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2G/3G Authentication with SIM cards: usage & roaming basics for the Internet challenged Michael Haberler Internet Foundation Austria.

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Presentation on theme: "2G/3G Authentication with SIM cards: usage & roaming basics for the Internet challenged Michael Haberler Internet Foundation Austria."— Presentation transcript:

1 2G/3G Authentication with SIM cards: usage & roaming basics for the Internet challenged Michael Haberler Internet Foundation Austria

2 outline a SIM card mini-tutorial features, protocol flow, usage, production, addressing UMTS authentication and key agreement principles and protocol flow the universal integrated circuit card (UICC) USIM app how 2G, 3G roaming works over the air (OTA) loading of UICC apps example: X.509 certificate download (U)SIMs and Internet access authentication –how SIMs and RADIUS roaming works (U)SIMs and SIP authentication –what the SIP server does How the parameter logistics works a bonus business model thrown in summary

3 whats a 2G SIM card crypto smart card as per ISO 7816 access protected by a PIN code(s) (card holder verification) fixed storage of subscriber identity – IMSI (international mobile subscriber identity) – GSM MAC address –E.164 number to IMSI mapping at the operator only safe storage for shared secret - accessible only through CHAP operation –not broken as of today except for most stupid CHAP algorithm known CHAP algorithm in hardware –operator chooses algorithm tree structured filesystem –stream, record, cyclic record files –can be readonly, read/write or none at all (for the key) –some permission hierarchy

4 how are SIM cards produced unprogrammed chips are personalized and closed (parameters written & sealed) mass product - $5-$7 apiece at –GEMplus, Giesecke & Devrient.... everybody can have SIMs made – even Mom&Pop ISP not everybody may –roam with other cellular operators –use the GSM algorithm A3/A8 – you wouldnt want it anyway –must be member of GSM association for that having your own algorithm in a chip mask is a circa $50K+ affair for testing & development unprogrammed castrated chips used (XOR algorithm for CHAP...)

5 how are (U)SIM cards accessed 2G, 3G use –builtin reader in the mobile handset for Internet use: –maybe builtin in PDA, PC (e.g.DELL) –external USB token – 20$ apiece –re-use a mobile SIM card via Bluetooth SIG SIM Access Profile (only if roaming against 2G/3G operator) read 3G (U)SIM Security Reuse by Peripheral Decices on local interfaces – contains some threat analysis

6 SIM usage in 2G authentication 2G GSM handset keys access request – present IMSI present challenge (RAND) send RESP (challenge response) Authentication Center shared secret

7 IMSI structure MCC/MNC uniquely designates an operator and his authentication center when roaming, MCC/MNC tells the visiting network where to route the authentication request this is done via SS7 MAP (mobile application part)

8 what is OTA (over the air) loading? SIM cards are writable by mobile equipment –if authenticated to network –if instructed by operator over the air –if file/directory is writable example: ISIM X.509 certificate bootstrap –AKA authenticated: let user visit PKI portal download certificates through HTTP/Digest mechanism certificates are stored in record structured files, as ar CA certifcates The Air can also be an IP connection download of executable applets possible –SIM Toolkit, USAT (USIM Application toolkit) –bytecode instructions sent encrypted by 3DES, stored on card regularly used in 2G networks today – for functionality upgrades & parameter download

9 UMTS authentication and key agreement (AKA) substantially improved over 2G SIM protection against replay, MITM attacks sports also network-to-user authentication more complex algorithm compatibility functions 2G network/3G card, 3G network/2G card

10 3G AKA authentication flow 3G UMTS handset keys access request – present IMSI challenge RAND || AUTN token send RESP (challenge response) Authentication Center shared secret, Sequence numbers result: Cipher key Integrity key

11 whats the universal integrated circuit card (UICC) about generic support mechanism for multiple applications on one card 2G,3G authentication become applications selected as needed –USIM application implements AKA –2G SIM app implements 2G CHAP –additional apps possible (ISIM, PKI certificate storage etc) –ISIM is pretty close to SIP client needs!! mobile equipment chooses application

12 using (U)SIMs for Internet access authentication embed flow in EAP and tunnel in RADIUS between 802.1x supplicant in client and RADIUS EAP backend using EAP-SIM or EAP-AKA RADIUS server MAY gateway to SS7 MAP and roam –WiFi network looks like a GSM roaming partner –example: WiFi roaming through OR RADIUS server access an ISP-style database for keys –ISP is the SIM card issuer!

13 using (U)SIM for SIP authentication speak HTTP/AKA (RFC3310) between SIP UA and proxy proxy translates into EAP-AKA-in-RADIUS RFC specified only for AKA (3G auth) no mapping of EAP-SIM onto HTTP/SIM for 2G auth bad – almost all networks today use 2G auth – which breaks SIP authentication through GSM/UMTS operators we need to address this and spec HTTP/SIM

14 how 2G roaming works mobile equipment presents IMSI visited network looks at MCC,MNC part of IMSI –if no roaming agreement, drop him –otherwise send access request thru SS7 MAP to home network –the home network verifies IMSI and sends a triplet: (challenge, expected response, cipher key) authentication vector –visited network presents challenge, reads response –if (response == expected response), service user the triplet is essentially an access ticket –note no replay detection – these fellows seem to trust each other

15 how 3G roaming works not much different from 3G, just more parameters needed for AKA triplets become quintets

16 how the 2G/3G user ids (IMSIs) are mapped to RADIUS authentication: take mobile country code, mobile network code use them to create a realm Example –IMSI = means mcc=232 (Austria) mnc=01 (Mobilkom) –resulting realm –resulting RADIUS user routing to Radius servers decided by subdomain convention established by Nokia Nokia owns domain pro-bono from thereon this is vanilla RADIUS roaming but its just fine if we call it if that sounds better, realms just gotta be unique

17 how does 2G/3G address logistics work if you are a service provider and have E.164 ranges, get a MNC from your MCC administrator (FCC, regulator...) the E.164 range might also be, for example, from visionNG ( ff) MCC = 901 this doesnt mean youre part of 2G/3G roaming yet – contracts & regulatory prerequisites needed but the addressing is all set to go!!

18 a bonus business model thrown in: combine a SIP-based iTSP with a Mobile Virtual Network Operator (MVNO) –an MVNO has authentication, billing, customers, numbers, but the radio network is outsourced from somewhere else issue (U)SIM cards which work both in a 2/3G handset AND as WiFi/SIP auth tokens – note the same card authenticates both uses! leave choice to user how to connect – Internet or cellular – using the same E.164 number

19 Summary 2G/3G has a strong/very strong authentication architecture it is almost copy & paste for iTSP use at WiFi access, WiFi roaming acces, SIP and other levels (TBD!) it can serve to solve the X.509 certificate distribution problem operator model (2G/3G home network, ISP home network) has no impact on Internet-side terminals numbering & addressing resources are compatible and available (maybe not obviously so) the Internet could become the biggest (U)SIM authenticated mobile network ever to roam with 2G/3G land

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