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Addressing Academic Avoidance at Tier II

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Presentation on theme: "Addressing Academic Avoidance at Tier II"— Presentation transcript:

1 Addressing Academic Avoidance at Tier II
Known as home-school notes, DPR, home/school notes, DBRS, BRC, etc. My thanks to: Cynthia M. Anderson, PhD, BCBA-D University of Oregon Presented by Lea Brown, KY PBIS Network

2 Agenda Point card interventions—rationale and background
Point cards within a multi-tiered system Tier II interventions—enhancing systems for positive and durable outcomes CICO—a foundation for Tier II interventions Breaks are Better Academic Behavior CICO

3 Point Card Interventions in Schools
Target behaviors operationally defined Assessment of student behavior Pre-determined times Numerical scale with defined values Contingencies for target behavior Home component Robust research base (e.g., Chafoulas et al., 2002, 2005; Dougherty & Dougherty, 1977; Fabiano et al., 2010; Schumaker et al., 1977) Robust research base BUT -studies focused on one or a few children -point cards now are used pretty widely in schools --fidelity is a big question as are outcomes

4 Traditional “home-school notes” may be difficult to scale up
Reliance on home contingencies Selection process inconsistent Individualized Target responses Evaluation metric and schedule contingencies Traditional “home-school notes” may be difficult to scale up Selection process—most schools don’t have system for identifying students in need of intervention or likely to benefit. Fidelity—remember how to implement with each student Response effort—new materials each time, etc

5 Tier I Intervention for ALL students
Effective: 80% or more meeting benchmarks Tier I begins w/clear goals What do we expect students to learn? How will we know if it is learned? How do we respond when students have not learned? How do we respond when students learn early? 5 5 5

6 Tier I Intervention Systems Explicit instruction
Opportunities to practice in target settings Feedback Systems Defined and measurable outcomes Student progress monitored Team-based problem solving, coaching

7 Is the Tier I intervention
Considerations Is the Tier I intervention Fully in place Implemented with fidelity Resulting in desired outcomes? Simply “having” Tier I doesn’t guarantee Teachers are implementing All students have access “At risk” students need proactive behavior management Before implementing more intensive support, ask yourself… Is the Student Receiving an Adequate “DOSE” of the Universal Intervention?

8 At least 80% of students are successful…what about the rest?

9 Tier III 9 9 9 Tier III guiding questions
What is the current level of performance? Where do we want to be & by when? How much growth must be demonstrated by month/year to get there? What resources are needed to move at this rate? 9 9 9

10 Tier II Core + Supplemental 10 10 10 Tier II guiding questions
What is the current level of performance? Where do we want to be & by when? How much growth must be demonstrated by month/year to get there? What resources are needed to move at this rate? 10 10 10

11 First Steps Lunch buddies Homework Club Anger Management
Check-in/check-out First Steps Pre-Teaching Lunch buddies Social Skills Groups Homework Club Reading Groups Principal's Club Schools often have lots of different interventions that are in effect for more than one child—they don’t necessarily meet the guidelines (e.g., implemented similarly, data collected) for Tier II interventions. Also, many times these interventions are implemented somewhat haphazardly. We have learned that implementing Tier II interventions without a pre-planned system can result in: Inefficiency Students falling through the cracks (some don’t get it who need it, others not making progress and need something else) Teachers and staff unaware of what is available for their students Teachers and staff unaware of what students are learning in Tier II interventions—and how to help them apply this to their education Check and Connect Anger Management Group Extra Supervision

12 Tier II Assessment Tool
Tier II Interventions Match needs of school Are implemented rapidly Similar across students Staff trained in intervention Materials on hand Match problem Intensity Mechanism (skill, fluency, or contingency deficit Use data-based decision-making Who will likely benefit? Is the intervention working? Next steps Enhance fidelity Matches needs: if only 1% of students exhibit behavior problems to escape peer attention, you probably don’t want to invest a lot of effort in an intervention that addresses this Tier II Assessment Tool

13 Check-in/Check-Out: Tier II Behavior Report Cards

14 Student Recommended for CICO
CICO is Implemented Parent feedback Regular teacher Afternoon check-out Morning check-in CICO Coordinator summarizes data for decision making Bi-weekly coordination Meeting to assess student progress

15 Empirical Support 10 studies to date
Elementary school (7) & middle school (3) Decrease disruptive behavior & enhance academic engagement (e.g.,Campbell & Anderson, in press; Fairbanks et al., 2007; Hawken & Horner, 2003; Simonsen et al., 2010; Todd et al.,2008) CICO most effective for students emitting attention-maintained problem behavior (Campbell & Anderson, 2008; March & Horner, 2007; McIntosh et al., 2009) Empirical Support

16 Academic Behavior CICO
J. Turtura

17 Academic Behavior CICO
Shares several features with CICO Morning and afternoon checks in and out Daily point card is foundation Similar across students receiving intervention Data guide decision-making Modifications designed to Increase structure and feedback around recording assignments Provide specific feedback for academic-related expectations Decrease likelihood of being “set up” for a bad day Provide incentives for positive academic behavior Academic Behavior CICO

