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COMBUSTION ENGINES.

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1 COMBUSTION ENGINES

2 Activity 1 Read next text and decide whether the statements are true or false. Correct the false sentences. Engines are machines that convert the energy stored in fuel into movement. They release the energy in fuel by combustion, that is, by burning it. This can take place outside the engine (external combustion) or inside the engine (internal combustion). T F 1. A car’s engine is an internal combustion engine. 2. A steam engine is an internal combustion engine. 3. A steam engine is an external combustion engine. 4. A turbofan (plane engine) is an external combustion engine. Steam engine Car engine Turbofan Correct answers:

3 Activity 1. ANSWERS Read next text and decide whether the statements are true or false. Correct the false sentences. Engines are machines that convert the energy stored in fuel into movement. They release the energy in fuel by combustion, that is, by burning it. This can take place outside the engine (external combustion) or inside the engine (internal combustion). T F 1. A car’s engine is an internal combustion engine. X 2. A steam engine is an internal combustion engine. 3. A steam engine is an external combustion engine. 4. A turbofan (plane engine) is an external combustion engine. Correct answers: 2. A steam engine is an external combustion engine. 4.A turbofan (plane engine) is an internal combustion engine.

4 Activity 2 An Aeolipile is …. An Aeolipile works … Description:
Read the following text and answer the questions: What is an Aeolipile? And how does it work? A little bit of history: Which was the first engine? It is thought that steam engines were invented at about 350 years ago but, the Greek mathematician and engineer Hero of Alexandria worked with air pressure and steam to create rotary motion. Heron (c. 10 – 70 AD) built the ‘Aeolipile’ that consists of a sphere on top of a water kettle. A fire below the kettle turns the water into steam forcing the gas to pass through pipes to the sphere. Two L-shaped tubes on opposite sides of the sphere allow the gas to escape, causing a rotation movement. This engine was not used very much in ancient Greece due to economic reasons (slaves did the hard work, and they were cheaper than burning wood) and because there were no practical uses for this device during the Old Greek Times. Description: Hero’s Aeolipile An Aeolipile is …. An Aeolipile works …

5 Activity 3 Hypothesising and making predictions.
Look at these sentences about hypothesising: If I don’t study, I will not pass the exam. (Future, certain) (If + verb in present → will + verb). We say that if we do one thing, then it is sure that a second event will happen in the future. (We link a present action with a future outcome or result. This hypothetical sentence structure implies greater probability). Example: If a football team win all the matches, this team will win the league. If I study this unit, I may/might/could pass the exam. (Future, possible) (If + verb in present → modal verb (may/might/could) + verb). We say that if we do something, then it is possible that a second event will happen in the future. (In a hypothetical situation we link a present action with a possible future outcome. This hypothetical sentence structure implies less probability of the future outcome than the previous one (sentence 1)). Example: If I get marks of 10 my parents might buy me a motorbike. If the teacher asked me about this question, I would pass the exam. (Future possible) (If + verb in past → would + verb). We talk about possibilities, meaning that, in a hypothetical situation something would happen. Example: If I won the lottery, I would buy a new house. If I had studied, I would have passed the exam. (Past, speculative) (If + verb in past perfect → would + verb in present perfect). We talk about something (a past action) we can’t change. If something was done differently in the past, then maybe the outcome would have been differently, but it is just a speculation. Example: If I had known that there was a party last night, I would have come.

6 Write 4 sentences, one of each type, according to these situations:
Imagine that you are living in the 23rd century and there aren’t any oil reserves because in the 21 century all the oil reserves have been used up. What would you say now? Imagine that the petrol tank in your car is empty and you have to drive from Barcelona to Madrid. You have to put petrol in your car because if not, you won’ take it (certain). What would you say? You are imagining with your partner, about what would happen if you had a pilot licence (planes). You both decide that you would like to travel around the world. What would you say? Imagine that you want to buy a new bicycle but you can’t find the bicycle that you have chosen in any of the stores. Suddenly you see a new big sport shop. Maybe the bicycle is in this new shop. What would you say?

