Presentation on theme: "Labour migration in Austria"— Presentation transcript:
1Labour migration in Austria Dr. Katerina Kratzmann, IOM ViennaEMN National Contact Point AustriaNationale EMN Contact Point AustriaIOM ViennaNibelungengasse 13/41010 ViennaThe National Contact Point Austria in the EMN is financially supported by the European Union and the Austrian Federal Ministry of the Interior.The EMN was established via Council Decision 2008/381/EC.
2Outline Labour market policy in Austria Migration context in Austria Population stock and flowsImmigration groupsForeign work force in AustriaSkills & QualificationEmployment & UnemploymentMajor occupationsImpact of the crisis in AustriaOutlook
3Labour market policy in Austria: influential factors Historical so-called “guest worker system”Labour mobility in Austria is driven by free mobility of labour within the EUAustria undergoes the transition from an industrial society to a knowledge society: need for high qualified workersStrong population ageing; migrants tend to be younger than AustriansRed-White-Red Card is currently under discussion (criteria based immigration system for highly skilled TCN)
4Current key worker: “Schlüsselkraftverfahren” Requirements:Job offerSpecial skills and qualificationPrior work experienceMinimum salary of 2466 Euro gross (difficult e.g. TCN students after their studies)Subject to quota (2450 in 2009), which is not exhausted (1206 in 2009), only 50% usageLabour market test – test, if no other worker is available
5Red-White-Red CardAustrian Association of Industrialists/ Economic Chamber (Employers’ associations)Support and push intake of highly skilled migrantsLack of high-qualified work force“controlled immigration”Chamber of Labour/ Austrian Federation of Trade Unions (Workers’ associations)Strong reservations due to wage and social dumpingIntegration of migrants already living in Austria comes first (increased investment in education and training)
6Red-White-Red-CardAccording to different interest, a two-pronged policy is envisaged: encourage the inflow of highly skilled TCN and investing in education/ training of low skilled workersAgreement against wage and social dumping includedTarget groups:1.) High-qualified migrants2.) Medium qualified migrants with skills needed in Austria3.) High and medium qualified migrants who fill positions where no replacing work force can be provided within AustriaCombination of residence and labour permitThe Red-White-Red-Card will replace the existing residence permit for key workers and will be issued in two different versions. Main Criteris are: Qualification of migrants monitored by a point system, experience, age, knowledge of German language and a minimum salary (down to € 2055 for persons under the age of 30).The card is implementing the Blue card directiveIt is currently in expert assessment: Institutions can give an their expert opinion untill 28th of JanuaryThen there will be a decision upon the new law in the next year and it should go into force in July 2011.High-qualified migrants: high level of education, impacts on the strengthening of industrial location of Austria, Top-work force internationally in demand, Manager, High potentialsCriteria relating to individuals: Special qualifications/abilities higher management, expertise from the responsible Ressort, awards, professional expericence, language, age, studies in Austria, Bonus for branchLabour market related criteria: noGeneral: no labour market test (Ersatzkraftverfahren), no job offer needed, no quota, family reunificiation (spouses and children) immediately after start of work2. High- or medium-qualified migrants with a qualification that is needed in Austra (comparable to „Schüsselkräfte“ and specialists)Criteria relating to individuals: qualificiation, labour experience, age, language skillsLabour market related criteria: job offer, shortage occupation (determined according to regulation), minimum salary according to collective agreement of the respective branchGeneral: no labour market test (Ersatzkraftverfahren), no quota, Family reunification with right to access to labour market (spouses and children) 3 months after employment of „Ankerperson“3. Migrants with high and medium qualification, who are needed on the Austrian labour market and for whom no replacing work force can be provided.Criteria relating to individuals : qualification, labour experience, age, language skills labour market related criteria : job offer, minimum salary: collective agreement; until the age of 30 years at least 50% of maximum contribution basis (€ 2055,--); over age of 30 years at least 60% of maximum contribution basis (€ 2466,--) as prerequisiteGeneral: labour market test (Ersatzkraftverfahren), no quota, family reunification with right to labour market access (spouse and children) 3 months after start of work of the „Ankerperson“Consideration of the demands of the labour marketAgreement against wage and social dumping:Control of the basic wageIntroduction of administrative penalty procedures in case of wage dumpingInterdiction of the service of foreign employees in case of repeated punishment or major violations of basic wage payments6