18 Components of ABC Morning check-in Daily feedback sessions
Afternoon check-out Home session

19 Morning Check-in 2 points possible
Student meets with coordinator/mentor Is student prepared? Are assignments complete? Review home note Provide point card & tracker 2 points possible

20 Daily Feedback Sessions
3 points per expectation & 1 point for tracker use Student keeps point card (or separate tracker and have student turn in to teacher) Student meets academic expectations Student completes assignment tracker Feedback at end of class period Academic expectations Homework recorded accurately Daily Feedback Sessions

21 Afternoon Check-out Student meets with coordinator/mentor
Review point card--% points earned Provide incentives if using Positive verbal feedback Review homework tracker—plan for work completion Complete home note End with encouragement 2 points possible

22

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24 Parent handbook Student contract Activity Morning Check-in Feedback
Homework Tracker Afternoon Check-out Points Possible 2 Up to 3 per expectation 1 per feedback session How Points are Earned Student has materials (1) and work is complete (1) Meet behavioral and academic expectations Assignments recorded correctly Attend checkout (1) and have teacher(s) signature (1) Parent handbook Student contract

25 Morning Check-in Logistics
Location Materials available Minimum: pencils, paper, erasers, etc. Consider individual items such as textbooks Homework completion Complete now—get pass to be late to class Complete later—receive homework pass 3 or more incompletes in 2-week period: consider new intervention Morning Check-in Logistics

26 Home Component Parent workshop first!

27 Parent Workshop Approximately 20 min Overview of ABC
Establishing a homework routine Planning for long-term projects Organizing for success Use parent handbook

28 Home Component Parents do: Review Assignments
Problem-solve homework completion/study plan Complete home note Parents do not: Complete work for child Argue, use continued reminders Offer additional incentives or negative consequences

29 Breaks are Better Justin Boyd Sit in the back of the room
Look at a book in my seat Doodle Put my head down on my desk Look out the window Go to the back of the room and stretch Go sharpen my pencil Sort papers for my teacher Breaks are Better

30 Breaks are Better (BrB)
Shares several features with CICO Morning and afternoon checks in and out Daily point card is foundation Similar across students receiving intervention Data guide decision-making Modifications designed to Provide specific feedback for academic-related expectations Decrease likelihood of being “set up” for a bad day Provide incentives for positive academic behavior Provide “replacement skill” to obtain brief break

31 Morning Check-in 2 points possible
Student meets with coordinator/mentor Is student prepared? Review home note Provide point card, timer, & tracker 2 points possible

32 Daily Feedback Sessions
Student keeps point card Student meets academic & social behavior expectations Student takes breaks when needed Feedback at end of class period Meeting expectations Taking breaks if needed 3 points per expectation & 1 point for tracker use

33 Afternoon Check-out 2 points possible
Student meets with coordinator/mentor Review point card--% points earned Provide incentives if using Positive verbal feedback Complete home note Student turns in timer End with encouragement 2 points possible

34 BrB During Academic Routines
Student engages in academic routines Student can request a break 2 min break Specific activities during break Student returns to work after break Breaks are Bettter BrB During Academic Routines

35

36 Students will be trained by the BrB coordinator to use break request routine. This will be done by role playing positive and negative examples. I will show you an example teaching script in just a minute. Student’s are taught how to ask for a break the right way: (1) hold up hand with a “#1” signal; (2) wait for teacher to give a “thumbs up” signal or a “thumbs down”; They are also taught how to take a break: (3) when given the “thumbs up”, cross out one of the break circles on the BrB card; (4) start the 2-min break timer, (5) take the break appropriately (i.e., as practiced and for the appropriate length of time); and (6) when the timer goes off, get back to work. If the teacher responds to the break request with a “thumbs down”, the student is taught that it’s no big deal & they can request a break again later. Also, if they choose to (which we are recommending) teachers can remind them to request a break – thus helping to strengthen the student’s skills with knowing when to ask for a break, etc.

37 Common Questions/Concerns
Why should we allow breaks? Three breaks is too many!

38 Student attends check-in (1) and has materials (1)
Activity Morning Check-in Feedback Break Tracker Afternoon Check-out Points Possible 2 Up to 3 per expectation 1 per feedback session How Points are Earned Student attends check-in (1) and has materials (1) Meet behavioral and academic expectations Taking breaks appropriately if needed Attend checkout (1) and have teacher(s) ratings (1)

39 Work Time: Planning for Implementation
Who wants BrB Who wants ABC Who wants both? Work Time: Planning for Implementation

40 Implementation Planning
Planning for ABC and BrB Developing daily progress report Progress monitoring Implementing ABC and BrB

41 Planning for Implementation
Selecting coordinator(s) Modifying school-wide expectations Planning for Implementation

42 Intervention Coordinator
Roles and responsibilities Ensure materials are available Maintain staff buy-in Train teachers, students Inform parents Monitor outcomes Problem-solve Key characteristics Fluent with ABC or BrB Respected by adults and students Time and skills to “make things happen” Coordinator often is more than one person

43 Coordinator options One coordinator for whole school (CICO, BrB, ABC)
One coordinator for each intervention Multiple roles per or across interventions One person monitors data and trains across intervention(s) One or more individuals perform check in and out One or more individuals enter data* Anyone can enter but SOMEONE needs to graph!