7 After that, draw the imagined world (Activity 5)
Write a composition (100 words) Imagine our world if the ‘Ancient Greeks’ had started to use the steam engine to build engines, cars, etc. How would our world be nowadays? How would our history have changed? What would have happened to our environment? What would have happened to fossil fuels? Do you think it would be possible to live on other planets? ... You have to use hypothetical sentences. Look at activity 3 and the HELP below. You can use the HELP GENERAL GRAMMAR, as well. HELP: HYPOTHESISING AND MAKING PREDICTIONS. PREDICTING I predict that … will happen … will happen If … happens, (then) … will happen When … happens, (then) … will happen Because … happen, then … will happen This means that … will happen … will not happen, unless … happens … will not happen, if … does not happen HYPOTHESISING If … happens, … will happen (future, certain) If … happens, … may/might/could happen (future, possible) If … happened, … would happen (future, possible) If … had happened, … would have happened (past, speculative, real events in the past) Unless … happens, … will not happen If … does not happen, … will not happen Assuming … happened, …would happen You can start the composition with the sentence: If the Ancient Greeks had started to use the steam engines, I think nowadays the world would …… After that, draw the imagined world (Activity 5)

8 Activity 6 (Work in pairs) Read the text and underline key words with different colours: for instance steam engines in blue, steam turbines in red, piston engines in green, spark-ignition engines in black, compression-ignition engines in pencil, rotary engines, Wankel engine and gas turbines and jet engines with other colours, etc.

9 Activity 7 (Work in pairs). Answer the following questions about the texts that appear in activity 1 and in activity 6. You can use the HELP below (next page): What is an engine? Where were fossil fuels burned in a steam engine? What was the steam produced in a steam engine used for? Where was the steam engine used? Which is the general use of steam turbines? Why is the engine designed by Otto called a ‘four-stroke’ engine? Who is thought to have invented the two-stroke engine? Write three differences between the Otto engine and the Diesel engine. Name two rotary engines. How does a gas turbine work?

10 DEFINING ….. is (a) are was/were place person thing, concept device instrument, tool (where) (who) (which) (that) RELATION CAUSE-EFFECT. GIVING REASONS as a result because for example, for instance so that is why such as COMPARING AND CONTRASTING (For differences) in contrast compared with/in comparison with … is different from … (in that …) on the one hand/on the other hand however/otherwise … differs from … in respects: (firstly, secondly, finally,) from a different point of view/perspective

11 Activity 8 Petrol car External combustion engines Compression-ignition engines Some motorbikes Combustion engines Steam engine Wankel engine Aircrafts Water Diesel cars Smoke Some Mazda cars Internal combustion engines Steam turbines Rotary engines Four-stroke engine Steam train Piston engine (Reciprocating engine) Gas turbines & jet engines (G.T & Jet) Spark-ignition engines Electric train Two-stroke engine Electric power stations

12 Activity 8. ANSWERS COMBUSTION ENGINES INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
EXTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES PISTON ENGINES ROTARY ENGINES STEAM TURBINES STEAM ENGINE SPARK- IGNITION ENGINES COMPRESSIO N-IGNITION ENGINES WANKEL ENGINE GT & JET 4-STROKE ENGINE 2-STROKE ENGINE ELECTRIC POWER STATIONS STEAM TRAIN PETROL CAR SOME MOTORBIKES DIESEL CARS SOME MAZDA CARS AIRCRAFTS

13 Activity 9 (Work in pairs) Running dictation
We are going to talk about different steam engines used for the last 350 years. With your partner you have to decide who wants to write and who wants to dictate. Follow the instructions given by the teacher. Student that has to dictate: Look around the classroom for the letter that matches your sheet (A, B, C or D). Read the information, memorise it, go quickly to your partner, and dictate the information that appears in your sheet. You are not allowed to move the sheet or to say out loud the information. You have to pay special attention to the words in bold. Student that has to write: Write down all the information dictated by your partner. You have 20 minutes to finish the activity. INSTRUCTIONS Work in pairs. Assigned a letter A, B, C or D to each group. Each group must have a runner/reader and a writer. A different steam engine will be assigned to each group. First, the runner has to go around the room to find his or her steam engine. Second, the runner has to read the sentences committing them to memory. Students are not allowed to touch the paper, take the paper back to the group or shout out the sentence across the room. Once the runner thinks he/she can remember the sentence he/she must return to the group and say to them the memorized sentence. The writer of the group writes down the sentence as it is dictated, if the runner forgets part of the sentence he/she is allowed to go back to the paper and re-read and rememorized it. The team that finishes first wins.

