Introduction Smart cards are credit card in sized and made of flexible plastic. The card is firmly fixed with a micro- module on the surface of the card. Micro-module is under a gold plate on one side of the card containing a single silicon integrated circuit chip with memory and microprocessor.
Introduction The micro-module is made out of eight metallic pads on its surface, each designed to international standards for VCC (power supply voltage), RST (used to reset the microprocessor of the smart card), CLK (clock signal), GND (ground), VPP (programming or write voltage), and I/O (serial input/output line).
Introduction Smarts cards may have up to 8 kilobytes of RAM, 346 kilobytes of ROM, 256 kilobytes of programmable RO M and a 16 bit microprocessor. The smart card uses a serial interface and receives its power from external sources like a card reader
Micro-module component Random Access Memory (RAM) or Working Memory serves as a temporary storage of results from calculations or input/output communications. RAM is a volatile memory and loses information immediately when the power supply is switched off.
Micro-module component Read Only Memory (ROM) or Program Memory is where the instructions are permanently burned into memory by the silicon manufacturer. These instructions (such as when the power supply is activated and the program that manages the password) are the basic of the Chip Operating System (COS) also known as the "Mask."
How Does it Work? When a smart card is inserted into a Card reader, the metallic pads come into contact with the card reader connects with a metallic pins, this allowing the card and card reader to communicate.
How Does it Work? Smart cards are always reset when they are inserted into a card reader. This action causes the smart card to respond by sending an "Answer-to-Reset (ATR) message, which informs the card reader, to control the communication with the card and the processing of a transaction.
Key Features of Smart Cards Cost: Manufacturing costs range from $2.00 to $10.00. Per card cost increases with chips providing higher capacity and more complex capabilities; per card cost decreases as higher volume of cards are ordered. Ease of Use: Smart cards are user-friendly for easy interface with the intended application. They are handled like the familiar magnetic stripe bank card, but are a lot more able to be used in many different ways.
Key Features of Smart Cards Reliability: Manufactures companies guarantee 10,000 read/write cycles. Cards meets International Standards Organization (ISO) specifications must achieve set test results covering drop, flexing, abrasion, concentrated load, temperature, humidity, static electricity, chemical attack, ultra-violet, X-ray, and magnetic field tests.
Key Features of Smart Cards Storage Capacity: Between: 8K - 128K bit. (Note that in smart card terminology, 1K means one thousand bits, not one thousand 8- bit characters. One thousand bits will normally store 128 characters - the rough equivalent of one sentence of text. However, with modern data compression techniques, the amount of data stored on the smart card can be significantly expanded beyond this base data translation.)
Key Features of Smart Cards Susceptibility: Smart cards are susceptible to chip damage from physical abuse, but more difficult to disrupt or damage than the magnetic stripe card. Security: Smart cards are highly secure. Information stored on the chip is difficult to duplicate or disrupt, unlike the outside storage used on magnetic stripe cards that can be easily copied.
Card Reader Card reader/writer terminal with an asynchronous clock, a serial interface, and a 5- volt power source is required. For low volume orders, per unit cost of such terminals runs about $150. The cost decreases significantly with higher volumes. The more costly Card Acceptance Devices are the hand-held, battery- operated terminals.
Smart Cards application in Industries Industries Application Computers Warranty cards, discount Clubs Membership cards Hotels Frequency cards, key cards Nightclubs VIP cards, door entry cards Real Estate Business cards, calendar cards Security Access control, name badges
Smart Cards Future Contactless Smart cards Contactless card is where by Radio Induction Technology is used to connect the card with the card reader. (Data rates of 106–848 Kbit/s) Once the card is near an antenna the transaction goes through with-out contact.
Smart Cards Future They are meant to be used when transactions must be processed quickly or hands-free, such as on mass transit systems, where smart cards can be used without even removing them from a wallet.
Bibliography Subjects: Smart cards, Security, Personal information, Technology Classification Codes 8120, 9190, 5140 Locations: United States--US Author(s): Bill Zalud Author Affiliation: By Bill Zalud, Editor Document types: Feature Document features: Photographs Section: IDENTITY MANAGEMENT Publication title: Security. Troy: Jun 2008. Vol. 45, Iss. 6; pg. 80, 1 pgs Source type: Periodical ISSN: 08908826 ProQuest document ID: 1500335251 Text Word Count 785 Document URL: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1500335251&Fmt=3&clientId =13370&RQT=309&VName=PQD http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1500335251&Fmt=3&clientId =13370&RQT=309&VName=PQD http://www.tech-faq.com/how-a-smart-card-programmer-works.html
Bibliography Subjects: Smart Cards, Smart Card Locations: France, Europe Author(s): Mayer, Martin Publication title: Fortune. New York: Aug 1983. Vol. 108, Iss. 3; pg. 74 Source type: Periodical ISSN: 00158259 ProQuest document ID: 7477259 Document URL: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=7477259&Fmt=2&cli entId=13370&RQT=309&VName=PQD http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=7477259&Fmt=2&cli entId=13370&RQT=309&VName=PQD http://www.cardwerk.com/smartcards/ http://www.smartcardalliance.org/
Bibliography Subjects: Success, Smart cards, Point of sale systems, Pilot projects, Electronic benefits transfer, Bank debit cards, Trends, Smart Cards, Retail Stores, Negotiable Instruments, Eft Networks, Debit Cards, Debit Card Fraud Locations: US People: Wilson, Bruce, Schuler, Joseph, Lee, Phillip, Gray, Bill Companies: National Processing Co. Product Names: Mac Author(s): Anonymous Publication title: Bank Network News. Chicago: Jun 11, 1993. Vol. 12, Iss. 2; pg. 2 Source type: Periodical ISSN: 10634428 ProQuest document ID: 7409013 Text Word Count 949 Document URL: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=7409013&Fmt=3&clientId=13370& RQT=309&VName=PQD http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=7409013&Fmt=3&clientId=13370& RQT=309&VName=PQD Images from Google.com http://www.smartcardsource.com/cards.html