7Outline Labour market policy in Austria Migration context in Austria Population stock and flowsImmigration groupsForeign work force in AustriaSkills & QualificationEmployment & UnemploymentMajor occupationsImpact of the crisis in AustriaOutlook
8Migration context in Austria: Migration flows STOCK: as of has a total of 17% persons with foreign backgroundNet immigration in 2009: (total inflow of , total outflow of )Biggest number of inflow came from Germany: (outflow = net 7.168)Other groups:Romanians Inflows 9.327, Outflows 5.973, Net 3.354Serbia-Montenegro Inflows 6.248, Outflows 5.523, Net 725Hungary Inflows 5.778, Outflows 3.869, Net 1.909Turkey Inflows 4.751, Outflows 2.997, Net 1.754Slovakia Inflows 4.023, Outflows 3.067, Net 956Some 60% of the annual net inflow of migrants accrues to the EU 27.Historical Development:1956/57: refugees from Hungary1961: only round foreigners in Austria, some from Hungary crisis ( )Raising number in 1960th and 1970th because of recruitment of foreign workersRefugees from Chechoslowakia in 1968/69 ( )Downturn in mid 1970th with the oil crisis and Aliens Employment Act 1976Start of family reunifications in mid 1970thPolish refugees in 1981/82 ( )Beginning of 1990s again raising number of immigration share of migrants raised to 8% of the total population with the war in former YugoslaviaIntroduction of quota regulation in new residence act in 1993 (apply for permit from outside Austria)Beginning of this century: mainly immigration from new EU countries 10,7% of total populationSource: migration & integration, Statistik Austria, 20108
9Who is coming to Austria? Immigration Groups 2009 Return ofAustrian citizensSkilled Workersfrom non-EUStatesInternal migrationwithin the EUStudentsfrom non-EUStatesAsylum seekersMajority of immigration to Austria takes place due to:Internal migration within the EU (increases to take job opportunities – new EU MS enjoy free movement in may 2011)Asylum applicantsReturn of Austrian citizensFamily reunificationSpecific groups: students, seasonal workers & skilled workersGeneral: small proportion of TCN as part of labour recruitment (Skilled workers and Seasonal workers), much more are coming as a family memberNiederlassungsbewilligungen (long term): Quota in Niederlassungsverordnung (8145 for 2010) + Kontingente Saisonnierseinige AM frei („One-Stop-Shop“), andere nicht, dann:Beschäftigungsbewilligungen: AM-Test, zu beantragen vom Arbeitgeber; Quote in Ausländerbeschäftigunggesetz ( für alle 2010; 8% erweiterbar auf 9%)Aufenthaltsbewilligungen (short term): keine Quote2010: Quote von BB)Nationalities Asylum seekers:mainly from Afghanistan (2.237), the Russian Federation (3.559), Kosovo (1.332), Georgia (975)Seasonal workersfrom non-EU StatesFamily reunificationfrom non-EU StatesPersonsSource: migration & integration, Statistik Austria, 2010
10First residence permits (TCN) by reason, 2009 As you can see here:In 2009: app first residence titles of specific purposes were distributed to TCN: Over 50% of them were issued due to the family reunification of TCN, mainly from Turkey and former Yugoslavia4000 „Schlüsselarbeitskräfte“ + family members within the quotamigrants beyond the quota family reunification (Turkey)6000 students with limited residence permit2000 visa for unlimited occupation, mainly seasonal workersSource: Federal Ministry of the Interior / Eurostat.
11Outline Labour market policy in Austria Migration context in Austria Population stock and flowsImmigration groupsForeign work force in AustriaSkills & QualificationEmployment & UnemploymentMajor occupationsImpact of the crisis in AustriaOutlook
12Total stock of workers* by groups of citizenship, 2009 Countries of citizenshipNationals89,4%Foreign nationals10,6%EU 152,6%EU 1055.0081,4%EU 220.4280,5%TCNs6,1%Total100%Austria features among the EU-MS with a particularly high proportion of migrants in the work force.In 2009, 10.6% of total employment were foreign citizens and close to 20% were foreign born.App. 60% of the foreign work force is from third countries (former Yugoslavia and Turkey).Source: Labour Force Survey * without military personnel (ISCO Group 0)
13The 10 major migrant nationalities: 76 % of all migrant workers in 2009 The ten major single nationalities of migrants in Austria represent 76% of all foreign citizens in the work force in 2009They are in the correct rank order: Germany, Serbia-Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Turkey, Croatia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Italy (in the main from South Tyrol) and HungaryThe rank order has changed between 2004 and 2009 in that the influx from Germany gained weightSerbia-Montenegro is shown together as the data of stock can only be provided singularly in 2012 (not 2008, when the seperation took place) – same for KosovoSource: Labour Force Survey 2009.