14 Activity 10 (Work in pairs) Fill in the gaps according to activity 9:
12 11 13

15 Activity 11 (Work in pairs). Speaking activity: You are a steam engine expert; explain to your partner how your steam engine works and which its main components are. After that, explain this information to other partners. You can take notes (main parts, how your engine works, what its uses were, drawings, etc). You can use some expressions given below and the HELP given in activity 7 (Defining, relation cause-effect, giving reasons), Yes, I agree. Do you remember the main components? I’m not sure I can remember everything!!! A … steam engine works … Do you agree? GIVING OPINIONS TO COMPARE ANSWERS What do you think about…? What is your opinion about …? Why do/does/did …? What are your answers in ….? In my opinion … From my point of view … I think … I answered …. I think so. I don’t think so. I agree. I don’t agree. I disagree. Give me a reason for that. Yes, the main components are … I think the inventor was … and he lived in ... Oh, yes. And who was the inventor and when did he live?

16 Activity 11 PEER EVALUATION ACTIVITY 11. Your name ____________________________________________ YOUR PARTNER’S NAME: What to evaluate: COULD BE BETTER SATISFACTORY GOOD VERY GOOD Follow the roles Participation in discussion Clear reason explanations Oral structures and spelling

17 Activity 12 (Groups of four). Experts Jigsaw activity: Teacher will make groups of four students with each member representing a different letter (A, B, C and D). After that, choose one leader in each group. This leader will write the answer to the questions below: (You can use the HELP GENERAL GRAMMAR) After the Jigsaw activity your group must answer these questions: 1. Put the steam engines in order, from the oldest to the newest Answer: The first steam engine was …….. 2. What was the first steam engine used to solve the water problem in the mines? Was there a problem with this steam engine? Answers: The first person that solved the problem of water in mines was ……………, and the problems of his engine were ………. 3. Which steam engine was used most frequently in transport and industry? Answer: ……………….. 4. Who was the first person to introduce the concept of ‘horsepower’? Answer: ……………………… 5. Which steam engine used thing pictured below? Which is its name? Answers: …………………. 6. Why did the inventor use this mechanism? Answer: Because it was necessary to …….

18 Activity 12. ANSWERS After the Jigsaw activity your group must answer these questions: 1. Put the steam engines in order, from the oldest to the newest Answer: The first steam engine was Denis Papin, Thomas Savery, Thomas Newcomen and James Watt steam engines 2. What was the first steam engine used to solve the water problem in the mines? Was there a problem with this steam engine? Answers: The first person that solved the problem of water in mines was Thomas Savery, and the problems of his engine were explosions 3. Which steam engine was used most frequently in transport and industry? Answer: James Watt steam engine 4. Who was the first person to introduce the concept of ‘horsepower’? Answer: Thomas Savery 5. Which steam engine used thing pictured below? Which is its name? Answer: James Watt steam engine, Centrifugal governor 6. Why did the inventor use this mechanism? Answer: Because it was necessary to regulate the steam pressure and so that the speed of the steam engine

19 Activity 13 (Groups of four). You are going to work with some simulations. Go to the web pages listed below. The first link shows how a steam engine works and how it was used in the textile industry; the second shows how a steam engine ship works (there is a quiz in which you have to build a ship as well); the third shows how a steam engine train works (there is a quiz in which you have to build a train as well) and the fourth one is about how different steam engines work (for instance, the Newcomen steam engine). You have to take notes about how steam engines work, and about their main components. This information will be useful when you do activities 14 and 16. How did a steam engine used in a textile industry work? How does a steam engine ship work? How does a steam engine train work? How do different steam engines work? (For instance, you can see the Newcomen steam engine working. It was made by Matt Keveney; ‘Animated Engines’): Notes taken:

20 Activity 14 (Groups of four). Go to the web page: then click on the ‘Steam engine’ square, after finishing reading the things that both people say; click on ‘Steam Engine Builder’. You will have the main parts of a Watt steam engine. Pay attention, remember the component names and where each one is located. Click on play to build this steam engine. If you have a problem, you can click on back to instructions. You have a counter time to finish the activity. When you have finished the activity, call the teacher and show him/her your work and the time spent to complete the task. Now you can start. Activity 15 (Groups of four). In activity 16 you have to write a composition comparing the four steam engines studied. As a model, you can go to the web page: where you will find some comparisons between the Watt steam engine and the Newcomen steam engine. You have to click on Jenny (student) to follow the instructions and to obtain the information. Sometimes you will have some questions (the answers appear in red) that you have to solve in order to follow the presentation. Take notes about what you see, about the main components, the differences between them, and how the different combustion engines work. Notes taken:

21 Activity 16 (Groups of four). Write a composition (150 words) comparing the four steam engines. You can use some expressions from the HELP below: RELATION CAUSE-EFFECT. GIVING REASONS as a result because/thanks to consequently/so for example for instance that is why such as COMPARING AND CONTRASTING For similarities is similar to … (in that/in) … and … are similar (in that/in so far as …) … is like … (in that/in so far as …) like moreover in the same way … and … both have … in common For differences in contrast/alternatively compared with/in comparison with … is different from … (in that/in so far as) on the one hand/on the other hand instead of however/otherwise … differs from … in respects: (firstly, etc) from a different point of view/perspective MAKING DESCRIPTIONS First of all, talk about what is the thing you must to talk about and where it comes from: This is a … It comes from … Then describe its appearance, structure, etc: It has … It looks like … It has a ... It is made up of … It hasn’t got … Describe the location : It is found in … Describe the function: … has the job of …-ing(verb ending in ing) … It also does … … is /are … … was used to … LISTING Firstly, secondly, thirdly, fourthly …. finally/lastly First, second, third, fourth …. Finally/last

22 After finishing the composition, evaluate the work of the members in your group, and give the PEER EVALUATION to your teacher. PEER EVALUATION ACTIVITY 16. Your name ____________________________________________ YOUR PARTNER’S NAME: What to evaluate: COULD BE BETTER SATISFACTORY GOOD VERY GOOD Follow the roles Participation in discussion Clear explanations Help in composition (writing) Give ideas Accuracy of vocabulary Clear reason explanations

23 Activity 17 (Work in pairs). Return to your running dictation partner and compare your answers (activity 12) with the answers given by his/her group. Write down the different answers. Use the HELP section to write your opinions in the box: PRACTICE AND WRITE YOUR COMPARISONS. What did you answer in the first question? We think that the answer is …. Do you agree? GIVING OPINIONS TO COMPARE ANSWERS What do you think about…? What is your opinion about …? Why do/does/did …? What are your answers in ….? In my opinion … From my point of view … I think … I answered …. I think so. I don’t think so. I agree. I don’t agree. I disagree. Give me a reason for that. Yes. We answered the same. And which steam engine was the most used in transport and industry? We were not sure! But we answered that the most steam engine used in transport and industry was ….

24 Activity 18 (Work in pairs). Write a composition (150 words). To help you with your English, go back to activities 16 and 17 and refer to the HELP GENERAL GRAMMAR. You have to choose between two possible compositions: Why do you think steam engines led to the ‘Industrial Revolution’? ; Which changes produced this revolution in transport, in society, in industry, in the economy and in the population, etc? You can go to the webpage: ‘The Industrial Revolution’, written by Montagna, J.: 2. Describe workers lives during the ‘Industrial revolution’. How and where did they live? How did they work? What was work in the mine like? Talk about ‘the Industrial Colonies in Catalonia’. You can go, for instance, to the webpage: In both cases you can find other WebPages. HELP: You can use the expressions from the HELP GENERAL GRAMMAR

