Presentation on theme: "Keeping Laptops Secure: Solutions Mike Delahunty Bryan Lutz Kimberly Peng Kevin Kazmierski John Thykattil Defense Team:"— Presentation transcript:
Keeping Laptops Secure: Solutions Mike Delahunty Bryan Lutz Kimberly Peng Kevin Kazmierski John Thykattil Defense Team:
Agenda Real world analysis of laptop security Four cornerstones of secure computing as they relate to laptop security Confidentiality Authenticity Integrity Availability How can we apply these cornerstones to ensure laptop security?
Real World – Balancing Cost and Risk The greater the security risk, the greater the cost to mitigate Software and administrative costs Some laptops need more security than others Bank employees laptop must be very secure Financial data could be compromised Government employees laptop must be very secure Public records could be compromised College students laptop might not need as much MP3s and videos could be lost
Real World – Business/Legal Consequences A survey of almost 500 IT professionals in 2006 revealed that 81 percent of firms lost machines containing sensitive data last year. 1 Loss of laptop containing personal data belonging to the public can lead to: Financial loss to those affected, and the company Stolen identities of those affected Lawsuits from those affected Loss of customers Lowered public perception of company
Real World - Feasibility Analysis Companies must dedicate appropriate resources to maintain a sufficient level of security for laptops, based on their accepted level of risk Ranges from $10s to $100s per laptop IT personnel to administer laptops and keep them secure Employee training on security Having the appropriate level of laptop security should always be feasible, or the company is not doing their due diligence.
Solutions to Ensure Laptop Data: Confidentiality Laptop Data Encryption Two Types of Encryption File File Full Disk (Preferred) Full Disk (Preferred) Most Encryption Products are FIPS Certified US Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) certification from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), which verified the encryption algorithms in the products as conforming to the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm US Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) certification from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), which verified the encryption algorithms in the products as conforming to the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm
Case Study: BitLocker Microsoft Product with Windows Vista Targets the Lost Laptop Targets the Lost Laptop Encrypts operating system volume on a sector by sector basis Encrypts operating system volume on a sector by sector basis Two Layer Approach Cipher Layer: Well-Established Cipher, AES in CBC mode Cipher Layer: Well-Established Cipher, AES in CBC mode Diffuser Layer: Unproven algorithm; premise is to make manipulation for authentication attacks harder Diffuser Layer: Unproven algorithm; premise is to make manipulation for authentication attacks harder
Case Study: BitLocker Cont. Premise/Design Approach Software Based Attacks Most Prevalent Software Based Attacks Most Prevalent BitLocker does not require user to enter special boot password or use boot SmartCard or USB device Hardware Attacks Rare but Supported with TPM Chip Hardware Attacks Rare but Supported with TPM Chip Seal/Unseal Function used to encrypt key which can only be decrypted by same TPM chip; other OSes can be booted and fully functional, but drive cannot be read.
Case Study: BitLocker Secure Boot Process If Attacker has access to ciphertext, and modifies it to create weakness in the normal boot process If Attacker has access to ciphertext, and modifies it to create weakness in the normal boot process Authenticate Data From Disk Authenticate Data From Disk Poor Mans Authentication: trust that changes in ciphertext do not translate to semantically sensible changes in the plaintext Poor Mans Authentication: trust that changes in ciphertext do not translate to semantically sensible changes in the plaintext 512 to 8192 byte block cipher 512 to 8192 byte block cipher If attacker changes any part of ciphertext, all plaintext in that sector is changed randomly If attacker changes any part of ciphertext, all plaintext in that sector is changed randomly
Solutions to Ensure Laptop Data: Confidentiality Physical Security Keep Devices in Safe Locations Keep Devices in Safe Locations Lock them up Lock them up LCD Privacy Screens LCD Privacy Screens Dont Display Confidential Documents in Public Areas Dont Display Confidential Documents in Public Areas Lock Down Ports: USB, IEEE 1394, etc. Lock Down Ports: USB, IEEE 1394, etc. Exploitation of Legitimate Forensics Tools Exploitation of Legitimate Forensics Tools Use TPM Chip to thwart hardware attacks Use TPM Chip to thwart hardware attacks
Authenticity Solutions Make it difficult to guess passwords and account names Disable well known accounts such as guest and administrator Disallow passwords that contain login names, dictionary words, or simple variants of previous passwords Require long passwords with a mix of characters, numbers, and symbols Use systems that employ SHA-512 or MD5
Authenticity Solutions Cont. Disable access to I/O ports Popular vendors of security products offer software that blocks the use of removable storage devices and media. This can prevent theft of data through USB devices or booting alternate operating systems on CD.
Authenticity Solutions Prevent users from connecting to rogue access points Host-based: Require the use of secure tunnels whenever using any connection outside of the company. VPN clients can be launched at startup, however this can lead to connectivity problems. Network-based: Employ software that detects and shuts down rogue access points installed within the companys network. An example would be RogueScanner, which is an open source tool for detecting rogue devices.
Integrity Solutions Do not give laptop users administrative rights Prohibits the installation of unapproved software Most malware / spyware exploits administrative privileges to install without user knowledge Provides greater stability - extraneous software not running in the background Laptops run more efficiently and quickly Less need for maintenance Only allow network administrators to install approved software Have a standardized, approved laptop image
Integrity Solutions Cont. Do not allow laptops on the network with expired Virus definitions Use a product such as Cisco Clean Access to place the laptop on a quarantined subnet upon first connection, download current virus definitions, and grant access once the laptop is in compliance Do not allow laptops to use unsecured wireless networks Enforce minimum requirements for wireless access using group policy or similar Do not allow open access SSIDs or WEP
Retaining Availability Availability - The ability to use the information or resource desired A loss of availability is a loss of data Logical Prevention Data redundancy Data redundancy - Ex: Oracle's Data Guard - Ex: Oracle's Data Guard Virtualization software Virtualization software Regular backups to Regular backups to corporate network Physical Prevention Toughbook laptops Toughbook laptops Oracle's Data Guard
Retaining Availability Cont. Cost (per 100 users) Data Redundancy Oracle's Data Guard - $6k (enterprise license) Oracle's Data Guard - $6k (enterprise license)Virtualization VMWare's bundle pack - $15k for 100 Virt. Machines VMWare's bundle pack - $15k for 100 Virt. MachinesToughbooks 3x over standard laptops 3x over standard laptops At 50% enterprise discount: $100k for 100 users At 50% enterprise discount: $100k for 100 users Simple data redundancy through server backups is most cost effective. However, high availability has its drawbacks.....
Retaining Availability Cont. Risks High Availability comes at a price Performance – synchronization for backups, Performance – synchronization for backups, loading virtual machines, n/w latency loading virtual machines, n/w latency Deployment – costs, training, personel Deployment – costs, training, personelFeasibility 99% uptime = 8,649 hrs/yr99% uptime = 8,649 hrs/yr or 87 hrs downtime / yr or 87 hrs downtime / yr If 95% uptime is good enough,If 95% uptime is good enough, Gartner suggests doing nothing. Gartner suggests doing nothing. Source: Gartner Research
Laptop Security Solutions - Conclusion There is no silver bullet product that covers all areas of laptop security Use a combination of products to achieve your optimal level of security Keep the balance between usability and security Employees must be able to work effectively while remaining secure