Presentation on theme: "Addressing Academic Avoidance at Tier II"— Presentation transcript:
1Addressing Academic Avoidance at Tier II Known as home-school notes, DPR, home/school notes, DBRS, BRC, etc.My thanks to: Cynthia M. Anderson, PhD, BCBA-DUniversity of OregonPresented by Lea Brown, KY PBIS Network
2Agenda Point card interventions—rationale and background Point cards within a multi-tiered systemTier II interventions—enhancing systems for positive and durable outcomesCICO—a foundation for Tier II interventionsBreaks are BetterAcademic Behavior CICO
3Point Card Interventions in Schools Target behaviors operationally definedAssessment of student behaviorPre-determined timesNumerical scale with defined valuesContingencies for target behaviorHome componentRobust research base (e.g., Chafoulas et al., 2002, 2005; Dougherty & Dougherty, 1977; Fabiano et al., 2010; Schumaker et al., 1977)Robust research base BUT-studies focused on one or a few children-point cards now are used pretty widely in schools--fidelity is a big question as are outcomes
4Traditional “home-school notes” may be difficult to scale up Reliance on home contingenciesSelection process inconsistentIndividualizedTarget responsesEvaluation metric and schedulecontingenciesTraditional “home-school notes” may be difficult to scale upSelection process—most schools don’t have system for identifying students in need of intervention or likely to benefit.Fidelity—remember how to implement with each studentResponse effort—new materials each time, etc
5Tier I Intervention for ALL students Effective: 80% or more meeting benchmarksTier I begins w/clear goalsWhat do we expect students to learn?How will we know if it is learned?How do we respond when students have not learned?How do we respond when students learn early?555
6Tier I Intervention Systems Explicit instruction Opportunities to practice in target settingsFeedbackSystemsDefined and measurable outcomesStudent progress monitoredTeam-based problem solving, coaching
7Is the Tier I intervention ConsiderationsIs the Tier I interventionFully in placeImplemented with fidelityResulting in desired outcomes?Simply “having” Tier I doesn’t guaranteeTeachers are implementingAll students have access“At risk” students need proactive behavior managementBefore implementing more intensive support, ask yourself…Is the Student Receiving an Adequate “DOSE” of the Universal Intervention?
8At least 80% of students are successful…what about the rest?
9Tier III 9 9 9 Tier III guiding questions What is the current level of performance?Where do we want to be & by when?How much growth must be demonstrated by month/year to get there?What resources are needed to move at this rate?999
10Tier II Core + Supplemental 10 10 10 Tier II guiding questions What is the current level of performance?Where do we want to be & by when?How much growth must be demonstrated by month/year to get there?What resources are needed to move at this rate?101010
11First Steps Lunch buddies Homework Club Anger Management Check-in/check-outFirst StepsPre-TeachingLunch buddiesSocial Skills GroupsHomework ClubReading GroupsPrincipal'sClubSchools often have lots of different interventions that are in effect for more than one child—they don’t necessarily meet the guidelines (e.g., implemented similarly, data collected) for Tier II interventions.Also, many times these interventions are implemented somewhat haphazardly. We have learned that implementing Tier II interventions without a pre-planned system can result in:InefficiencyStudents falling through the cracks (some don’t get it who need it, others not making progress and need something else)Teachers and staff unaware of what is available for their studentsTeachers and staff unaware of what students are learning in Tier II interventions—and how to help them apply this to their educationCheck and ConnectAnger ManagementGroupExtra Supervision
12Tier II Assessment Tool Tier II InterventionsMatch needs of schoolAre implemented rapidlySimilar across studentsStaff trained in interventionMaterials on handMatch problemIntensityMechanism (skill, fluency, or contingency deficitUse data-based decision-makingWho will likely benefit?Is the intervention working?Next stepsEnhance fidelityMatches needs: if only 1% of students exhibit behavior problems to escape peer attention, you probably don’t want to invest a lot of effort in an intervention that addresses thisTier II Assessment Tool
13Check-in/Check-Out: Tier II Behavior Report Cards
14Student Recommended for CICO CICO is ImplementedParentfeedbackRegular teacherAfternooncheck-outMorningcheck-inCICO Coordinatorsummarizes datafor decision makingBi-weekly coordinationMeeting to assess studentprogress
15Empirical Support 10 studies to date Elementary school (7) & middle school (3)Decrease disruptive behavior & enhance academic engagement (e.g.,Campbell & Anderson, in press; Fairbanks et al., 2007; Hawken & Horner, 2003; Simonsen et al., 2010; Todd et al.,2008)CICO most effective for students emitting attention-maintained problem behavior (Campbell & Anderson, 2008; March & Horner, 2007; McIntosh et al., 2009)Empirical Support