25 Activity 19 (Work in pairs). Read next text and fill in the gaps in the pictures. The steam turbines A steam turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from steam and converts it into useful work. Normally it is used in the electric power stations to obtain electricity. The pressurized steam produced in a boiler, turns the rotor blades (the moving part) that usually is inside a fixed part called stator that has magnets. This rotary movement, because of electromagnetic reasons, is transformed into electricity. Label the picture: using the words in the box below: D Internal cashing (stator) Rotor Rotating blades External cashing (stator) ANSWERS: A: Internal cashing (stator) B: External cashing (stator) C: Rotor D: Rotating blades C A B

26 Activity 20 (Work in pairs) Main components of a car. Below are the pictures of the main components of a car. Label the car using the definitions. There are three additional definitions that don’t appear in the drawing of the car. If you have any problems with the vocabulary, you can use the dictionary and build a glossary (list of words). Its name starts with a C Its name starts with a B Its name starts with G…… S….. Its name starts with a C Its name starts with a W Its name starts with R…. F…. Its name starts with a B Its name starts with a S Its name starts with a T Its name starts with a D

27 Its name starts with E …. P … Its name starts with S… W… Its name starts with C… M … Its name starts with a H Its name starts with a E The three definitions that don’t appear in the draw of the car are the letters:

28 Activity 20. ANSWERS Letters don’t appear: A, D, G F L I M K E J C N B
L I M K E J C N B H Letters don’t appear: A, D, G

29 Activity 21 (Work in pairs). Match the definitions given in activity 18 with the words from the box below: Suspension Clutch Exhaust pipe Differential Engine Gear stick Crankcase (Oil sump) Car mirror Headlight Radiator fan Transmission Battery Steering wheel Brakes Wheel Answers: Definition A: Definition B: Definition C: Definition D: Definition E: Definition F: Definition G: Definition H: Definition I: Definition J: Definition K: Definition L: Definition M: Definition N: Definition O: CORRECT ANSWERS: Definition A: CLUTCH Definition B: BRAKES Definition C: GEAR STICK Definition D: CRANKCASE Definition E: WHEEL Definition F:SUSPENSION Definition G: TRANSMISSION Definition H: DIFFERENTIAL Definition I: BATTERY Definition J: RADIATOR FAN Definition K: EXHAUST PIPE Definition L: STEERING WHEEL Definition M: HEADLIGHTS Definition N: ENGINE Definition O: CAR MIRROR

30 Activity 22 (Work in pairs) Read the text about different mechanisms used to put the fuel and air into the petrol engine and after that, do the true/false activity. TRUE/FALSE ACTIVITY Put a cross in the correct square. If the sentence is false, you have to correct it. T F 1. An engine that uses a carburettor is called an atmospheric engine. 2. The electronic injection system uses more combustible than carburettor system. 3. With the turbo compressor system it is possible to achieve less power in an engine. 4. Petrol and diesel engines use carburettors. CORRECT ANSWERS: T F 1. An engine that uses a carburettor is called an atmospheric engine. X 2. The electronic injection system uses more combustible than carburettor system. 3. With the turbo compressor system it is possible to achieve less power in an engine. 4. Petrol and diesel engines use carburettors. CORRECTIONS: 2. The electronic injection system uses less combustible than other systems. 3. With the turbo compressor system it is possible to achieve more power in an engine. 4.Diesel engines don’t use carburettor.

31 Activity 23 (Work in pairs). Go to the website where you will find animations about how some components in a car work. Take notes about the key words, the main sentences, and descriptions about how each component works. Activity 24 (Work in pairs). Read the text that appears in the worksheet, ‘The engine’, and answer the questions below: Write the name of six elements of an engine saying in which part of the engine each one is located. What happens inside a cylinder? What is the use of a spark plug? In a 16V car that has 4 cylinders; how many valves does each cylinder have? In your opinion, what is the use of water in an engine?

