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English Language Arts & Reading 1 English Language Arts Module 3: Writing, From Letters to Literature.

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1 English Language Arts & Reading 1 English Language Arts Module 3: Writing, From Letters to Literature

2 English Language Arts & Reading 2 ELA Module 3: Generalist EC-6 Educator Standards Standard VIII. Development of Written Communication: Teachers understand that writing to communicate is a developmental process and provide instruction that helps young students develop competence in written communication. Standard IX. Writing Conventions: Teachers understand how young students use writing conventions and how to help students develop those conventions.

3 English Language Arts & Reading 3 ELA Module 3: Grades 4-8 Educator Standards Standard V. Written Language: Teachers understand that writing is a developmental process and provide instruction that helps students develop competence in written communication.

4 English Language Arts & Reading 4 ELA Module 3: Grades 8-12 Educator Standards Standard I. English language arts teachers in grades 8-12 know how to design and implement instruction that is appropriate for each student, that reflects knowledge of the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), that integrates all components of the English language arts (i.e., reading, writing, listening/speaking, viewing/representing), and that is based on continuous assessment. Standard V. English language arts teachers in grades 8-12 understand that writing is a recursive, developmental, integrative, and ongoing process and provide students with opportunities to develop competence as writers.

5 English Language Arts & Reading 5 ELA Module 3: Grades 8-12 Educator Standards Standard VI. English language arts teachers in grades 8-12 understand how to write effectively for various audiences and purposes and provide students with opportunities to write in a variety of forms and contexts. Standard VII. English language arts teachers in grades 8-12 understand the structure and development of the English language and provide students with opportunities to develop related knowledge and skills in meaningful contexts.

6 6 Writing is… A natural thing to do. All of us have the ability to write. This is especially true when you write to learn and to explore your own thoughts and feelings. Thinking on paper. Learning new things. Making contact with friends and family. Dealing with bad days.

7 7 Writing is… A PROCESS – All writers do a lot of planning, organizing, writing, changing, rewriting, and editing to produce a story. Thats why its a PROCESS!! A skill that must be practiced DAILY. Handbooks and lessons are helpful, but there is really only one way to learn how to write… JUST DO IT!! Practice all kinds of writing: stories, reports, songs, poems, essays, letters, notes, journals…

8 8 Pre-Requisites for Writing: Fine Motor Skills Children do not usually come to school paper-and-pencil task-ready. Early childhood teachers must provide developmentally appropriate hands-on activities to help young children develop the fine motor skills that are necessary for writing.

9 9 Activities for Fine Motor Development Tear art (tear construction paper into small pieces to glue onto a letter, shape, picture). Trace over pictures, letters, or shapes with highlighters, or colors (place blank paper on top of picture). Punch holes with thumb tack around a picture. Rainbow write (trace picture, shape or letter with every color of the rainbow).

10 10 Activities for Fine Motor Development Write with shaving cream on tabletops. Cut with scissors on pre-drawn lines. Use tweezers to pick up small items. Write with very small pieces of chalk on mini- chalkboards. Create letters and shapes with playdough.

11 11 Pencil Grip and Paper Position Select and use instructional strategies, materials, and activities to teach pencil grip, paper position, and beginning strokes.

12 12 InterventionsAt Any Age The shorter the pencil/crayon/chalk, the more natural it is for the hand to hold it in the correct tripod grasp. Forget brand-new pencils and crayons…break em! Have a student who has illegible handwriting or tires easily while writing? Try having him or her squeeze a stress ball or a wad of modeling clay to strengthen the muscle. Fine motor scavenger hunt: push pony beads or coins into a wad of modeling clay and have the student dig them out with the hand holding the clay. Its great exercise!

13 13 Notes on Individual Students ______________________ Name ______________________ Name ______________________ Name ______________________ Name Are you… a lefty?a righty?

14 14 Clock-Face Chart Procedures (Read The Writing Road to Reading [Spalding & Spalding], page 67) The image of the clock face is a powerful tool for teaching penmanship. Take the time necessary to practice the four points with young children. You will be well rewarded with the development of top to bottom, left to right eye flow and organization necessary for reading and writing English. If you are teaching DNealian penmanship, use an oval instead of a circle. Teach the same four points. They can initially be related to the circle of the clock face for positioning.

15 15 Clock-Face Chart Procedures Before we begin to make any of our letters, we are going to talk about the face of a clock. We will use the face of a clock to help us think correctly as we form our letters (use an actual clock, a model clock, or a chart depicting a clock face).

