or abroad” (15 CFR (b)(3)(ii)). All exports of technical data in a restricted category may require a license prior to export.

8 International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR)
Regulates defense articles, defense services, related technical data on the US Munitions List (USML) at 22 CFR 121. Items “deemed to be inherently military in character.” Categories include equipment, software, algorithms and technical data and services directly related to the items specified. The USML lists 21 categories which require a license. The List includes weapons, chemical and biological agents, vehicles, missiles, equipment and all satellites.

9 Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC)
Prohibits transactions with countries, entities and individuals subject to boycotts, trade sanctions and embargoes and enforces economic and trade sanctions based on U.S. foreign policy and national security goals. Targets foreign countries, terrorists, international narcotics traffickers and those engaged in activities related to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Prohibits transactions with Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons.

10 Export Controls Checkpoints
Sponsored research Management of intellectual property Visits of foreign nationals Purchasing and dealing with foreign/international vendors Shipment and utilization of scientific equipment Working with collaborators and colleagues within and outside of the U.S. Travel outside the U.S. for scientific and educational purposes

11 Admission and matriculation of students from embargoed countries
Employment restrictions University facilities access by foreign nationals Publication restrictions Confidential information transmission and receipt Exporting information, goods or services to foreign nationals and countries identified as a threat by the Departments of State, Commerce and Treasury Recordkeeping requirements Licenses for regulatory approval

12 How could export controls affect Research?
Publication of research results would be severely restricted or controlled, if contrary to university policy. Foreign national participation would be strictly prohibited. Secure facilities with restricted access may be required. Special rules for controlled toxins, bio-agents and chemicals may be invoked. An export control license may be required by Commerce or State if information, technology, items or services are controlled. Research requiring an export control license may not be approved the ECRC. Obtaining an export license may be costly and result in considerable delays.

13 Dissemination of Information
The regulations prohibit the disclosure of controlled technical information by any method to a foreign national in the U.S. or abroad without a license from Commerce or State. Methods of disclosure include: Fax Telephone discussions communications Computer data disclosure Face-to-face conversations Training sessions Tours which involve visual inspections

14 Other Examples of Restrictions
Conferences and meetings where previously unpublished research will be presented (web-based, abroad or in the U.S.). Teaching foreign collaborators how to use controlled items in research (defense service). Transfers of research equipment abroad. Sharing/shipping encryption source code abroad Travel to/transactions with OFAC sanctioned countries

15 Exceptions Fundamental Research Public Domain
Transfer of general scientific, technical or engineering information ITAR bona fide employees Information and technology taught in catalog courses – Educational Exemption

16 Fundamental Research Exemption
The “fundamental research” exclusion applies for basic and applied research in science and engineering performed or conducted at an accredited institution of higher learning in the U.S. where the resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly in the scientific community so long as that research is carried out openly and without restrictions on publication or access to or dissemination of the research results. It applies essentially to “deemed exports.” Fundamental research is distinguished from research that results in information that is restricted for proprietary reasons or national security reasons (EAR) or pursuant to specific U.S. government access and dissemination controls (ITAR).

17 Public Domain Exemption
It is published and generally accessible to the public through unlimited and unrestricted distribution, or It is “fundamental research in science and engineering at accredited institutions of higher learning in the U.S. where the resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly in the scientific community” Reference EAR 734.8; ITAR (8).

18 Educational Instruction Exemption
Generally, a license is not needed for classroom/lab teaching to foreign nationals in U.S. universities. Authorizes the disclosure of educational information released by instruction in catalog courses or general scientific, mathematical or engineering principles commonly taught in colleges and universities without a license from the Departments of Commerce or State Students in degree programs, using controlled equipment to conduct research need to be registered for a research credit class Reference EAR 734.9:ITAR (5).

19 Laptop Approval and Checkout Procedure
If a WCU faculty member or administrator is traveling overseas and wants to take a laptop along, according to federal export control laws, certain goods deemed “sensitive” or “controlled” are restricted from being taken abroad. A WCU laptop falls under the category of a “controlled” good because of the encryption technology employed in the Computrace (Lojack for laptops) software that WCU and many other institutions in the UNC system use to protect laptops from theft. If a laptop with this encryption device were to fall in the hands of a terrorist or individual who carries out a plot to harm the United States, the owner of the computer would be taken to court, fined up to $1,000,000, or jailed for up to 10 years. In this instance, the State of North Carolina would not have an obligation to legally defend the faculty member’s actions.

20 Unless the faculty member/administrator wants to sleep, eat, and shower (not advisable) with your personal laptop, the office of International Programs and Services and WCU strongly recommend that you 1. Seriously reconsider whether you need a laptop overseas (there are internet cafes or university computers that you may be able to use while doing business overseas) and 2. Sign out and take one of the travel friendly laptops prepared by IT Services that does not have the encryption device.

21 Laptop Checkout Procedure
Two weeks before pick-up: 1. Faculty issues an request to Lois Petrovich-Mwaniki or Kay Moore for a laptop to IPS with date of pick-up and return (Lmwaniki or Kmoore) 2. IPS goes on-line to to request a travel friendly laptop for international travel specifying pick-up and return dates 3. IPS receives a ticket # by and prints this 4. IT delivers laptop to IPS at least 2 days ahead of the pick-up date 5. IPS checks out laptop and goes over bag contents with faculty member 6. Faculty member signs and dates memo 7. Faculty member returns laptop to IPS on date specified 8. IPS does quick inventory check with traveler to insure that everything is in the bag 9. IPS updates ticket number in on HELP website IT gets notification and picks up laptop from IPS.

22 Recordkeeping The EO maintains all export controls and embargoes documentation at a central repository located at the Graduate School for five years. Records that need to be maintained are listed in the Export Controls Communication Plan under recordkeeping.

23 Red Flags! Shipments of equipment to a foreign country
Training or collaboration with foreign nationals Research activities performed in or traveling to an embargoed country Reference to export controlled technologies in an award document Restrictions on publication rights Restrictions on foreign participation Grant/Contract terms & conditions limiting access to or dissemination of research results Sharing/Shipping Encryption Source Code Abroad ANY Item, Information or Software that is: Designed or modified for a military use Suspected use in/for a weapon of mass destruction (nuclear, chemical, biological, missiles)

24 Violations and Penalties
Criminal penalties (including fines and/or prison sentences for individuals) and civil sanctions. May affect future research opportunities. Fines of up to $1,000,000 per violation for individuals and/or the university. Prison sentences up to 10 years.

25 Contact Information Graduate School and Research 110 Camp Building Western Carolina University Phone: (828) Fax: (828) Mimi Fenton Interim Dean, Graduate School and Research Andrea Moshier Research Compliance Officer, Graduate School and Research These slides were developed with the assistance of previously prepared material from UNC General Administration, UNC Chapel Hill, NCURA presentations and an Export Control presentation by Dr. Debra Burke, Professor, Western Carolina University and LeVon E. Wilson, Professor, Georgia Southern University

26 Export Control Review Committee
Links Export Control Review Committee ECRC Committee Member contact information

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