44 Liberty Elementary School—300 students, 18 on CICO, 14 on BrB
Counselor Counselor ddddddddd Counselor ddddddddd Organize Materials Train staff, student, families Graph data Oversee progress monitoring Check students in and out

45 Oceanside Middle—520 students 28 on CICO, 24 on ABC
Program graduate/parent volunteer Counselor dddddbbbbbddd IA Counselor/IPBS team Counselor (12 ABC, 5 “advanced” CICO) Librarian (12 ABC), CICO: head receptionist, vice principal, grandparent volunteer Organize Materials ccccddddd Train staff, student, families Graph data Oversee progress monitoring Check students in and out

46 Action Plan (ABC p 4, BRB p 5)

47 Selecting coordinator
Modifying school-wide expectations

48 Expectations are… Linked to school-wide expectations
All students have same academic expectations Easy to implement May not always match each student’s needs Students have individualized expectations Easier to match student needs May reduce fidelity Suggest: begin with same and modify as needed. NEVER take away and add new ones—the ones the student succeeded on likely will “come back.” p. 5 ABC; p 6, BrB

49 Implementation Planning
Planning for ABC Developing daily progress report Progress monitoring Implementing

50 Designing Daily Progress Reports
School-wide expectations AND academic expectations Age appropriate rating scale Teacher friendly Data easy to summarize and determine if goal is met Positively worded expectations Consistency: If a student has multiple teachers, consider having a planning meeting to agree on definitions of expectations and what to focus on (e.g., at first being respectful might simply be arriving on time. As student improves team can define more broadly)

51 DPR Variations to Consider
Morning check in Points tied to specific behaviors? Plan if homework isn’t completed Daily feedback BrB: how many breaks to be allotted? ABC: points for assignments after each class (1,0 or 2,1,0) Afternoon check out Points tied to specific behaviors Home component ABC: prepared and have homework BrB: attends check in and prepared?

52 Workbook (ABC, p 5; BrB, p 6) Use this to develop your point card—see appendix A (you can get an e-copy on line)

53 Develop Progress Report (Appendix A)
Modify point card to fit your school Homework tracker?

54 Using Incentives in ABC and BrB
Rationale: Enhance strength of intervention Ideal: Positive adult interaction functions as reinforcer Options No incentives, just adult contact/relationship Add incentive system for all Incentives are for participation only Students earn incentive for meeting point goal on 4/5 days Incentives purchased for varying points In increasing order of complexity Using Incentives in ABC and BrB

55 Acknowledgement Ideas
Small tangible items (e.g., stickers, snack, art supplies) “Secret teacher” note Extra time in preferred activity (e.g., library, computer) Seat choice at lunch SWPBS points, trip to treasure chest Free ticket to school event (e.g., sports game) Parking pass for a day Lunch with principal or favorite teacher/staff

56 ABC P 6; BrB P 8 P 6 ABC P 8 BrB

57 Implementation Planning
Planning for ABC Developing ABC daily progress report Progress monitoring ABC Implementing ABC

58 Data-Based Decision-Making at Tier II
Standardized assessment/SpEd eligibility Group conversations Best guess Why don’t we use data for Tiers II and III like we do for Tier I?

59 Monitoring Student Progress
Determine progress goals Identify measurement system Set timeline for achieving goals 80% of points for 4 out of 5 days within two weeks Work book p 8

60 P 8 ABC P 10 BrB

61 Options for Progress Monitoring
CICO/SWIS IPBS spreadsheet (http://coe.uoregon.edu/ipbs/) Make your own spreadsheet BrB ABC

62 Selecting Students for Intervention
Standard selection criteria Consider Students not succeeding on CICO Students recommended by others Teacher referral indicates work avoidance Off-task behavior is key problem Make less likely to “miss” kids

63 8 ABC, 10 BrB

64 Implementation Planning
Planning for ABC Developing ABC daily progress report Progress monitoring ABC Implementing ABC

65 Introduce ABC to Parents
ABC Parents Guide (http://coe.uoregon.edu/ipbs/) Hold parent meeting Purpose of ABC and why child was selected Develop homework routine with parents Review positive ways to respond to child when Daily goals are or are not met Homework is or is not completed

66 Introduce ABC to Students
Provide rationale Obtain student buy-in Student is eager Student uncertain Student unwilling Student contract (Appendix C, p. 15) Introduce ABC to Students

67 Getting Started: A Few Tips

68 INSTEAD…Program for Success
What Not to Do Start with ALL possible candidates Begin with the most difficult students Begin with students of most challenging teachers INSTEAD…Program for Success Begin with 3-5 students Students and teachers most likely to succeed

69 http://coe.uoregon.edu/ipbs/ Click on Tools
Resources Click on Tools


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