16 16 Clock-Face Chart Procedures What is the shape of a clock face? Answer – round, circle What is written around the edge of a clock face? Answer – numbers We will be using the clock face and some of the numbers to help us learn how to make our letters. I have made a very special chart of a clock face to help us. Display the clock-face chart. Use red to mark the point of two on the clock.

17 17 Clock-Face Chart Point out the margin line, base line, top line, and dotted middle line on the chart (use the appropriate color to make these lines on the chart). Next point out the circle that forms the clock face and examine the position of the numbers 2, 10, 8, 4, in relation to the lines and to each other. Examine the curve of the circle between 2 and 10 and point out that it touches the dotted middle-line (at the 12 position). Note that it does not cross over the dotted middle line.

18 18 Clock-Face Chart Examine the curve of the circle between 8 and 4 and point out that it rests on the base line (at the 6 position.) Note that it does not go under the base line. Point out that the spot for number 2 is the starting place for some very important letters. Mark it with red on the chart. Say, we will call it two on the clock. (Note – Be sure you do not say two oclock, you are not telling time.)

19 19 Clock-Face Chart If you have placed a mini-clock face (made identical to the clock-face chart) on each students name tag, draw attention to it at this time. If not, pass out mini-charts of clock faces.

20 20 Clock-Face Chart With your pointer finger, trace the base line on your chart in the direction that we read and write. With your pointer finger, trace the top line on your chart. Be sure to trace in the direction we read and write. With your pointer finger, trace the dotted middle line on your chart. Which direction do we trace it? (Answer – In the direction we read and write.)

21 21 Clock-Face Chart Fold your hands and focus very carefully because I have something very important to show you. I am going to put my pointer finger on the spot we call two on the clock. (Model) This place is very important because the first phonograms we will learn begin at two on the clock and curve upward to the dotted middle line and around to ten on the clock.

22 22 Clock-Face Chart Watch as I trace the direction we make our clock letters (model by tracing line that curves from 2 to 10, to 8, to 4, and back to 2. Say the numbers as you trace the circle). Using the clock face on your desk, place your pointer finger on the spot marked two on the clock face (monitor students). What color is that spot? (Answer – Red) Why did we use the color red? (Answer – Some of the letters we will learn begin at two on the clock).

23 23 Clock-Face Chart Trace the circle line from 2 on the clock to 10 on the clock. Be sure to touch the dotted middle line. Stop at 10 (monitor students). Now trace from 10 on the clock to 8 on the clock and stop (monitor students). Good, trace from 8 on the clock and stop (monitor students). Repeat the process several times. Have the students say the numbers with you as they form the circle. At this time do not trace in any direction. Begin at 2, go to 10, 8, 4, and back to 2, lifting fingers.

24 24 Clock-Face Chart What are we practicing, class? (Answer – Making a circle that starts at two on the clock). Teacher Note – The circle stroke beginning at two on the clock is the first stroke of 8 letters: a, c, d, f, g, o, s, and q. In the rest of the letters, the circle stroke or part of the circle stroke will begin at a different point and may go the opposite direction. For example, the letter h is made by beginning tall and pulling a straight line down through the dotted middle line to the base line, pushing back up to ten on the clock and curving to the middle line to two on the clock, then pulling a straight line down to the base line.

25 25 Clock Letters Always begin at two on the clock

26 26 Ready to Write

27 27 Spelling Development Stage 1 - The Pre-communicative or Pre-phonemic stage Before children know about phonemes (letter and letter sounds). Spelling and writing contains scribbles or random strings of letters. Stage 2 - The Semiphonetic Stage Words are represented by a letter or two and are usually the first letter of the word or the first and last letters of the word.

28 28 Spelling Development Stage 3 - The Phonetic Stage Vowels begin to appear (yet not always the correct vowel). Long vowels are often correct, yet attempts at short vowel sounds are also made. Stage 4 - Transitional Sounds are represented and spelling is close to correct English spelling. Stage 5 - Correct Spelling Correct spelling of words will sometimes include very short sentences of which all words are spelled correctly.

29 29 Working with Words Activity in which children are given some letters and use them to make words Students make little words bigger words final word Final word contains all letters.

