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+ Intervention in a Flash Presented By: Karen Brown Evidence Based Practice University of Utah Training School Psychologists to be Experts in Evidence.

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Presentation on theme: "+ Intervention in a Flash Presented By: Karen Brown Evidence Based Practice University of Utah Training School Psychologists to be Experts in Evidence."— Presentation transcript:

1 + Intervention in a Flash Presented By: Karen Brown Evidence Based Practice University of Utah Training School Psychologists to be Experts in Evidence Based Practices for Tertiary Students with Serious Emotional Disturbance/Behavior Disorders US Office of Education K H325K080308

2 + Interventions in a Flash-What Is It & Who Is It For? A strategy to use with students struggling to acquire or retain a skill such as math facts, reading sight words, or spelling One-on-One Format Can be used as a Tier 2 or Tier 3 intervention

3 + Rationale and Evidenced Based Practice Basic, foundational skills must be acquired prior to more complex concepts and higher order thinking skills Students who do not have automaticity in their basic skills struggle to stay on grade level and maintain interest Failure to attain these basic skills negatively effects overall academic competency Math: basic skills include operational facts Reading: basic skills include phonemic awareness and sight words

4 + Rationale and Evidenced Based Practice cont. Research has shown that instructional interventions must be: Targeted skills Explicitly taught Appropriate level of instruction and challenge High opportunities to respond Immediate feedback given Using flash cards to increase students automaticity incorporates the above needs and has been shown effective with Struggling readers to improve sight word fluency Basic math facts General education and Special Education populations

5 + Advantage to the Educator Inexpensive to use and can be developed quickly and as feedback is given for student response Keep easy data using the cards developed Limited materials Index or note cards Folder Markers Checklist 3 types to choose from

6 + Traditional Flash Card Drill 100% unknown facts/words Procedure: Set of cards shown to student one at a time with instructor giving correct answer and student repeating fact/word and answer Set of cards shown again with student responding Correct response: acknowledge with positive feedback Incorrect response: overcorrection and immediate feedback Set repetition based on time and student achievement (8 trials typical)

7 + Interspersal Training (Drill Sandwich) Typically 30% unknown to 70% known facts/words Procedure: Unknown facts/words read and answered by instructor with student repetition Intersperse the unknowns with the knowns in an order such as K 1 -U 1 -U 2 -U 3 -K 2 -U 4 -U 5 -U 6 -K 3 Set repetition based on time and student achievement (8 trials typical) Correct response: acknowledge with positive feedback Incorrect response: overcorrection and immediate feedback

8 + Incremental Rehearsal 10% unknown to 90% known Procedure: Unknown fact/word read and answered by instructor with student repetition Rehearse the unknown with the knowns in specific order Repeat set with each targeted fact/word moving 1 st unknown to the 1 st known position and removing the 9 th known Correct response: acknowledge with positive feedback Incorrect response: overcorrection and immediate feedback

9 + Procedure for Incremental Rehearsal 1 st Unknown – 1 st Known 1 st Unknown – 1 st K – 2 nd K 1 st Unknown – 1 st K – 2 nd K – 3 rd K 1 st Unknown – 1 st K – 2 nd K – 3 rd K – 4 th K 1 st Unknown – 1 st K – 2 nd K – 3 rd K – 4 th K – 5 th K 1 st Unknown – 1 st K – 2 nd K – 3 rd K - 4 th K – 5 th K -6 th K 1 st Unknown – 1 st K – 2 nd K – 3 rd K - 4 th K – 5 th K -6 th K– 7 th K 1 st Unknown – 1 st K – 2 nd K – 3 rd K - 4 th K – 5 th K -6 th K – 7 th K – 8 th K 1 st Unknown – 1 st K– 2 nd K– 3 rd K- 4 th K– 5 th K-6 th K– 7 th K– 8 th K– 9 th K Move 1 st Unknown to 1 st Known position – Remove 9 th Known – add 2 nd Unknown

10 + Comparisons Most effective: Incremental rehearsal Spaced repetition may aide in moving fact/word from short-term memory to long-term memory Most efficient: Traditional flash card drill Incremental rehearsal takes more time but does provide more opportunities to respond than traditional or interspersal Teacher preferences: Traditional (time reasons) Student preferences: Traditional

11 + Conclusions Tier 2 Intervention: Traditional Flash Card Drill Tier 3 Intervention: Incremental Rehearsal If Tier 2 Traditional Flash Card Drill fails to produce retention of skills, if students need a more complete foundation of basic skills, or if students need more successes to maintain motivation

12 + Simple Set-Up Scenario #1 math fact intervention for use as a whole class/peer tutoring – Tier 1 or 2

13 + Simple Set-Up Scenario #1 1. Teacher group-administers a curriculum based measurement fact probe (2 of the same type best, i.e. 2 Multiplication Facts probes) 2. Teacher identifies, with student help grading if desired, known and unknown facts for each student If using 2 probes, facts/words incorrect on both are targets 3. Create flash card set for the traditional drill (10 unknowns) for each student using index cards 4. Train students to act as the instructor

14 + Simple Set-Up Scenario #1-Daily Plan Make folders for each student Copy & Grade probes if students are not Make flash card sets for students and place them in the folders Get folders and peer instructors Review the previous days set and pull out the facts that are not maintained (missed) Add unknown facts from folder until the set has 10 Instruct each other using the flash card set of 10 unknowns Teacher administers a 2 minute fact probe Students switch papers with peer to grade and circle incorrects Students place the newly graded probes and cards back into the folders Teacher Prep Needed Class-wide Protocol – approximate time: 25 min.