14Skills of migrant workers Main categorizationNationalsEU 15EU 10+2TCNsTotalHighly skilled39%59%26%17%38%Skilled52%37%51%47%Low skilled9%4%23%11%TOTAL100%Workers from EU-15 country are on average the best skilled group (mainly from Germany), followed by persons from the new EU-MS.Third country citizens have an above average share of low skilled labourers. There are large numbers of un- and semiskilled workers, largely from third countries (mainly Turkey and former Yugoslavia).Current skill mix goes opposite to the Austrian work force (AT strong in the middle field, whilst foreigners strong in high and low), which presents a challenge for integration policy - (belly problematic, which we will see again in the education situation)In Austria, there is a distinction between highly skilled (referring to someone who has the required adequate and specific competence, as proven higher educational qualifications, and/or extensive (vocational) experience); and highly qualified (referring to someone who has required adequate and specific competence, as proven by higher education exclusively)This distinction reflects the Austrian education and training system, which has a strong vocational orientation. (e.g. nurses, which are in some countries highly qualified by an academic exam; must not even have the matura (precondition for higher education); they can work as a nurse by training.Definition high skilled:The definition of highly skilled workers is quite problematic, as there is no agreed international definition. However, the OECD Canberra Manual provides a useful basis for the Measurement of Human Resources in Science and Technology (HRST). HRST is defined as a very broad population that has: 1) completed education at the third level in a S&T field of study; and/or 2) not formally qualified but is employed in an S&T occupation where the above qualifications are normally required (policy brief OECD 2002)Source: Labour Force Survey 2009.
15Skills by Gender Source: Labour Force Survey 2009 Natives EU-15 EU-10 Interesting, if one looks at the skill composition by gender:In general women tend to work more often in the low skilled sector then menMen tend to work more often in the highly skilled field then women (with the exception of EU-10 were women are more highly skilled)The relation of skills by gender is different for TCN (and EU-2 almost): TCN women work more in the low skilled sector then in the skilled, whilst TCN men work more predominantly in the skilled sector and less in the low skilledLow skilled sector in Austria is filled with TCN and EU-2 womenThirdCountry NationalsNativesEU-15EU-10EU-2
16Problem: De-qualification Migrants are more often overqualified then Austrians;the first generation is especially overqualifiedthe second generation is close to general populationReasons:Problems with the recognition of certifications (“Austrifizierung”)Missing language skillsLocal ligation of knowledge (e.g. law)DiscriminationDe-qualification leads to rising unemploymentAustria has large numbers of un- and semiskilled workers, largely of migrant origin. Therefore it is important to raise their skills. So far the school system does not appear to be capable of raising the educational attainment level of migrant children to the level of native children fast enough (OECD 2006).The Austrian government sees the need to invest in the education and training systems; with the compulsory and free kindergarten year a first step has been taken to make sure all pupils speak the German language to a satisfying degree – it is said to be a milestone on integration and education policies
17Highest completed education Grade of educationAustriansForeignersHighest completed educationLower educational background of employees with migration backgroundHigher unemployment of migrants in spite of higher educationQualification and Education as the biggest challenge for the future as they are essential for the labour market integration of migrants in AustriaThe requirements of the labour market and the actual qualification profile of young migrants grow apart – again the belly problem (AT strong in the middle; Migrants strong at low and high end)University, FH, AcademyAHS, BHSVocational trainingCompulsory schoolSource: migration & integration, Statistik Austria, 2010
18Employment rates Lower employment rate of migrants: 74% Austrians64% MigrantsDivers employment rate of women:69% Austrian women61% Former Yugoslavia women39% Turkish womenDivers employment rate of second generation:82% for years old (Austrians 86%)38% for years old (Austrians 55%)not a matter of religion, but traditionNot a matter of second generation, but of ageSource: migration & integration, Statistik Austria, 201018
19Unemployment rates Higher unemployment rate of migrants: 6,7% Austrians10,2% Migrants14% Turkish migrantsDifferences in youth unemployment rate:10% Austrians11% Migrants21,6% TCNDifferences in long term unemployment:2,9% Austrians1,4% MigrantsReasons for unemployment: industrial work goes to neighbouring Eastern countries, whilst knowledge & service based work gets up;migrants work traditionally in the industry sectorSource: migration & integration, Statistik Austria, 201019
