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Skip Intro Cognitive Overload in Multimedia Learning EDP 504 Tutorial by Andrea Sanyshyn Janine Batchelor Patricia Peres and Peter Vierno Skip Intro.

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Presentation on theme: "Skip Intro Cognitive Overload in Multimedia Learning EDP 504 Tutorial by Andrea Sanyshyn Janine Batchelor Patricia Peres and Peter Vierno Skip Intro."— Presentation transcript:

1 Skip Intro Cognitive Overload in Multimedia Learning EDP 504 Tutorial by Andrea Sanyshyn Janine Batchelor Patricia Peres and Peter Vierno Skip Intro

2 This tutoring system was designed to give you a quick but thorough description of what cognitive overload is and how it can be avoided. Introduction Skip Intro

3 By the end of this tutorial we hope to give you the ability to evaluate multimedia learning tools. As teachers we want our students to be engaged and learning yet not over stimulated. Before we get started let's do an activity... Introduction Skip Intro

4 On the following slides we are going to show you some examples of some webpages. Pretend you are a student using the webpages to gather information for a school project. All we want you to do is answer a question about the webpages. Introduction Skip Intro

5 Go to this site: Once you open the page you need to follow these two steps: 1 st : Click on the Viking Voyage option 2 nd : Click on the Enhanced Site option Now just look over the page. Once you think you are ready click the next button below for your question. Now This is the page you should be looking at. Introduction Skip Intro

6 Question: Where does the Viking journey begin and end? Click the next button to see the answer. Introduction Skip Intro

7 Answer: The journey begins at the Homelands and Ends at the Land of Legend. Were you right? Lets try one more. Introduction Skip Intro

8 From the Viking webpage you are on right now, click #7 on the map to go to the Land of Legends. (Heres the link again if you closed the page: )http://www.mnh.si.edu/vikings/start.html This is what the page should look like. When you are ready, click the next button for your question. Introduction Skip Intro

9 Question: What were three ideas about the Vikings that are competing for supremacy? Click the next button for the answer. Introduction Skip Intro

10 Answer: Any three of the following would be correct: 1. humorous Viking cartoon strips 2. serious genetic studies of Viking descendants 3. historically accurate novels 4. archeological hoaxes Did you get this one right? Introduction Skip Intro

11 If you thought something like… Wait! The ship moves!! Oh, there is too much info! This webpage is a mess! Everything is so confusing! Why are they asking me these questions? you arent the only one. Introduction Skip Intro

12 The cognitive overload which you are experiencing can happen for two main reasons: 1. Extraneous Factor: the information is not presented well (This factor can be controlled by creators of multimedia resourses.) 2. Intrinsic Factor: the complexity and amount of informational units to hold in working memory to comprehend information Brunken, Plass, & Leutner, 2003 Introduction Skip Intro

13 You have just experienced how cognitive overload can affect learning. Now we will move onto what cognitive load is and how it can be reduced. We suggest that if this is your first time using this tutoring system to follow the links down the page in order on the next slide. Cognitive Overload The Mind Examples Introduction

14 Cognitive Load- What is it? Whats the Importance? How the Mind Works Ways to Reduce Overload Lets Review Glossary Reference List Home Page Return to Intro

15 The definition of cognitive overload in multimedia learning refers to the excessive level of cognitive processing required for learning through the presentation of words and pictures To fully understand this definition we need to know what multimedia learning is... Cognitive Load- What is it? Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R. 2003

16 Multimedia learning is learning from words, which can be printed or spoken, and, from pictures, which can be either static such as illustrations, graphics, maps or photos or dynamic such as animations, vidoes or interactive illustrations. Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R According to Mayer and Moreno, Cognitive Load- What is it?

17 To understand how cognitive overload occurs, we first need to understand how the mind works. How the Mind Works

18 There are three assumptions on how the mind works: Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R How the Mind Works

19 The information enters by two channels: processes auditory and verbal information processes written and graphical information Auditory/verbal channel Visual/pictorial channel How the Mind Works

20 Each channel has a limited capacity to process information How the Mind Works

21 The information processing is active since the information is: Selected Paying attention to the material Organized Organizing the material into a coherent structure Integrated Tying the material to a prior-knowledge Meaningful learning How the Mind Works

22 Keep in mind these three assumptions as we explore how the mind works. How the Mind Works

23 Lets use an example: It is Valentines day and you have received a beautiful card from your mate. The card is musical, has a colorful illustration, and a nice written message. How the Mind Works