17Academic Behavior CICO Shares several features with CICOMorning and afternoon checks in and outDaily point card is foundationSimilar across students receiving interventionData guide decision-makingModifications designed toIncrease structure and feedback around recording assignmentsProvide specific feedback for academic-related expectationsDecrease likelihood of being “set up” for a bad dayProvide incentives for positive academic behaviorAcademic Behavior CICO
19Morning Check-in 2 points possible Student meets with coordinator/mentorIs student prepared?Are assignments complete?Review home noteProvide point card & tracker2 points possible
20Daily Feedback Sessions 3 points per expectation &1 point for tracker useStudent keeps point card (or separate tracker and have student turn in to teacher)Student meets academic expectationsStudent completes assignment trackerFeedback at end of class periodAcademic expectationsHomework recorded accuratelyDaily Feedback Sessions
21Afternoon Check-out Student meets with coordinator/mentor Review point card--% points earnedProvide incentives if usingPositive verbal feedbackReview homework tracker—plan for work completionComplete home noteEnd with encouragement2 points possible
24Parent handbook Student contract Activity Morning Check-in Feedback Homework TrackerAfternoon Check-outPoints Possible2Up to 3 per expectation1 per feedback sessionHow Points are EarnedStudent has materials (1) and work is complete (1)Meet behavioral and academic expectationsAssignments recorded correctlyAttend checkout (1) and have teacher(s) signature (1)Parent handbookStudent contract
25Morning Check-in Logistics LocationMaterials availableMinimum: pencils, paper, erasers, etc.Consider individual items such as textbooksHomework completionComplete now—get pass to be late to classComplete later—receive homework pass3 or more incompletes in 2-week period: consider new interventionMorning Check-in Logistics
27Parent Workshop Approximately 20 min Overview of ABC Establishing a homework routinePlanning for long-term projectsOrganizing for successUse parent handbook
28Home Component Parents do: Review Assignments Problem-solve homework completion/study planComplete home noteParents do not:Complete work for childArgue, use continued remindersOffer additional incentives or negative consequences
29Breaks are Better Justin Boyd Sit in the back of the room Look at a book in my seatDoodlePut my head down on my deskLook out the windowGo to the back of the room and stretchGo sharpen my pencilSort papers for my teacherBreaks are Better
30Breaks are Better (BrB) Shares several features with CICOMorning and afternoon checks in and outDaily point card is foundationSimilar across students receiving interventionData guide decision-makingModifications designed toProvide specific feedback for academic-related expectationsDecrease likelihood of being “set up” for a bad dayProvide incentives for positive academic behaviorProvide “replacement skill” to obtain brief break
31Morning Check-in 2 points possible Student meets with coordinator/mentorIs student prepared?Review home noteProvide point card, timer, & tracker2 points possible
32Daily Feedback Sessions Student keeps point cardStudent meets academic & social behavior expectationsStudent takes breaks when neededFeedback at end of class periodMeeting expectationsTaking breaks if needed3 points per expectation &1 point for tracker use
33Afternoon Check-out 2 points possible Student meets with coordinator/mentorReview point card--% points earnedProvide incentives if usingPositive verbal feedbackComplete home noteStudent turns in timerEnd with encouragement2 points possible
34BrB During Academic Routines Student engages in academic routinesStudent can request a break2 min breakSpecific activities during breakStudent returns to work after breakBreaks areBettterBrB During Academic Routines
36Students will be trained by the BrB coordinator to use break request routine. This will be done by role playing positive and negative examples. I will show you an example teaching script in just a minute.Student’s are taught how to ask for a break the right way: (1) hold up hand with a “#1” signal; (2) wait for teacher to give a “thumbs up” signal or a “thumbs down”;They are also taught how to take a break: (3) when given the “thumbs up”, cross out one of the break circles on the BrB card; (4) start the 2-min break timer, (5) take the break appropriately (i.e., as practiced and for the appropriate length of time); and (6) when the timer goes off, get back to work.If the teacher responds to the break request with a “thumbs down”, the student is taught that it’s no big deal & they can request a break again later. Also, if they choose to (which we are recommending) teachers can remind them to request a break – thus helping to strengthen the student’s skills with knowing when to ask for a break, etc.
37Common Questions/Concerns Why should we allow breaks?Three breaks is too many!