32 Activity 25 The engine cylinder volume is the total of all the volume cylinders in an engine. The Bore is the diameter of the circular chambers cut into the cylinder block, and the stroke is the length of the piston movement inside the cylinder. One cylinder volume: Usually bore and stroke are measured in cm, so that Vu use to be measured in cm3 (cc). The engine cylinder volume will be: VT = n • Vu (usually measured in cm3 or cc), where n is the engine cylinder number.

33 Example How to calculate a car engine cylinder volume:
Car: VW Golf 1.6 n: 4 cylinders. Bore: 81 mm Stroke: 77, 4 mm To calculate Vu we have to solve the equation (remember that bore and stroke should be expressed in cm): So that, the engine cylinder volume will be: VT = n • Vu = 4 • Vu = 4 • 398, 84 = 1595, 36 cm3. For this reason, this car is sold such as 1.6 engine cylinder volume. (VW 1.6) Solve the problem: Find the engine cylinder volume of the following cars. CAR A CAR B n (cylinders number) 6 4 Bore (mm) 82,6 90 Stroke (mm) 87 80 ANSWERS: CAR A: Vu = CAR B: Vu = VT = VT = CAR A will be sold as a … engine cylinder volume, and CAR B will be sold as a …… engine cylinder volume. ANSWERS: CAR A: Vu = cm CAR B: Vu = cm3. VT = cm3. VT = cm3. CAR A will be sold as a 2.8 engine cylinder volume, and CAR B will be sold as a 2.0 engine cylinder volume.

34 Activity 26 (Work in groups of three). “Experts Jigsaw” activity. Teacher will make groups of three. This group will be your main group. Choose a leader of the group. This leader must write down the answers to the final questions. You can find some simulations on the web pages added. After finish activity 27 you must evaluate your partners with a peer evaluation. Activity 27 (Work in groups of three). Turn back with your main group. Each of you is an expert in a kind of piston engine. Answer these questions and match a number with a word from the box. Remember that the leader has to write the answers.

35 1. What is the name of this piston engine. ………………………
1. What is the name of this piston engine? ………………………. Match a number with the words in the box below: 11 12 13 Exhaust port Crankshaft Valve spring Engine block Piston Cooling water Spark plug Intake port Connecting rod Crankcase Cylinder head Exhaust valve Intake (Inlet) valve

36 2. Write the name of the four-stokes of a Diesel engine, and describe each one with your own words.
First stroke: Second stroke: Third stroke: Fourth stroke: 3. What is the name of this piston engine? ………………………. Match a number with the words in the box below: Spark plug Cylinder head Connecting rod Piston Crankshaft Cylinder Intake port Combustion chamber Exhaust port

37 4. Which is the use of the following components?
Spark plug: Connecting rod: Crankshaft: Valves:

38 (For 5 students in the experts group)
PEER EVALUATION ACTIVITY 26. Your name _______________________________________ (For 5 students in the experts group) YOUR PARTNER’S NAME: What to evaluate: COULD BE BETTER SATISFACTORY GOOD VERY GOOD Follow the roles Participation in discussion Clear reason explanations Oral structures and spelling

39 Activity 27. ANSWERS Petrol four-stroke engine 1. Spark plug.
2. Valve spring. 3.Intake port. 4. Exhaust port. 5. Intake (Inlet) valve. 6. Exhaust valve. 7. Cooling water. 8. Piston 9. Crankshaft.. 10. Connecting rod. 11. Cylinder head. 12. Engine block. 13. Crankcase. 3. Two-stroke engine 1. Spark plug. 2. Cylinder. 3. Crankshaft. 4. Connecting road. 5. Cylinder head. 6. Combustion chamber. 7. Exhaust port. 8. Piston. 9. Intake port.

40 Activity 28 (Work in groups of three). Write a composition (150 words) comparing the three different types of piston engines studied. (Advantages and disadvantages, differences, etc) HELP: You can use the following internet pages to help you find some information (mainly the first and the second WebPages). (In this website you have to go to interactive tour (in blue); it is possible to play some games (Mr. Stephens’s Engine Shop is useful to distinguish different components in a car) or to know how to build a car.

