Presentation on theme: "Key 2: Teams Kagan Cooperative Learning by Dr. Spencer Kagan"— Presentation transcript:
1Key 2: Teams Kagan Cooperative Learning by Dr. Spencer Kagan Chapter 7 Presentation by Pam Moeai
2Key 2: Teams Materials Needed: Teamformation Cards (7.6) Card Sorting Method (7.7)Achievement Ranked List Method ( )Team Tracking Sheet (7.14)Animal Sounds (7.15)Team Dynamics Observation Form (7.18)Parting Messages For… (7.24)
3“Working cooperatively in teams is a wonderful experience for students and provides opportunities for students to develop social and life skills that will serve them well throughout life.”– Dr. Spencer Kagan
4The Basic Cooperative Learning Team The Four Student TeamTeams of Four Allow Pair WorkTeams of Four Avoid Odd Man OutTeams of Four Increase Variety(Team of Four, Shoulder Partners, Face Partners)Teams of Four Optimize Cognitive and Linguistic Mismatch(Piagetian development work, as well as research that we learn well from someone only somewhat different from our own level of development—someone who can provide stimulation in our Zone of Proximal Development.
5Teams of Four Double the Lines of Communication 125632134
6Handling Extra/Absent Students 3 Extra Students: 1 Team of 32 Extra Students: 2 Teams of 31 extra Student: 1 team of 53 Teammates Absent: Move remaining students to the smallest team.2 Teammates Absent: Pull a student from a team of 5 or 4 to work with that team.1 teammate Absent: No change necessary.
7The Four Major Types of Teams Heterogeneous TeamsRandom TeamsStudent-Selected TeamsHomogeneous Teams
8Heterogeneous Teams AND A number of researchers and theorists have identified Heterogeneous Student Teams as a defining, basic characteristic of Cooperative Learning. In general, these teams can remain intact for six weeks and have the following advantages:Increased opportunities for peer tutoring and support!Improved cross-race and cross-sex relations and integration!ANDMakes classroom management easier—having a high achieveron each team can be like having one teacher aidefor every three students!
9Forming Heterogeneous Teams Team Tools SoftwareTeamformation CardsCard Sorting MethodTeamformation Pocket ChartAchievement-Ranked List Method (See Hand-out)The Sticky Note MethodThe Spreadsheet MethodPairs Pair MethodTeam Leader MethodClick here to learn more about team formations!
11The Sticky Note MethodFirst, divide your class into four equal parts (High, High Medium, Low Medium, and Low).Next, write student names on color-coded sticky notes. All the Highs are one color, all the High Mediums are another color, and so on.When forming teams, simply select four sticky notes, one of each color.If the team doesn’t feel right, it’s easy to un-stick the notes and form a new team.**You could use the same method using the InterWrite/SmartBoard Tools for a more permanent “Sticky Note” MethodBACK
12The Spreadsheet Method A spreadsheet application such as Excel can be very helpful in team formations and for keeping track of previous team assignments.Requires a basic working knowledge of spreadsheetsCreate a “Students” column with students rank-ordered by achievement.The next column is students’ “Ability Level”.Divide the rank list into four equal parts and label students as High, High-medium, Low-medium, and LowNow move student rows in your spreadsheet to represent your team selection.There are two ways to move students around while keeping the rest of your data intact. Either create a second spreadsheet and copy and paste rows so students from the same team are one below another, or using your original spreadsheet, insert a row where you wish to move a student, then move the student to that empty row.Once your happy with your selection, add the team numbers in the third column, “Assignment 1.”By recording your team assignments, you can easily see if students have worked on the same team.BACK
13Pairs-Pair MethodDeveloped by Dr. Julie High, author of Second language Learning Through Cooperative LearningStudents are divided into four groups (High, High-medium, Low-Medium, Low)The High and Low groups meet on one side of the room, while the High-Medium and Low-Medium students meet on the other sideHigh and Low groups pair up, while High-Medium and Low-Medium students pair up.Then…the pairs pair up with a pair from the opposite side.This type of method is especially effective when used in classrooms that do not have a wide level of diversity.BACK
14Team Leader MethodThe following is a version of a method developed by Richard Shetley (Alta Loma Junior High School, Alta Loma, CA) It is an easy, fair way to have students select their own heterogeneous teams, and it provides some students the most powerful peer inclusion experience of their life!Select Team Leaders. Select the highest achieving 7 or 8 students as team leaders, one per team.Leadership Meeting. Meet with the leaders as a group. Explain that the success of their team relies on mixed ability levels. Have them decide which of the lowest ability students will be on each team.Leaders Choose Teammates. The next day in class, announce that there will be student teams and announce the team leaders. As rehearsed before, the team leaders seek out a low-level student and invite him/her to be on their team.High-Low Pair Choose Middle. The leader and new team member sit down together and decide on a second choice for the pool of remaining middle ability-level students.High-Low-Middle Triad choose Last Teammate. The three members choose the remaining teammate.BACK
15Random TeamsAs the name suggests, random teams are truly random. There is no rhyme or reason why students are placed on the same team.Teams should be short-livedTeams may last long term, but meet only briefly once a week to work on a projectNOT recommended for long-term, base teamsWhy use Random Teams??Random teams add excitement and suspense to the classroom. Who will I get to work with today?