38Student attends check-in (1) and has materials (1) ActivityMorning Check-inFeedbackBreak TrackerAfternoon Check-outPoints Possible2Up to 3 per expectation1 per feedback sessionHow Points are EarnedStudent attends check-in (1) and has materials (1)Meet behavioral and academic expectationsTaking breaks appropriately if neededAttend checkout (1) and have teacher(s) ratings (1)
39Work Time: Planning for Implementation Who wants BrBWho wants ABCWho wants both?Work Time: Planning for Implementation
40Implementation Planning Planning for ABC and BrBDeveloping daily progress reportProgress monitoringImplementing ABC and BrB
41Planning for Implementation Selecting coordinator(s)Modifying school-wide expectationsPlanning for Implementation
42Intervention Coordinator Roles and responsibilitiesEnsure materials are availableMaintain staff buy-inTrain teachers, studentsInform parentsMonitor outcomesProblem-solveKey characteristicsFluent with ABC or BrBRespected by adults and studentsTime and skills to “make things happen”Coordinator often is more than one person
43Coordinator options One coordinator for whole school (CICO, BrB, ABC) One coordinator for each interventionMultiple roles per or across interventionsOne person monitors data and trains across intervention(s)One or more individuals perform check in and outOne or more individuals enter data*Anyone can enter but SOMEONE needs to graph!
44Liberty Elementary School—300 students, 18 on CICO, 14 on BrB CounselorCounselor dddddddddCounselor dddddddddOrganize MaterialsTrain staff, student, familiesGraph dataOversee progress monitoringCheck students in and out
45Oceanside Middle—520 students 28 on CICO, 24 on ABC Program graduate/parent volunteerCounselor dddddbbbbbdddIACounselor/IPBS teamCounselor (12 ABC, 5 “advanced” CICO) Librarian (12 ABC), CICO: head receptionist, vice principal, grandparent volunteerOrganize Materials ccccdddddTrain staff, student, familiesGraph dataOversee progress monitoringCheck students in and out
48Expectations are… Linked to school-wide expectations All students have same academic expectationsEasy to implementMay not always match each student’s needsStudents have individualized expectationsEasier to match student needsMay reduce fidelitySuggest: begin with same and modify as needed. NEVER take away and add new ones—the ones the student succeeded on likely will “come back.”p. 5 ABC; p 6, BrB
49Implementation Planning Planning for ABCDeveloping daily progress reportProgress monitoringImplementing
50Designing Daily Progress Reports School-wide expectations AND academic expectationsAge appropriate rating scaleTeacher friendlyData easy to summarize and determine if goal is metPositively worded expectationsConsistency:If a student has multiple teachers, consider having a planning meeting to agree on definitions of expectations and what to focus on (e.g., at first being respectful might simply be arriving on time. As student improves team can define more broadly)
51DPR Variations to Consider Morning check inPoints tied to specific behaviors?Plan if homework isn’t completedDaily feedbackBrB: how many breaks to be allotted?ABC: points for assignments after each class (1,0 or 2,1,0)Afternoon check outPoints tied to specific behaviorsHome componentABC: prepared and have homeworkBrB: attends check in and prepared?
52Workbook (ABC, p 5; BrB, p 6)Use this to develop your point card—see appendix A (you can get an e-copy on line)
53Develop Progress Report (Appendix A) Modify point card to fit your schoolHomework tracker?
54Using Incentives in ABC and BrB Rationale: Enhance strength of interventionIdeal: Positive adult interaction functions as reinforcerOptionsNo incentives, just adult contact/relationshipAdd incentive system for allIncentives are for participation onlyStudents earn incentive for meeting point goal on 4/5 daysIncentives purchased for varying pointsIn increasing order of complexityUsing Incentives in ABC and BrB
55Acknowledgement Ideas Small tangible items (e.g., stickers, snack, art supplies)“Secret teacher” noteExtra time in preferred activity (e.g., library, computer)Seat choice at lunchSWPBS points, trip to treasure chestFree ticket to school event (e.g., sports game)Parking pass for a dayLunch with principal or favorite teacher/staff
61Options for Progress Monitoring CICO/SWISIPBS spreadsheet (http://coe.uoregon.edu/ipbs/)Make your own spreadsheetBrBABC
62Selecting Students for Intervention Standard selection criteriaConsiderStudents not succeeding on CICOStudents recommended by othersTeacher referral indicates work avoidanceOff-task behavior is key problemMake less likely to “miss” kids
65Introduce ABC to Parents ABC Parents Guide (http://coe.uoregon.edu/ipbs/)Hold parent meetingPurpose of ABC and why child was selectedDevelop homework routine with parentsReview positive ways to respond to child whenDaily goals are or are not metHomework is or is not completed
66Introduce ABC to Students Provide rationaleObtain student buy-inStudent is eagerStudent uncertainStudent unwillingStudent contract (Appendix C, p. 15)Introduce ABC to Students
68INSTEAD…Program for Success What Not to DoStart with ALL possible candidatesBegin with the most difficult studentsBegin with students of most challenging teachersINSTEAD…Program for SuccessBegin with 3-5 studentsStudents and teachers most likely to succeed
69http://coe.uoregon.edu/ipbs/ Click on Tools ResourcesClick on Tools