15 + Overall Suggestions- Troubleshooting Quickly make the new unknown flash cards for students when they hand in their folders Color code the flash cards, either paper or ink, as known or unknown Keep a sealable envelope for each student with their maintained cards to pull out as re-test items or as proofs of success (i.e. data) If the intervention seems organized and students are progressing at different rates, begin differentiating the probes between students

16 + Overall Suggestions cont. If this whole class format requires too much time…break it up Monday: peer instruct entire set of flash cards Tuesday: review previous days set removing the missed facts – give 2 minute probe Wednesday: peer instruct entire set of flashcards using the non- maintained cards from Monday and new unknowns from Tuesday probe Thursday: review Wednesdays set removing the missed facts – give 2 minute probe Friday: administer to the class the weekly grade level Progress Monitor probe

17 + Simple Set-Up Scenario #2 Reading fluency intervention for use as a small group – Tier 3

18 + Simple Set-Up Scenario #2 1. Teacher or aide administers a list of high frequency words (Frys, Dolch, etc.) in segments of 10 Provide immediate feedback to students Many list of these types of lists on 2. Teacher identifies known and unknown words for student 3. Create flash card set for the incremental rehearsal (9 knowns and one unknown at a time) for student using index cards 4. Follow the protocol for the incremental rehearsal format

19 + Simple Set-Up Scenario #1-Daily Plan Copy high- frequency word list Create folder for student(s) needing intervention Get folder with high-frequency word list and flash cards Review the previous days unknown set and pull out the words that are not maintained (missed) Student reads the high-frequency word list in increments of 10 words until they have a total of 5 unknowns (including non-maintained from previous day) Make new flash cards for those unknown words Incremental Rehearsal protocol Teacher Prep Needed Tier 3/1:1 Protocol – approximate time: 15 min.

20 + Overall Suggestions- Troubleshooting Keep one laminated version of the high-frequency list for student to read off of each time Keep a table with the high-frequency words for instructor use – check off with dates the words missed Color code the flash cards, either paper or ink, as known or unknown Keep a sealable envelope for each student with their maintained cards to pull out as re-test items or as proofs of success (i.e. data) Use word lists such as The Reading Teachers Book of Lists, 5 th ed with students that struggle reading content related words

21 + References Burns, M. (2005). Using Incremental Rehearsal to Increase Fluency of Single-Digit Multiplication Facts with Children Identified as Learning Disabled in Mathematics Computation. Education and Treatment of Children, 28, Burns, M. (2009). Interspersal Technique and Behavioral Momentum for Reading Word Lists. School Psychology Review, 38, Cates, G., Skinner, C., Watson, T., Meadows, T., Weaver, A., & Jackson, B. (2003). Instructional Effectiveness and Instructional Efficiency as Considerations for Data- Based Decision Making: An Evaluation of Interspersing Procedures. School Psychology Review, 32, MacQuarrie, L., Tucker, J., Burns, M. & Hartman, B. (2002). Comparison of Retention Rates Using Traditional, Drill Sandwich, and Incremental Rehearsal Flash Card Methods. School Psychology Review, 31, Nist, L. & Joseph, L. (2008). Effectiveness and Efficiency of Flashcard Drill Instructional Methods on Urban First-Graders Word Recognition, Acquisition, Maintenance, and Generalization. School Psychology Review, 37, Torgenson, J. (2004). Preventing Early Reading Failure. American Educator, 28.

22 Class-wide Math Fact Intervention Procedure _________Get folders and partner _________Review Partner 1s flash card set from yesterday and keep the incorrects in a pile _________Review Partner 2s flash card set from yesterday and keep the incorrects in a pile _________Use Partner 1s incorrects from the review and add new unknowns until their set equals 10 total _________Instruct Partner 1 through their set of flash cards making sure they say the fact, then the answer and giving them immediate feedback if they are incorrect. _________Use Partner 2s incorrects from the review and add new unknowns until their set equals 10 total _________Instruct Partner 2 through their set of flash cards making sure they say the fact, then the answer and giving them immediate feedback if they are incorrect. _________Repeat flash card set as many times as possible before the teacher stops you

23 1:1 Reading Fluency Intervention _________Get folder _________Review flash card set from yesterday and keep the incorrects in a pile _________Mark students incorrect words read aloud from the high-frequency list (student starts at the beginning of the list each day) – reading sets of 10 words at a time _________Make flash cards for the new unknown words _________Use incorrects, starting with yesterdays, as U in the incremental rehearsal procedure (5 total) 1 st Unknown – 1 st Known 1 st Unknown – 1 st K – 2 nd K 1 st Unknown – 1 st K – 2 nd K – 3 rd K 1 st Unknown – 1 st K – 2 nd K – 3 rd K – 4 th K 1 st Unknown – 1 st K – 2 nd K – 3 rd K – 4 th K – 5 th K 1 st Unknown – 1 st K – 2 nd K – 3 rd K - 4 th K – 5 th K -6 th K 1 st Unknown – 1 st K – 2 nd K – 3 rd K - 4 th K – 5 th K -6 th K– 7 th K 1 st Unknown – 1 st K – 2 nd K – 3 rd K - 4 th K – 5 th K -6 th K – 7 th K – 8 th K 1 st Unknown – 1 st K– 2 nd K– 3 rd K- 4 th K– 5 th K-6 th K– 7 th K– 8 th K– 9 th K Move 1 st Unknown to 1 st Known position – Remove 9 th Known – add 2 nd Unknown _________Continue adding unknowns, up to 5, until student begins missing them


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