30 30 A Making-Words Lesson 1. Decide what the big word is that can be made with all the letters. In choosing this word, consider books the children are reading, and what letter-sound patterns you can draw childrens attention to through the sorting at the end. 2. Make a list of other words you can make from these letters. Steps in Planning

31 31 A Making-Words Lesson 3.From all the words you can make, pick 12 to 15 words to emphasize. Words that you can sort for the pattern you want to emphasize Little words and big words so that the lesson is a multilevel lesson (Making the little words help your slowest students; making the big words challenges your most accelerated students.) Steps in Planning

32 32 A Making-Words Lesson Words that can be made with the same letters in different places (cold/clod) so that children are reminded that when spelling words, the ordering of the letters is crucial A proper name or two to remind them that names – even automobile names! – need capital letters Words that most students have in their listening vocabulary Steps in Planning

33 33 A Making-Words Lesson 4. Write all the words on index cards and order them from smallest to biggest. 5. Once you have the two-letter, three-letter, …words together, order them so that you can emphasize letter patterns and how changing the position of the letters or changing/adding just one letter results in a different word. 6. Store the cards in an envelope. On the envelope, write the words in order and the patterns by which you will sort. Steps in Planning

34 34 A Making-Words Lesson 1. Place the large letter cards needed in a pocket chart or along the chalk ledge. 2. Have designated children give a holder and one letter to each child. Let the passer keep the Ziploc bag or paper cup containing that letter and have the same child collect that letter when the lesson is over. 3. Hold up and name the letters on the large letter cards and have the children hold up their matching small letter cards. Steps in Teaching

35 35 A Making-Words Lesson 4. Write the numeral 2 (or 3 if there are no two-letter words in this lesson) on the board and have the children hold up two fingers. Tell them to take two letters and make the first word. Put the word in a sentence after you say the word. 5. Have a child who has the first word made correctly make the same word with the larger letter cards on the chalk ledge or pocket chart. Encourage anyone who didnt make the word correctly at first to fix the word when they see it made correctly. Steps in Teaching

36 36 A Making-Words Lesson 6. Continue to make the remaining two-letter words, giving students clues such as Change just the first letter or Move the same letters around and you can make a different word or Take all your letters out and make another word. Send children who have the word made correctly to make the word with the large letters. 7. Erase the 2 and write a 3 on the board. Have the children hold up three fingers and tell them that these words will take three of their letters. Steps in Teaching

37 37 A Making-Words Lesson 8. Continue having them make words, erasing and changing the number on the board to indicate the number of letters needed. Use the words in simple sentences to make sure they understand the meaning. Remember to cue them about whether they are just changing one letter, changing letters around, or taking all their letters out to make a word from scratch. When you have them make a name, cue them that it is a name and send a child who has started that name with a capital letter to make the word with the big letters. Steps in Teaching

38 38 A Making-Words Lesson 9. Before telling them the last word, ask Has anyone figured out what word we can make with all our letters? If so, congratulate them and have them make it. Give them clues to help them figure out the big word. 10. Once all the words have been made, have the students close their holders and direct their attention to the words in the pocket chart. Use these words for sorting and pointing out patterns. Pick a word and point out a particular spelling pattern, and ask children to find the others with the same pattern. Line these words up so that the pattern is visible. Steps in Teaching

39 39 A Making-Words Lesson 11. To get maximum transfer to reading and writing, have the students use the patterns they have sorted to read and spell a few new words. Emphasize that good readers and writers need to read and spell many words. Thinking of rhyming words and other patterns will help in reading and spelling lots of additional words. Steps in Teaching

40 40 Journal Writing Allows students to express own ideas, use inventive spelling, and begin using techniques obtained through modeled and shared writing. May be written on a plain sheet of paper, lined paper, spiral notebook, folders with paper inside, or several sheets stapled together for each month (January Journals). May be generated by student or prompted by teacher. Writing by the Students

41 41 Journal Writing Early writers may drite (draw and write). Teachers are provided with an abundance of information on students writing skills needing additional attention. Writing by the Students

42 42 Creative Writing Print-Rich Environment Link Literature to Writing Concepts of Print Fluency Teacher Read Aloud Teacher Writes

43 43 Group Writing Activities

44 44 Shared Writing Objectives Observe that writing is talk written down. Observe concepts about print in action. Understand writing as a way the writer records ideas. Recognize that writing serves different purposes.

