# SEARCHING FOR ARTICLES SEARCHING TECHNIQUES USING BOOLEAN Boolean Logic means to do keyword searching using the words AND, and OR to limit, widen, or define.

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SEARCHING FOR ARTICLES SEARCHING TECHNIQUES USING BOOLEAN Boolean Logic means to do keyword searching using the words AND, and OR to limit, widen, or define your search. VENN Diagram is used to show Boolean logic Synonyms are words that have similar meaningse.g. trash and garbage are synonyms Concepts: Concepts: AND OR

YOUR ASSIGNMENT Beavan (2009) argues that we use most of the items we buy for very short periods of time. Given this situation, he and other advocates of sustainability argue that we need to reduce the number of items we buy and to give our items afterlives by reusing what we buy. For this assignment, your task is to analyze the costs and benefits of two possible afterlives for a single common item and then make an argument for which afterlife is most appealing. You must include reference to at least 3 academic sources, a table comparing costs and benefits of each afterlife over 1, 5 and 10 years, and a line graph highlighting a key point of comparison. WHAT ARE YOU SUPPOSED TO DO? Analyze the costs and benefits of two possible afterlives for a single common item Use at least 3 academic or reliable sources Create a table comparing costs and benefits Use APA style to cite your sources 2

TODAYS ACTIVITY: FINDING THE 3 SOURCES Objectives of Lesson Writing research questions Use Boolean searchingAND and OR-- for finding scholarly and/or reliable articles in Academic Search Complete (a library database) Start doing research for your assignment OMG! Boolean logic sounds very, very hard! Its not!! 3

BOOLEAN LOGIC: ACTIVITY Activity: Using AND and OR Cards: 52 cards in a deck; 4 suits; 2 colors; 12 Face cards (Jack, Queen, King) Directions: Look at your card. Stand up and put your card on your forehead when your card is called. 1.Face card or red card 2.Face card and red card 3.(Black or red card) and (black card and queen) QUIZ: 1.I got too many documents. I need to narrow my search. My topic must be too broad. 2.I did my search and got nothing! I need to broaden or expand my topic. AND OR 4

BOOLEAN LOGIC OFTEN USES VENN DIAGRAMS Face Card Red Card OR Face Card Red Card Only this area 5

A B C Which area would be: A and B and C You just used Boolean logic. Now lets use it to do our assignment. 6

DATABASES DO NOT WORK LIKE GOOGLE! About 266,000 results (0.39 seconds) It isnt because there are no articles in the database about concealed guns on college campuses--we're not putting in our search words the right way. 1. 2. WHY DID YOU GET SO MANY HITS IN GOOGLE, BUT NONE IN THE DATABASE? 7

WHY NO HITS FOR THE DATABASE? Google automatically uses OR between each word Concealed OR guns OR college OR campus The database searches for the exact phrase--concealed guns on college campuses--unless you tell it not to by doing Boolean keyword searching (using the AND and OR) 8 Basic search Boolean is an Advanced Search

LETS USE BOOLEAN SEARCHING 9 Advanced Search Full Text marked Keywords anywhere using AND Dont start with a subject keyword search. Once you find the perfect article, see what the keywords are then search under subject.

STEPS IN DOING THIS ASSIGNMENT Your task is to analyze the costs and benefits of two possible afterlives for a single common item 1.Pick your common item 2.Turn the above statement into a question 3.Think in terms of keywords. Pick out the most important keywordand their synonyms-- in your question. 4.Use keywords and Boolean logic and search for articles in a database (Academic Search Complete) Common items printer paper, soda bottles or cans, sneakers, candy wrappers, pens, cell phones, paper cups, car tires, milk cartons, plastic shopping bags, and cardboard boxes. 10

RESEARCH: START WITH ASKING QUESTIONS Questions require answers Questions give you a way of evaluating answers A clearly stated question helps you decide which information will be useful A question also makes it easier to know when you have enough information to stop your research A clear open-ended question calls for real research and thinking 11

WRITING THE RESEARCH QUESTION Concealed guns on college campuses is not a questionit is a statement So what?? What is the focus of your research? Do you think concealed guns should be allowed on college campuses or do you think there should be laws banning guns? What are colleges doing to protect students? Are states involved in writing laws? You need to turn the statement into a research questionthis narrows your search If you dont know what kind of a question to ask, do some sample searches using keywords 12 Concealed guns on college campuses From topic: Concealed guns on college campuses Should there be laws banning concealed weapons college campuses? To Question: Should there be laws banning concealed weapons college campuses?

COMMON PROBLEMS WITH RESEARCH QUESTIONS The question is too broad to be manageable How are environmental disasters being fought? How effective are the current practices for cleaning oil spills? The question is too narrow--sometimes the narrowness is logical (such as there being an easily obtainable "right" answer), and sometimes it is too narrow given the availability of resources How many girls are forced into prostitution each year? What are the traits that make girls vulnerable for being forced into prostitution? 13 Lets Practice!!

STEPS Pick your common item Turn this topic or statement into a question What are the keywords in your question Think of similar wordssynonymsfor the keywords you have chosen. What words mean the same? Use Academic Search Complete and start searching! Your task is to analyze the costs and benefits of two possible afterlives for a single common item 14

LETS WRITE THE QUESTION Your task is to analyze the costs and benefits of two possible afterlives for a single common item Your task is to analyze the costs and benefits of two possible afterlives for a single common item Sometimes before turning a topic or statement into a question, you need to analyze the words Do you see any troublesome words? Why? Afterlife also refers to death and heaven; it is also hard to frame a question using the word afterlife. 15

THE QUESTION: THINK KEYWORDS 16 What are words that are similar in meaning to afterlife? (What are these words called?) Recycling/Recycle Reuse Lifespan What are the costs and benefits of recycling inner tubes? Always start with fewer words!

PICK YOUR KEYWORDS Many different words or phrases can be used for one idea In keyword searching, it is important to try many different words or phrases 17 benefits | recycling| inner tubes advantages afterliferubber tubes reusebicycle tubes OR AND Suggestion: Start with just two words ITEM and recycling

THE REUSE OF TIRE INNER TUBES Elanit Neutra, Israili handbag designer extraordinaire, encourages us to get more mileage out of our purses by creating her designs out of recycled tire inner tubes. If you think her designs are only suitable for female auto mechanics and other various tomboys - think again. 18

ACTIVITY This activity is going to focus on finding three academic articles You will: Practice writing your research question Write down keywords from your question Do a full-text search in Academic Search Complete Use the Boolean operator AND After searching and re-searching, write down the title of an article that is right on. 19

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