24 All the information presented in the card such as the illustration, the writing and the music will be processed in your mind like this: How the Mind Works

25 *Words Picture Ears Eyes Sounds Images Verbal Rep Pictorial Rep Selecting words Selecting Images Organizing words Organizing images Integrating CardSensory Memory Working Memory The words and the picture are captured by your eyes whereas the words, from the song, are captured by your ears Long- term Memory Prior knowledge *written and sung words Modified figure from Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R How the Mind Works

26 Words Picture Ears Eyes Sounds Images Verbal Rep Pictorial Rep Selecting words Selecting Images Organizing words Organizing images Integrating Card Sensory Memory Working Memory All the information coming from the ears and eyes is selected on the way to the working memory. That is, you are paying attention to some of the auditory information from the ears as well as to some of the visual information from the eyesselected Prior knowledge Long- term Memory How the Mind Works Modified figure from Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R. 2003

27 Words Pictures Ears Eyes Sounds Images Verbal Rep Pictorial Rep Selecting words Selecting Images Organizing words Organizing images Integrating Card Sensory Memory Working Memory The selected information is organized into coherentorganized verbal and pictorial representations Long- term Memory Prior knowledge How the Mind Works Modified figure from Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R. 2003

28 Words Pictures Ears Eyes Sounds Images Verbal Rep Pictorial Rep Selecting words Selecting Images Organizing words Organizing images CardSensory Memory Working Memory Long- term Memory The pictorial and verbal representations are integratedintegrated to a prior knowledge, and when this happens, all the information of the card becomes meaningful. Integrating Prior knowledge How the Mind Works Modified figure from Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R. 2003

29 There are five different types of cognitive overload. Ways to Reduce Overload

30 Type of Overload ScenarioLoad Reducing Method Type 1: Essential processing in visual channelEssential processing The visual channel is overloaded by essential processing demands. Off-loading: Move some essential processing from the visual channel to the auditory channel. ion/stage5a/video/dockanim_qt.html Ways to Reduce Overload Modified table from Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R Examples:

31 Type of Overload ScenarioLoad Reducing Method Type 2: Essential processing (in both channels) Both channels are overloaded by essential processing demands. Segmenting: allow time between successive bite-size segments Pretraining: provide pertaining names and characteristics of components gball.html Ways to Reduce Overload Modified table from Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R. 2003

32 Type of Overload ScenarioLoad Reducing Method Type 3: Essential processing + incidental processing (cause by extraneous material) incidental processing Weeding: eliminate interesting but extraneous material to reduce processing of extraneous material Signaling: provide cues for how to process the material to reduce processing of extraneous material enempire/hardware.html Ways to Reduce Overload Modified table from Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R. 2003

33 Type of Overload ScenarioLoad Reducing Method Type 4: Essential processing + incidental processing (cause by confusing presentation) Aligning: place printed words near corresponding parts of graphics to reduce need for visual scanning anatomy.html Eliminating Redundancy: avoid presenting identical streams of printed and spoken words nitiveaudio/index.htm enempire/multimedia/bee.html r_me_stories.jhtml ->Click on Please, Baby, Please and Rumble Grumble Gurgle Roar links Ways to Reduce Overload Modified table from Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R

34 Type of Overload ScenarioLoad Reducing Method Synchronizing: present narration and corresponding animation simultaneously to minimize need to hold representation in memory Individualizing: make sure learners possess skills at holding mental representations Type 5: Essential processing + representation holding (cause by confusing presentation) representation holding te.html lease/jhtml Match high-quality multimedia design with high-spatial learners. One or both channels are overloaded by essential processing and representation holding. Ways to Reduce Overload Modified table from Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, R. 2003

35 Why should teachers know about cognitive load? Whats the Importance?

36 Teachers need to present instructional materials so working memory load is reduced. This can be accomplished through: a learning environment that provides helpful instructions breaking a task into smaller parts so the load of information can be handled better providing learning aids such as advance organizers, notes, and summaries Whats the Importance?

