March 27, 2003 Projective Techniques Video and Brief Overview Use and Scoring Interpretive Methods for TAT Typical Themes for Each TAT Card Case Studies –Israel –William –?
Thematic Apperception Techniques Jerome Kagan reported that a generally accepted definition of apperception is: it is the integration of a perception with the individuals past experience and current psychological state. Two general influences on fantasy production: perception of the situation and verbal ability (story length usually progresses with age and girls usually tell longer stories than boys from ages 6 to adolescence).
Thematic Apperceptive Techniques Uniqueness of the Apperceptive Fantasy Nature of Stimulus –need to know stimulus impact and knowledge of normative reactions for different age, gender, cultural, groupings. Response Demand-type of response and cognitive activity demanded differs widely across techniques and must be given consideration when interpreting responses.
Use and Scoring of Thematic Apperception Techniques Use and Scoring Different researchers have coded different aspects of the fantasy depending on their specific theoretical approaches and interests. The major variables derived from apperceptive data: –Assessment of motive strength –Childs perception of world –Assessment of defense tendencies and indices of conflict –Cognitive-expressive styles
Use and Scoring 2 Assumption 1-Congruence between fantasy production and personality Assumption 2-The Hero assumption Assumption 3-The role of the external stimulus Assumption 4-The subjects set and situation Assumption 5-Fantasy as the product of motive and defense
Use and Scoring 3 Five categories of processes –Study of content (what the person sees) –Study of expressive, structural aspects (how the person says or does something) –Gestalt functions (how does the person perceive the stimulus, as a whole, little details, etc) –Body image or self-image (how the person depicts the hero or whomever he/she identifies with) –Methods of preference (selected choices such as in Make A Picture, Szondi, etc.)
Use and Scoring 4 Interpretive Methods Murray and colleagues (1940s) -need-press method (needs of hero and environmental forces to which hero is exposed) Example: he loves her (need), she hates him (hate is the press) Rotter (1947) Three steps –Step 1 autobiographical quality (coherence, predominant mood, sex, endings to stories, repetition of themes, attitude toward world, etc.
Use and Scoring 5 Interpretive Methods –Step 2 five principles of interpretation, frequency of idea, unusualness, determination of identification, determination of cliches, and selecting alternative interpretations –Step 3 qualitative suggestions for analysis of personality trends Rotter & Jessor (1951) Five steps –Step 1 read entire protocol for suggestive leads –Step 2 analyze each story for basic ideas and structural characteristics –Step 3 consider each story as a unit –Step 4 all stories considered as one organized unit –Step 5 interpretive hypotheses integrated into a final summary evaluation
Use and Scoring 6 Interpretive Methods Rapaport (1947) two major classes 1.Formal characteristics of story structure: compliance with instructions, consistency within the production, and characteristics of verbalization 2.Formal characteristics of story content: tone of content, figures of story identification, strivings and attitudes, obstacles Henry (1947) two major classes 1.Form characteristics: amount and kind of imaginal production, organizational qualities, acuity of concepts, observations, and their integration, language structure, intraception-extraception, relation of story to total thought 2.Content characteristics: general tone (positive and negative, passive or aggressive language, expressed or implied interpersonal harmonies); positive content (characters described in the stories, interpersonal relations); negative content (what person failed to say, what person might have been expected to say-what is not there); dynamic structure of content
Use and Scoring 7 Interpretive Methods Reuben Fine (1951) A checklist of scoring for 65 response categories for each story The Bellak Blanks- (see chapters from his book) Three levels of interpretation: descriptive, interpretive, and diagnostic Scoring Categories: main theme, main hero, main needs and drives of hero, conception of the environment, figures seen as --significant conflicts, nature of anxieties, main defenses against conflicts and fears, adequacy of superego (punishment for crime) and integration of the ego
TAT Pictures Henry Murray (1943) 20 cards Bellak suggests 10-12 cards Previous books Bellaks essential cards for males: 1, 2, 3BM, 4, 6BM, 7BM, 11, 12M, 13MF given in order-uses 11 with both males and females and often uses 8BM Currently Bellaks suggestions for both males and females: 1, 2, 3BM, 4, 6BM, 7GF, 8BM, 9GF, 10, 13MF (these are based on over 700 cases by David Abrams & his students)
TAT Legend to use for this class: A.Summary of story (Plot) B.Interpersonal relations C.Objects and figures introduced D.Objects and figures omitted E.Attribution of blame F.Significant conflicts G.Overall view-positive or negative H.Outcome I.Main Theme-Interpretation