41 More HELP in HELP GENERAL GRAMMAR
GRAMMAR HELP: More HELP in HELP GENERAL GRAMMAR DEFINING ….. is (a) are was/were place person thing concept device instrument tool, etc. (where) (who) (which) (that) RELATION CAUSE-EFFECT. GIVING REASONS as a result because for example for instance so that is why such as COMPARING AND CONTRASTING (For differences) in contrast compared with/in comparison with … is different from … (in that …) on the one hand/on the other hand however/otherwise … differs from … in respects: (firstly, secondly, finally,) from a different point of view/perspective

42 Activity 29 (Work in pairs). Taboo or Pictionary. According to your ability, explaining in English some words or drawing a picture, select a game: Taboo (best abilities in explaining) or Pictionary (best abilities in drawing). Your teacher will make groups of two or four students. Define the word (in bold) that appears in your card (Explaining the word (Taboo) or drawing a picture (Pictionary)). In any case you cannot say the word in your card. HELP for the students that want to play Taboo: You can use some of the expressions given in the GRAMAR HELP in activity 28.

43 Activity 30 (Work in pairs). Complete the crossword below: R O E L G S
J H C F 1 R O 2 E 3 4 L G K I 5 S 6 T D 7 B 8 9 X 10 W 11 P N 12 13

44 ACROSS (Back) Name of the third stroke in a four-stroke engine. Place where a fossil fuel (such as coal) is burned. The heat produced is normally used to heat water. 3. Machinery in a vehicle that turns engine power into movement forwards or backwards. 4. This device allows driving at night. 5. (Back) This mechanism is a system of gears that transmits an engine’s power to the wheels. 6. The length of the piston movement inside the cylinder. 7. (Back) The place in a steam engine where the water is heated to be transformed in steam. 8. This case contains the lubrication oil; it is located under the engine block. 9. Name of the fourth stroke in a four-stroke engine. 10. This mechanism allows the car to run on the roads without lot of movements. The external part is called a tyre and usually is made of plastic (rubber) with air inside. 11. Piece inside a cylinder that has an up-and-down motion. 12. (Back) This engine is composed of blades and steam or the gas makes turning its blades to achieve rotation movement. 13. Solid fossil fuel. DOWN A. Compression-ignition engine that doesn’t need spark plug to initiate the combustion reaction. B. This engine uses a rotary design to convert pressure into a rotating movement following the thermodynamic Otto cycle. C. Machine that converts the energy stored in fuel into movement. (Useful work). D. This mechanism powers the electrical system. E. (Up) This mechanism allows to connect and to disconnect, voluntary or automatically, a conductor shaft with a conduit shaft. This mechanism is used to change gears (to change the speed). F. (Up) Gas obtained when the water is heated at more than 100 ºC. G. Fuel used by the diesel cars. H. (Up) This component allows the driver to look back. I. Component that produces the spark needed to start the combustion reaction in the petrol cars. J. Diameter of the circular chambers cut into the cylinder block. K. These mechanisms are an energy dissipater that allows reducing speed. (Plural)

45 Activity 30. ANSWERS D B I R E W O P U N G M S L T X Y A J H C F 1 2 3
4 L T K 5 6 7 8 9 X 10 11 Y 12 13

46 Activity 31 (Work in pairs). Put this text about the Wankel engine in order: A. convert pressure into rotating motion instead of using reciprocating pistons. It is a four-stroke engine where the motion B. design, Wankel rotary engine have been installed in a variety of vehicles an devices such as automobiles C. ‘The Wankel engine is a type of internal combustion engine which uses a rotary design to D. (some cars made by the Japanese Mazda), aircrafts, go-karts, personal water craft, chain saws and auxiliary power units’. Wankel engine E. takes place in an oval space. The rotor is like a triangle. Due to its compact ANSWERS: 1: 2: 3: 4: 5:

47 Activity 31. ANSWERS ANSWERS: 1: C 2: A 3: E 4: B 5: D
Answer: Text in order: ‘The Wankel engine is a type of internal combustion engine which uses a rotary design to convert pressure into rotating motion instead of using reciprocating pistons. It is a four-stroke engine where the motion takes place in an oval space. The rotor is like a triangle. Due to its compact design, Wankel rotary engine have been installed in a variety of vehicles an devices such as automobiles (some cars made by the Japanese Mazda), aircrafts, go-karts, personal water craft, chain saws and auxiliary power units’. Adapted from: Wankel engine

48 Activity 32 (work in pairs) Go to the following web pages, where it is possible to watch some animations about how a Wankel engine works. Take some notes about components, strokes and about how the Wangel engine works. After watching the video, match a picture with its suitable stroke:

49 Intake The fuel/air mixture is drawn in the intake port during this phase of the rotation. A Exhaust And the exhaust is expelled B Compression The mixture is compressed. C Power The mixture burns, driving the rotor around. D A B C D

50 Activity 32. ANSWERS Activity 33 ANSWERS:
Intake: B Exhaust: C Compression: D Power: A Activity 33 (Work in pairs). Write a small composition explaining how a Wankel engine works (100 words). You can use the HELP that appears in your worksheet: (You can use the HELP GENERAL GRAMMAR) Wankel engine description:

51 Activity 34 Fill in the gaps: Gas turbines
A gas turbine is a _______ machine similar in principle to a steam turbine and it consists of three main components: a ___________, a combustion chamber, and a turbine. The ______ after being compressed in the compressor is heated by burning ______ in it. Gas turbine Jet engines A jet engine is any engine that creates force by releasing a high speed jet of a liquid or a gas. Most jet engines are internal ___________ engines used by aircraft. The hot ______ produced in the combustion reaction are forced to turn the turbine blades (for this reason jet engines are also called gas ________ engines), and to go out of the back of the engine at high speed pushing the ______ through the air. The turbojet engine is very fast, but noisy and less _________ with fuel than a turbofan engine. They are only used for high-speed jet planes. Turbo Jet Turbojet and turbofan engines are similar, but turbofan has a big fan in the front of the turbine that promotes its turn. The exhaust gases speed is lower in turbofan engines than in turbojet engines. This makes them not to be as ______ as turbojets, but turbofans are more efficient, quieter and uses less fuel than the turbojet. They used to serve as a _______ jet. Turbofan

52 fast turbines oxygen rotary gases passenger fuel
A rocket engine produces force by pushing gases at high speed. Instead of using air for the combustion reaction, rocket engines burn with liquid _________. For this reason, rocket engines can travel in space where there is no air. Rocket engine fast turbines oxygen rotary gases passenger fuel efficient plane compressor air combustion water pollution

53 Activity 34. ANSWERS Gas turbines
A gas turbine is a (rotary) machine similar in principle to a steam turbine and it consists of three main components: a (compressor), a combustion chamber, and a turbine. The (air) after being compressed in the compressor is heated by burning (fuel) in it. Jet engines A jet engine is any engine that creates force by releasing a high speed jet of a liquid or a gas. Most jet engines are internal (combustion) engines used by aircraft. The hot (gases) produced in the combustion reaction are forced to turn the turbine blades (for this reason jet engines are also called gas (turbine) engines), and to go out of the back of the engine at high speed pushing the (plane) through the air. The turbojet engine is very fast, but noisy and less (efficient) with fuel than a turbofan engine. They are only used for high-speed jet planes. Turbojet and turbofan engines are similar, but turbofan has a big fan in the front of the turbine that promotes its turn. The exhaust gases speed is lower in turbofan engines than in turbojet engines. This makes them not to be as (fast) as turbojets, but turbofans are more efficient, quieter and use less fuel than turbojet. They used to serve as a (passenger) jet. A rocket engine produces force by pushing gases at high speed. Instead of using air for the combustion reaction, rocket engines burn with liquid (oxygen). For this reason, rocket engines can travel in space where there is no air.

54 SELF AVALUATION About the unit: Write your mark (a number between 1 and 10) Fill in the PIGEOMETRE,: What have you learned from this unit? What was easy for you? What did you find difficult? What do you do out of school to help you with your English work? What would you find most helpful? What do you like doing most? What do you like doing least? Any suggestions?


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