16Random Teamformation Methods Traditional MethodsCounting off1, 2, 3, 4 and so on…Number CardsNumbered cards form teams of fourPlaying CardsPlaying Cards work exactly like Number Cards, but they have two big advantagesFirst, the teacher does not have to make up the deck, but rather uses a store-bought deck of playing cardsSecond, the cards have a built-in role assignment.Typically, the heart is the PraiserThe Club is the TaskmasterThe Spade is the Materials MonitorAnd Diamond is the Recorder
17Random Teamformation Methods Fun, Teambuilding MethodsPuzzled People. A picture is torn into four parts and each student gets one part. The goal? To complete the puzzle forming a team of fourAnimal Sounds. (See Hand-out) A fun way to form teams! Students are each given a card with the name or picture of an animal. There are four cards for each animal. Students mix through the room trading cards with each other until the teacher calls, “Stop”. Students then look at their card, close their eyes, and attempt to find their teammates by making the sound of their animalOther Structures with Built-In Random TeamformationsTraveling Heads Together. Like Numbered Heads Together, once the answer is decided upon by the team, the teacher calls out a number, like “3”. That numbered student stands up. The teams wildly beckon for a new number “3” to join their group. If a teacher calls different numbers for three consecutive rounds, there will be new teams of 4 formed, and the students can then “get down to business”!Stir-the-Class. Just like Traveling Heads Together, except student teams begin by standing as a team around the perimeter of the room. Random teams are formed after three rounds of Stir-the-Class if the teacher has the first student rotate one ahead, the next student rotate two ahead, and the third student rotate three aheadOne Stray. Three rounds of One Stray, with the straying student remaining at the team they joined, forms random teams exactly like three rounds of Traveling Heads Together. Again, students need to know they cannot stray to a team where an original teammate is seated.Other Kagan Structures that can be used for Random Teamformation MethodsMix-Freeze-Group.Find Your NumberInside Outside Circle
18Student-Selected Teams On an occasional basis, students are allowed to form their own teams. When given the opportunity, students usually select partners and teammates that they know and like. This familiarity can be a big plus for team dynamics. Students having similar interests facilitates team decision making. Students have already bonded, so less time for teambuilding is required.Students enjoy the control and feeling trusted to occasionally select their own teams. The enjoyment of friendships spill over into the academic realm, making learning more fun and productive. Allowing friends to work together at times can bring new energy to academics.
19Student-Selected Teamformation Methods Free-Choice Method. Students can sit anywhere they want with whomever they wish, as long as groups of four are formed.These teams are temporaryThe teacher observes dynamics of groups to gain insight into possible problems (See “Team Dynamics Observation Form)Team CaptainsTeam Captains are chosen and sit at different tables. Each Team Captain takes a turn choosing a teammate. Team Captains can consult with their newly-selected teammates for their next teammate choice.The Good…When the choosing is finished, the teams are all seated and ready to go!The Bad…Possibly UGLY…The last students chosen may feel like “leftovers” creating a horrible situation that is not so easily remedied.Numbered ChoiceHere the students get to decide which team they would like to be on. Each student pulls a number out of a hat. They then form a circle around the room. Student #1 decides which table he/she would like to sit at. The “sorting” continues until all students have had some input as to where they want to sit, as well as with whom they want to be teamed with.Stand Up- Hand Up-Pair Up, Pairs UpStudents put a hand up and stand up in the classroom. They find a partner the want to work with, put their hands down, and stand shoulder-to-shoulder. If students are seeking just a partner, their job is done. They sit down with their new partner. But if they are forming a team, the pairs pair up with another pair to form a team of four.
20Potential Pitfalls and Solutions Off-Task BehaviorFriends share interests beyond academics and can get off taskSolution: The teacher makes it very clear that the teams will only get one warning for off-task behavior. If the off-task behavior persists, they will be split up. Students find working with their friends rewarding and will make an effort to keep focused.Last To Be PickedNo one likes to be the last picked for a team. It can be a blow to an already fragile self image.Solution: To avoid this problem, the teacher should identify the students least likely to be selected by other students and select them to be Team Captains. The Numbered Choice method is also an effective solution as students decide for themselves which teams they’d like to work on.