20Major occupations of migrants Labourer in manufacturing, construction, transport and mining: highest proportion of migrants.Highly skilled professionals in engineering and related professions: mainly from another EU-15 country.Housekeeping and restaurant services: 21% of all employees are migrants. The major group areTCN.Health professionals except nursing: 9% are migrants, basically from EU-15 and EU-10.Nursing personnel: 11% of all workers had a foreign citizenship in 2009.Personal care work: 8% are migrant workers, mostly female, evenly spread over the various source countries.If you look at the major occupations of migrants there are different groups:The highest proportion of migrants is working as a labourer in manufacturing, construction, transport and mining (ISCO 93) with 22%, mainly persons from third countries (19%).In contrast, highly skilled professionals in engineering and related professions are mainly from another EU-15 country (6% of the total), followed by EU-10 (4%) and third country nationals (3% of the total).Housekeeping and restaurant services: 21% of all employees are migrants. The major group are third country nationals (12% of all employees), followed by other EU-15 nationals (5% of all workers in 2009, largely from Germany), by citizens of EU-10 countries (3%) and EU-2 countries (1%).Of all health professionals except nursing 9% were migrants, basically from EU-15 (7%) and EU-10 (1%).Nursing personnel is not captured in the occupational classification of 223, but rather in 323 (non-academic nursing and care), where more than 11% of all workers had a foreign citizenship in 2009.Personal care work: 8% are migrant workers, mostly female, evenly spread over the various source countries (3% of the total from third countries, 2% from EU-15 and EU-10 and 1% from EU-2)
21Outline Labour market policy in Austria Migration context in Austria Population stock and flowsImmigration groupsForeign work forceSkills & QualificationEmployment & UnemploymentMajor occupationsImpact of the crisisOutlook
22Impact of the crisisOnly small decline of immigration to Austria as a consequence of the economic crisisSmall decrease in demand for foreign labourIncrease of the number of unemployed migrants, especially young persons with migration background (2. generation)However, the rate of employees with migration background decreased nation wide for the first time since ten years by 1,3%Viennese labour market is not effected in a strong way by the crisis (the number of foreign employees increased about 0,5%)Jugendarbeitslosigkeit der 2. Generation:2009 lag der Anteil der 15- bis 24-jährigen arbeitslosen Jugendlichen mit türkischem Migrationshintergrund bei rund 13%2009 lag die Erwerbsquote der Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen im Alter zwischen 14 und 24 Jahren ohne Migrationshintergrund bei rund 56% in Österreich; bei Jugendlichen mit türkischem Migrationshintergrund lag die Quote bei unter 50%Im EU-weiten Vergleich wird deutlich, dass Österreich hinsichtlich der Jugendarbeitslosen-rate (gemäß EUROSTAT) im Jahr 2009 mit 10% besser abschnitt als der Durchschnitt aller 27 EU-Länder (19,6%) (Dornmayr, Wieser 2010, S. 5)Auch der Anstieg der Jugendarbeitslosigkeit im Jahr 2009 fiel trotz der Wirtschafts- und Finanzkrise in Österreich geringer aus als in der EU insgesamt. Während in Österreich die Jugendarbeitslosenquote von 8% auf 10% (+2%) stieg, kletterte sie EU-weit von 15,4% auf 19,6% (+4,2%) (Dornmayr, Wieser 2010, S. 23).22
23Outlook: strategies to meet labour shortages Invest in education system and trainingElevation of women’s employment rateElevation of the employment age from currently 57 to 65 yearsQualification of migrants who are already living in AustriaSupport of new immigration channels, like the Red-White-Red CardPublic sector employment, where many university graduates tend to find a job, tends not to be open to third country citizens, e.g. in the case of medical doctors. Private industries often do not pay the entry wages required for a third country citizen to get a settlement permit.Inconsistency: On the one hand the migration system wants to encourage the inflow/settlement of highly skilled migrants from third countries, on the other, their career opportunities in Austria appear to be limited (insider-outsider problem)23
