2 March 27, 2003 Projective Techniques Video and Brief OverviewUse and ScoringInterpretive Methods for TATTypical Themes for Each TAT CardCase StudiesIsraelWilliam?
3 Thematic Apperception Techniques Jerome Kagan reported that a generally accepted definition of apperception is: it is the integration of a perception with the individual’s past experience and current psychological state.Two general influences on fantasy production: perception of the situation and verbal ability (story length usually progresses with age and girls usually tell longer stories than boys from ages 6 to adolescence).
4 Thematic Apperceptive Techniques Uniqueness of the Apperceptive FantasyNature of Stimulus –need to know stimulus impact and knowledge of normative reactions for different age, gender, cultural, groupings.Response Demand-type of response and cognitive activity demanded differs widely across techniques and must be given consideration when interpreting responses.
5 Use and Scoring of Thematic Apperception Techniques Use and Scoring Different researchers have coded different aspects of the fantasy depending on their specific theoretical approaches and interests.The major variables derived from apperceptive data:Assessment of motive strengthChild’s perception of worldAssessment of defense tendencies and indices of conflictCognitive-expressive styles
6 Use and Scoring 2Assumption 1-Congruence between fantasy production and personalityAssumption 2-The Hero assumptionAssumption 3-The role of the external stimulusAssumption 4-The subject’s set and situationAssumption 5-Fantasy as the product of motive and defense
7 Use and Scoring 3 Five categories of processes Study of content (what the person sees)Study of expressive, structural aspects (how the person says or does something)Gestalt functions (how does the person perceive the stimulus, as a whole, little details, etc)Body image or self-image (how the person depicts the hero or whomever he/she identifies with)Methods of preference (selected choices such as in Make A Picture, Szondi, etc.)
8 Use and Scoring 4 Interpretive Methods Murray and colleagues (1940’s) -need-press method (needs of hero and environmental forces to which hero is exposed)Example: he loves her (need), she hates him (hate is the press)Rotter (1947) Three stepsStep 1 autobiographical quality (coherence, predominant mood, sex, endings to stories, repetition of themes, attitude toward world, etc.
9 Use and Scoring 5 Interpretive Methods Step 2 five principles of interpretation, frequency of idea, unusualness, determination of identification, determination of cliches, and selecting alternative interpretationsStep 3 qualitative suggestions for analysis of personality trendsRotter & Jessor (1951) Five stepsStep 1 read entire protocol for suggestive leadsStep 2 analyze each story for basic ideas and structural characteristicsStep 3 consider each story as a unitStep 4 all stories considered as one organized unitStep 5 interpretive hypotheses integrated into a final summary evaluation
10 Use and Scoring 6 Interpretive Methods Rapaport (1947) two major classesFormal characteristics of story structure: compliance with instructions, consistency within the production, and characteristics of verbalizationFormal characteristics of story content:tone of content, figures of story identification,strivings and attitudes, obstaclesHenry (1947) two major classesForm characteristics: amount and kind of imaginal production, organizational qualities, acuity of concepts, observations, and their integration, language structure, intraception-extraception, relation of story to total thoughtContent characteristics: general tone (positive and negative, passive or aggressive language, expressed or implied interpersonal harmonies); positive content (characters described in the stories, interpersonal relations); negative content (what person failed to say, what person might have been expected to say-what is not there); dynamic structure of content
11 Use and Scoring 7 Interpretive Methods Reuben Fine (1951) A checklist of scoring for 65 response categories for each storyThe Bellak Blanks- (see chapters from his book)Three levels of interpretation: descriptive, interpretive, and diagnosticScoring Categories: main theme, main hero, main needs and drives of hero, conception of the environment, figures seen as --significant conflicts, nature of anxieties, main defenses against conflicts and fears, adequacy of superego (punishment for crime) and integration of the ego
12 TAT Pictures Henry Murray (1943) 20 cards Bellak suggests 10-12 cards Previous books Bellak’s essential cards for males: 1, 2, 3BM, 4, 6BM, 7BM, 11, 12M, 13MF given in order-uses 11 with both males and females and often uses 8BMCurrently Bellak’s suggestions for both males and females: 1, 2, 3BM, 4, 6BM, 7GF, 8BM, 9GF, 10, 13MF (these are based on over 700 cases by David Abrams & his students)
17 TAT Legend to use for this class: Summary of story (Plot) Interpersonal relationsObjects and figures introducedObjects and figures omittedAttribution of blameSignificant conflictsOverall view-positive or negativeOutcomeMain Theme-Interpretation