37 Glossary Essential ProcessingEssential Processing: cognitive processes that are required for making sense of the presented material(ex. selecting words, selecting images, organizing words, organizing images, and integrating) Incidental ProcessingIncidental Processing: cognitive processes that are not required for making sense of the presented material but are primed by the design of a learning task(ex. adding background music) Long-term MemoryLong-term Memory: memory over long periods of time, ranging from hours to days and years Glossary

38 Representational HoldingRepresentational Holding: cognitive processes aimed at holding a mental representation in working memory over a period of time Sensory MemorySensory Memory: a system that briefly holds stimuli in sensory registers so that perceptual analysis can occur Sensory Registers: buffer where perceptual information is momentarily stored until it is recognized or forgotten Working MemoryWorking Memory: portion of memory containing current contents of consciousness Glossary

39 On the following screens you will find a few multiple choice review questions covering the material you have just learned. To see the answer to a review question just click to the next screen. The correct answer will be circles in red. Lets Review

40 1.Teachers can use instructional materials to reduce the load on a students working memory in all of the following ways except: A. using advanced organizers B. present all parts of a task at one time C. give helpful instructions D. provided notes and summaries Lets Review

41 1.Teachers can use instructional materials to reduce the load on a students working memory in all of the following ways except: A. using advanced organizers B. present all parts of a task at one time C. give helpful instructions D. provided notes and summaries Lets Review

42 2. We process information in…: A. Three channels, which are the auditory, verbal and visual channels B. Three channels, which are the verbal, visual and pictorial channels C. Two channels, which are the auditory/verbal and visual/pictorial channels D. One channel, which is the verbal channel E. None of the above Lets Review

43 2. We process information in…: A. Three channels, which are the auditory, verbal and visual channels B. Three channels, which are the verbal, visual and pictorial channels C. Two channels, which are the auditory/verbal and visual/pictorial channels D. One channel, which is the verbal channel E. None of the above Lets Review

44 3. Off-loading is a load reducing method defined as: A. allowing time between successive bite-size segments B. providing cues for how to process the materials to reduce processing of extraneous material C. moving some essential processing from the visual channel to the auditory channel Lets Review

45 3. Off-loading is a load reducing method defined as: A. allowing time between successive bite-size segments B. providing cues for how to process the materials to reduce processing of extraneous material C. moving some essential processing from the visual channel to the auditory channel Lets Review

46 4.Which statement is true: A. The information processing is active since the information is integrated, selected and organized into the working memory B. The information becomes meaningful when it is selected, organized and integrated into the working memory C. The visual channel does not have limited capacity for processing information D. New information is not tied to prior knowledge Lets Review

47 4.Which statement is true: A. The information processing is active since the information is integrated, selected and organized into the working memory B. The information becomes meaningful when it is selected, organized and integrated into the working memory C. The visual channel does not have limited capacity for processing information D. New information is not tied to prior knowledge Lets Review

48 5. Eliminating interesting but extraneous material in an example of what load reducing method? A. aligning B. weeding C. off-loading Lets Review

49 5. Eliminating interesting but extraneous material in an example of what load reducing method? A. aligning B. weeding C. off-loading Lets Review

50 6. A teacher is designing a web-based activity and wishes to present narration and corresponding animation simultaneously to minimize her students need to hold representations in memory. She is engaging in which type of load reducing method? A. synchronizing B. segmenting C. aligning Lets Review

51 6. A teacher is designing a web-based activity and wishes to present narration and corresponding animation simultaneously to minimize her students need to hold representations in memory. She is engaging in which type of load reducing method? A. synchronizing B. segmenting C. aligning Lets Review

52 References Bruning, R.H., Schraw, G.J.,Norby, M.N.,& Ronning, R.R. (2004). Cognitive Psychology and Instruction (4 th ed.). Columbus, OH: Pearson Education Inc. Brunken, R., Plass, J. L. & Leuter, D.(2003). Direct measurement of cognitive load in multimedia learning. Educational Psychologist,38(1), Doolittle, P.E. & Tech, V.(2002). Multimedia learning: empirical results and practical applications. Virginia polytechnic Institute and State University. Retrieved March 16, 2004 from, Grace-Martin, Michael.(2001)How to design educational multimedia: a loaded question. Journal of Educational Multimedia,10(4), Joy, D. Encyclopedia of Educational Technology. Audio: How much is too much? Retrieved March 14, 2004, from Mayer, R.E. & Moreno, R.(2003). Nine ways to reduce cognitive overload in multimedia learning. Educational Psychologist,38(1), University of New South Wales, Australia,(1998,December). Research into cognitive load theory and instructional design at UNSW. Retrieved April 22, 2004, from References

53 Websites used as examples: References


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