25“Guest worker system”Until 1960 trade unions were against foreign labour1961: Raab-Olah Agreementestablished a rotational system1964: Recruitment Agreement with Turkey (Agency Istanbul 1964)1966: Recruitment Agreement with Yugoslavia (Agency Belgrad 1968)1973: Oil crisis, Austrians from CH and DE returned1974: first steps against „tourist labour”1976: Aliens Employment Actto reduce foreign work force8 years to freedom on labour marketConsequence:stagnation of migration flowsFamily reunification followsIntegration paradigm followsShort term Labour shortage arose in the 60th due to:Emigration of Austrian workforce to Germany and Switzerland through the 50thHigh economical growthShrinking of industrial work force & rural populationStagnation or skrinking of female work forceIncreasing demand for female labour (textil, health & service sector)Extended education phase for youngstersThe so-called „guest-worker“ model (contradictory in itself as you can only be a guest or a worker; and not seen as a political correct description any more) focused on satisfying labour demand and reducing labour scracities mainly in building, industry and agriculture; main source countries were the former Yugoslavia dn Turkey.Annual Contingents1962:1973:The main employment phase from 1965 to 74 is characterised by:Legally easy procedure: „Employment of tourists“ (based on tourist visa)Recruitment by networking structuresIncreasing extention of contracts (meet saving plans and less training involved)Increasing requirement of workers to be with their familyAfter:1988/89: Liberalisation of access to the labour market & social security1990: Quota system for work permitAsylum migration becomes more of an issue in the early 90th25
26Lessons learned An active recruitment for labour force is necessary Facilitation/ administration of migration necessaryDifficult to restrict to an economical role („We called for manpower and it was people that came.“)Regulations might be difficult, as different actors with possible contradictory interests are involved (employers, workers, sending/receiving countries)Temporary migration might become long-term immigration - people stayIf people stay, integration measures have to be providedQuote from Max Frisch26
27Population AgeingOverall population will increase by 14 % between 2008 and 2050*Number of people 60+ will climb from 22.6% in 2008 to 34.2% in 2050*In the same period the working population will decline by -2.2%**Austria sees the need for more immigration from the year 2020 onwards, when the baby boom generation will reach retirement ageDemographic development are often mentioned as a factor for demand on the labour market.Indeed, it is predected that Austria will face the challenges of an aging population and shrinking work forceSources:* STATISTIK AUSTRIA - Bevölkerungsprognose Medium variant. Erstellt am 6. Oktober ** STATISTIK AUSTRIA - Erwerbsprognose 2006
28Demographic Situation: Austrians Population of Austrian originAge in yearsMenWomenSource: migration & integration, Statistik Austria, 2010
29Demographic Situation: Migrants Population of foreign originAge in yearsMenWomenForeignersAustriansForeignersAustriansSource: migration & integration, Statistik Austria, 2010
30Demographic Prognosis Main ScenarioScenario without population movementsHigh rate of migrationLow rate of migrationNow:Birth bilance ; ForeignersPer average: 1,39 kids per woman in Austria: 1,27 kids per Austrian woman, 1,84 kids per foreign citizen woman (2,41 Turkey; 1,87 former Yugoslavia); naturalized women: 1,52 kidsAverage age of mothers giving birth: Austrian 28,5; foreign citizens: 26,4 (Turkey 23,9, EU 28,4)Future:Austria sees the need for more immigration from the year 2020 onwards, when the baby boom generation will reach retirement age. Until then Austria does not expect any labour scarcities.Austria sees the major challenge in raising the actual retirement age of currently 59 to the legal age of 65.Source: migration & integration, Statistik Austria, 2010
31Migration context in Austria: Population stock Total stock of 17% Persons with foreign originTotal stock of 17% persons with foreign backgroundSTOCK as of has a total of 17% persons with foreign background, this includes:Austrian citizens, who are born abroad (naturalized)Foreign citizens,who are born in Austria (not possible in some countries where the right forcitizenship goes after the “ius soli”)Foreign citizens, who are born abroadExcludes: Austrian citizens, born in AustriaSource: migration & integration, Statistik Austria, 201031
32Migration background 2.Generation; 385.477; 4,7% 1.Generation; ; 13,1%Different statistical data basis: not based on census, but on survey (comprises private households), same as for the Labour market SurveyBased on international definition: both parents born abroad82,2 % Population with no migration background17,8 % of population with migration background, thereof 13,1 % first and 4,7% second generationMain nationalities:Former Yugoslavia with 30,2%EU-14 with 20,5%EU-2 and EU-10 with 18,6%Turkey with 12,9 %Source: migration & integration, Statistik Austria, 2010
33Skill distinction by occupational groups - ILO ISCO-88 Highly skilled: refers to a person falling within Major groups 1, 2 and 3 (manager, executive, professional, technician or similar)Skilled: includesMajor Group 4: ClerksMajor Group 5: Service Workers and Shop and Market Sales WorkersMajor Group 6: Skilled Agricultural and Fishery WorkersMajor Group 7: Craft and Related Trades WorkersMajor Group 8: Plant and Machine Operators and AssemblersLow skilled: Major Group 9: elementary occupations
