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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-1 E-commerce Kenneth C. Laudon Carol Guercio Traver business. technology. society. Third Edition
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-2 Chapter 6 E-commerce Payment Systems
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-3 Types of Payment Systems Cash Checking Transfer Credit Card Stored Value Accumulating Balance
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-4 Most Common Payment Systems, Based on Number Of Transactions Figure 6.1, Page 309 SOURCE: Based on data from U.S. Census Bureau, 2005.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-5 Most Common Payment Systems, Based on Dollar Amount Figure 6.2, Page 310 SOURCE: Based on data from U.S. Census Bureau, 2005.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-6 Cash Legal tender defined by a national authority to represent value Most common form of payment in terms of number of transactions Instantly convertible into other forms of value without intermediation of any kind Portable, requires no authentication, and provides instant purchasing power Free (no transaction fee), anonymous, low cognitive demands Limitations: easily stolen, limited to smaller transaction, does not provide any float
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-7 Checking Transfer Funds transferred directly via a signed draft or check from a consumers checking account to a merchant or other individual Most common form of payment in terms of amount spent Can be used for both small and large transactions Some float Not anonymous, require third-party intervention (banks) Introduce security risks for merchants (forgeries, stopped payments), so authentication typically required
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-8 Credit Card Represents an account that extends credit to consumers, permitting consumers to purchase items while deferring payment, and allows consumers to make payments to multiple vendors at one time Credit card associations: Nonprofit associations (Visa, MasterCard) that set standards for issuing banks Issuing banks: Issue cards and process transactions Processing centers (clearinghouses): Handle verification of accounts and balances
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-9 Stored Value Accounts created by depositing funds into an account and from which funds are paid out or withdrawn as needed Examples: Debit cards, gift certificates, prepaid cards, smart cards Debit cards: Immediately debit a checking or other demand-deposit account Peer-to-peer payment systems such as PayPal a variation
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-10 Accumulating Balance Accounts that accumulate expenditures and to which consumers make period payments Examples: utility, phone, American Express accounts
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-11 Dimensions of Payment Systems Table 6.1, Page 312
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-12 Current Online Payment Systems Credit cards are dominant form of online payment, accounting for around 80% of online payments in 2005 New forms of electronic payment include: Digital cash Online stored value systems Digital accumulating balance payment systems Digital credit accounts Digital checking
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-13 Various Payment Methods Offered or Planned to be Offered by Online Merchants Figure 6.3, Page 314 SOURCE: Based on data from Cybersource Corporation, 2005.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-14 How an Online Credit Card Transaction Works Processed in much the same way that in- store purchases are Major difference is that online merchants do not see or take impression of card, and no signature is available Participants include consumer, merchant, clearinghouse, merchant bank (acquiring bank) and consumers card issuing bank
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-15 Limitations of Online Credit Card Payment Systems Security: neither merchant nor consumer can be fully authenticated Cost: for merchants, around 3.5% of purchase price plus transaction fee of 20 – 30 cents per transaction Social equity: many people do not have access to credit cards (young adults, plus almost 100 million other adult Americans who cannot afford cards or are considered poor risk)
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-16 The SET (Secure Electronic Transaction) Protocol Authenticates cardholder and merchant identity through use of digital certificates An open standard developed by MasterCard and Visa Transaction process similar to standard online credit card transaction, with more identity verification Thus far, has not caught on much, due to costs involved in integrating SET into existing systems, and lack of interest among consumers
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-17 How SET Transactions Work Figure 6.5, Page 320
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-18 E-Commerce Digital Payment Systems Traditional payment systems were never designed for use in the digital world As a result, many new payment options, designed to better meet the needs of merchants and consumers, are being studied: Digital cash Online stored value payment accounts Digital accumulated balance payment systems Digital credit card payment systems Digital checking payment systems
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-19 Digital Wallets Concept of digital wallet relevant to many of the new digital payment systems Seeks to emulate the functionality of traditional wallet Most important functions: Authenticate consumer through use of digital certificates or other encryption methods Store and transfer value Secure payment process from consumer to merchant Most common types are client-based software applications: Gator eWallet.com, Google Toolbar AutoFill
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-20 Digital Cash One of the first forms of alternative payment systems Not really cash: rather, are forms of value storage and value exchange that have limited convertibility into other forms of value, and require intermediaries to convert Many of early examples have disappeared; concepts survive as part of P2P payment systems
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-21 Digicash: How First Generation Digital Cash Worked Figure 6.6, Page 324
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-22 Online Stored Value Systems Permit consumers to make instant, online payments to merchants and other individuals based on value stored in an online account Rely on value stored in a consumers bank, checking, or credit card account Examples: PayPal, Ecount
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-23 How Ecount.com Works: A Stored Value System Figure 6.7, Page 327
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-24 Smart Cards as Stored Value Systems Another kind of stored value system based on credit-card sized plastic cards that have embedded chips that store personal information Two types: Contact Contactless Examples: Mondex, Octopus
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-25 Digital Accumulating Balance Payment Systems Allows users to make micropayments and purchases on the Web, accumulating a debit balance for which they are billed at the end of the month Examples: Qpass, Valista, Clickshare, Click & Buy, Peppercoin
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-26 Digital Credit Card Payment Systems Extend the functionality of existing credit cards for use as online shopping payment tools Focus specifically on making use of credit cards safer and more convenient for online merchants and consumers Example: eCharge
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-27 How a Digital Credit Card Payment System Works: eCharge Figure 6.8, Page 334
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-28 Digital Checking Payment Systems Extend the functionality of existing checking accounts for use as online shopping payment tools Examples: PayByCheck, Western Union MoneyZap
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-29 Digital Payment Systems and the Wireless Web Mobile payment (m-payments) systems not very well established yet in U.S, but with growth in Wi-Fi and 3G cellular phone systems, this is beginning to change Juniper Research predicts global m- commerce will total at least $88 billion by 2009, majority of transactions will be micro- m-payments
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-30 Electronic Billing Presentment and Payment (EBPP) Online payment systems for monthly bills EBPP expected to grow rapidly, to an estimated 40% of all households by 2007 Main business models in EBPP market include: Biller-direct Consolidator Above are supported by EBPP infrastructure providers
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6-31 Growth of the EBPP Market Figure 6.10, Page 340 SOURCE: Based on data from eMarketer, Inc., 2004b; Forrester Research, 2005; authors estimates.
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