21Homogeneous Teams Homogeneous means “the same or similar.” Students on homogeneous teams share the same or similar characteristics along one dimension. Students can be of the same ability level, share similar interests, or speak the same language.Homogeneous teams should only be used on an occasional basis.Homogeneous Ability Team Advantages“Zone of Proximal Development “is enhanced.Students are challenged to improve within a safe difficulty level.Students who are High Achievers are given experience in becoming followers, not always the leaders.Students who are Low Achievers are given experience in becoming leaders, not always followers.Differentiated Instruction can be more easily managedHomogeneous Interest Teams.These teams are selected solely by the students’ interests. For example, if the assignment was to study famous Americans, the groups could be formed by those students interested in the same American.Interest teams can be used more frequently than homogeneous ability teams without fostering negative stereotypes. Students on interest teams share similar interests, but the teams will likely be mixed with regard to race, sex, and ability.
22Forming Homogeneous Teams Interest TeamsCorners and the Predetermined SelectionThe teacher posts options in the four corners of the classroom.The students write down the number of their choice.When ready, the teacher tells the students to go to the corner they find most interesting. (Students may only go to the corner chosen, not where their best friend is going…thus the use of the written number!)The choices don’t always have to be four. The teacher could also instruct the students to choose a side…appropriately called “Sides”.Similarity Groups and the Open-Ended SelectionHere, the students are the ones who make up the topics. Groups are formed by students who have similar interests in the chosen topics.Again, ALWAYS have students write down their choice before moving to their groups. This will avoid the ever popular triple “F”, or more commonly known as “Friend Following Friend” scenario.Keeping Track of All The Madness! (See “Team Tracking Sheet” Hand-out)
23The Four Major Types of Teams Okay…But which ones are the BEST?? Heterogeneous TeamsMixed ability, sex, race teamsRandom TeamsRandomly formed teamsStudent-Selected TeamsStudents select own teamsHomogeneous TeamsTeams with a shared trait (ability, interest, language, etc…)Okay…But which ones are the BEST??
24The Pros and Cons of Different Types of Teams Team TypePositivesNegativesHeterogeneousBalancedMaximum cross-race, cross-sex, and cross-ability contactMaximizes tutoringManagement easier for equal ability level teamsHigh achiever on each teamRequires teacher prep timeRequires ranking and labeling studentsLimited contact between the high achieversLimited leadership opportunities for low achieversRandomFairSide-steps labels and rankingNo prior student knowledge necessaryClassbuilding and networking opportunitiesQuick and easyNovelty, variety, funCould form “winner” and “loser” teamsDiversity not ensuredTeams with friends, potential for off-task behaviorTeams with enemies and conflictsHomogeneousLeadership opportunities for low achieversInteraction opportunities for high achieversOpportunity for some high achievers to experience being a teammate, not leaderHigh esteem for top groupsInterest teams promote inquisitivenessToo-similar groups lack input in Zone of Proximal DevelopmentNegative stereotypesPoor Self-esteem for low groupsLack of equityDifficult to manage class of teams at different ability levels4. Student-SelectedFamiliarityEasy decision making and consensusNot balancedHigh potential for off-task behavior
25Parting MessagesWe all have many parting throughout life; school can be a place where we learn to part with dignity and grace.1. Students each write their name at the top of a copy of the Parting Messages Form. (Use colored paper when you copy the form.)2. Students pass their Parting Message form to the person on their left within the team.3. Each student writes a positive message to the person whose form they have.4. Forms are passed and filled out until they return to the original sender.See “Parting Messages For…” Hand-out
26Team ReunionsMichael L. Bettino (Rolling Hills High School, Palos Verdes Peninsula Unified School District, CA) has a class with the following ethnic makeup: eight Anglo American, four Persian, four Japanese, three Chinese, two Indian (from India), one French, one Canadian, and one South American Student. They instituted Team Reunions as follows:“After six weeks of heterogeneous groups in an 11th grade regular English III class (American Literature and composition), it was time to make new groups. I made the changes and found a certain amount of hostility to the new groups. A student asked if they could have a five minute “Group Reunion.”I let them do this—and then they returned to their new groups. Now the new groups are rolling along very smoothly.A new Group Reunion will take place in two weeks and will be a regular part of the program.”The Team Reunion well might be used in any class to have an old team become an ongoing support group for students. As students discuss with their old teammates how things are going in their new teams, they might gain support as well as insights not otherwise possible.