36Overqualified employees 2009 Source: migration & integration, Statistik Austria, 2010
37Unemployment in EU context EU Definition: share of unemployed of all employed persons (independently, part-time, etc.)4,8% in 2009National definition: share of unemployed of the dependant work force potential AMS Statistics 7,2% in 2009Lowest unemployment rate: Netherlands with 3,4%Discrepancy in unemployment statistics:Because of the apportionment of the statuses unemployment and employment following the ILO definitions and the method of census (poll) the quota of EUROSTAT has to differ from the national quota.According ILO unemployed persons are those, who• (during the week of reference) were not employed• are actively looking for a working place• are immediately disposable for taking up work (means within 2 weeks)UKItalyMaltaPolandIrelandLatviaSpainAustriaCypressSloveniaBulgariaBelgiumFinlandSwedenGreeceFranceRomaniaPortugalHungarySlovakiaEstoniaDenmarkGermanyLithuaniaNetherlandsLuxembourgCzech RepublicSource: AMS Arbeitsmarktlage 200937
38Mechanisms to identify labour shortages Since the 70th employer surveys were by order of the Ministry for Labour by a market analysis institute (IFES) – planning was short term and did not allow for long term prognosisEnterprise panels as forecasting instruments in place between the mid 1980s and the late 1990sThe Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO) is running regular employer surveysIndustry-Occupation Matrices (by Federal State-Bundesland), which are based on Census data and annual social security employment data, are an integral part of econometric forecasting modelsSkills monitor of the Labour market Service (AMS-Qualifikations- barometer): online service for enterprises/ persons looking for jobsComprehensive employer surveys along a common grid among the EU-MS are very recent – in 2009.by Statistik AustriaAMS: Occupational/skills shortages are defined by a ratio of unemployed to job openings of 1.5:1.
39Job vacanciesOf the 52,700 job openings in 2009 the largest number referred to the medium skill segment (54% of all vacancies) followed by highly skilled workers (31% of all job openings). But there is also unsatisfied demand for unskilled workersThe major occupations for which job openings were recorded were in services tasks, in particular sales personnel (27% of all vacancies), followed by trades persons, i.e. technicians and similar skill level (21.4%) and crafts skills (13.5%). Vacancies for unskilled workers amounted to 12.3%Very low vacancy rate of 1.3%, compared to an unemployment rate of 4.8%
40Shortages in some occupations Social and health care services: deficiencies in Austrian education systemHigh skill segment of engineering and the natural sciences: lack of investment and incentivesDemand is high for migrants in these occupations“Lack occupations”: List of 67 occupations in 2008 – only little immigrationSocial and health care services : The reforms of the education system of the 1960s and 1970s did not integrate social and health care in the federal system but left this part of education and training to the Bundesländer to organise. As a consequence, health care education and training is fragmented and not included in the higher education stream which leads to a Matura, i.e. university entrance qualification levels. This has an impact not only on wages and career options but also on the social status and the working conditionsEngineering and the natural sciences: investment in higher education and university facilities in the natural sciences and engineering were insufficient to provide incentives to follow these long cycle university studies. Also, wage and employment policy provided more incentives to choose law and business studies than science coursesNote: In recent years Austria has dealt with this problem. Germans and other EU citizens tend to satisfy the demand for engineers and similar occupations while women of new EU-MS tend to work in care services, often self-employed with low pay and working conditions.
41Work of asylum applicants: In the first three month after the application: no work at allAfterwards with a work permit (BB) – by employer, de facto Seasonal workersTheoretical independent work is possible under certain criteria (Gewerbe) – not usedMinor work in care facilities (cleaning, kitchen, transport, etc.)Public sector (Gardening, Administration, guards in parks- and sport facilities, etc.)Sexwork is allowed – registration and medical visits required
42Skill developments 2004-2009 The share of migrants: in highly skilled jobs increased from 6.4% in 2004 to 8.1% in 2009, mainly due to a larger EU-14 and TCN inflowremained stable for skilled (9.3%) and unskilled migrants (25%)Between 2004 and 2009:TCN are in percentages increasingly better skilledcitizens from EU-10 increasingly less skilled42