45 45 Shared Writing Writing with students Negotiating text Sharing the Pen

46 46 Model Writing What is it?Teacher thinks aloud as she writes, modeling writing strategies and techniques. Students participate with ideas. Purpose? Reinforces the reading process Demonstrates conventions of writing Helps children understand the writing process Makes it possible for all to participate

47 47 Shared Writing Ideas Recounting experiences (Daily News) Innovation on stories Making lists Writing procedures (How To …) Letters (Morning Message) Observations Messages Newsletters

48 48 Model Writing Ideas Wall stories and class books Story innovations Story retellings Morning message Daily News Recipes Lists

49 49 Predictable Charts Sentences have a predictable pattern. Follow a predictable book. Child gives answer to predictable chart while teacher writes. Childs name is written at the end of sentence in parentheses. Example: I like to eat... (Students Name) I like to eat grapes. (Bianca) I like to eat cookies. (Jacob) I like to eat popcorn. (Aimee)

50 50 Innovations & Retellings Innovation uses an original story, poem, or rhyme as a model and is changed by as little as one word in the text. Billy and Betty went up the hill. May be a rewrite of a repetitive phrase or sentence Then Ill bump and Ill jump and Ill stomp your house down, said the wolf to the first little pig. May also involve using portions or most of a storys framework to make a completely new piece Use parts of book The Three Little Pigs to create a different version of story called The Three Little Sea Horses.

51 51 Circular Stories Definition Story in which events begin and end with the same setting, event, or problem If You Give a Mouse a Cookie I Know an Old Lady Who Swallowed a Fly

52 52 The Writing Process Pre-writing – Includes brainstorming, discussing, and selecting topics and related concepts and ideas to write about; involves determining purpose and audience (ex. Idea webs). Drafting – Involves putting the prewriting ideas into writing. Use of writing organizers provides a writing framework for students. Conferencing – Involves working with teacher and peers to discuss and review writing. Teacher must provide positive and specific feedback as well as constructive suggestions.

53 53 The Writing Process Revising – Involves making content changes agreed upon during the conference. Editing – Involves making punctuation, grammar, and spelling corrections. Use of Editing Checklist aids in targeting specific elements of writing. Sharing or Publishing – Involves preparing and sharing writing on a regular basis (i.e., Authors chair, Publishing party, share with other classes).

54 54 Planning Think Sheet Possible Topics Circle your choice. What do I know about the topic? Brainstorm ideas

55 55 Drafting Think Sheet Name

56 56 Narrative Think Sheet TITLE Beginning (What is the setting? Who are the characters?) Middle (Action – What is the problem?) Ending (How was the problem solved?)

57 57 Think Sheet Name Date Who What When Where Why How

58 58 Think Sheet Topic Sentence describing topic First, Next, Then, Finally,

59 59 The Editing Checklist Use to list the required language skills that students should use in order for their writing to be correct. Items are added gradually. When almost all children have learned to automatically do one important task, then add another item to list. As the list gets longer and the students writing becomes longer, the checklist makes it easier for the student to edit their first draft before conferencing with the teacher.

60 60 Monitoring Students Progress Observe as students write. Use conference times to assess and record their progress. Keep anecdotal records. Collect writing to show growth and development.

61 61 TAKS Writing The student will be informed of our four modes of TAKS writing. receive criteria for each mode of writing. actively participate in evaluating samples of TAKS writing. be informed of exit levels for TAKS. be informed of the components used for assessing TAKS writing.

62 62 Veronicas Writing Process Before I like to visualize the story in my head, like a movie. I jot down any ideas on pieces of paper. Sometimes I ask someone what they think of my idea.

63 63 Veronicas Writing Process During I write, write, write. I prefer pen & paper. I dont erase – just scratch out. I usually keep writing until its finished. After a 1 st draft, I prefer for someone to read it & give me suggestions. After I like for someone else to edit for errors. After all changes have been made, I like to publish on the computer.

64 64 Writing is a Process Brainstorming Refers to idea generating and unstructured thinking. Anything Goes attitude is a must.

65 65 Writing is a Process First Draft Refers to the actual writing, when a writer gets all of his or her ideas on paper. Revising Refers to the changes a writer makes to improve his or her writing. Ideas may be added, cut, or switched around; sentences may be cut or rewritten.

66 66 Writing is a Process Editing Refers to all of the final changes made in the revised writing. During this step, writing is checked carefully for errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, and usage. The writing can be checked by peers, a teacher, or by the author.

67 67 Writing is a Process Publishing Refers to the sharing and celebration of the final masterpiece.

68 68 Brainstorming Collecting ideas by freely sharing all of the possibilities. Writing is much easier and more interesting if you..Show What You Know. Experience and observations are an authors best friends!

69 69 Prewriting There are many good ways for authors to collect details about their subjects Talk to someone about it, Read and learn about it, Free write, and Write for as long as you can on that topic. Clustering. Use a web graphic organizer to connect all ideas pertaining to that subject.

70 70 T.A.P. Your Writing Place T.A.P. on the top of each page during the writing process. T – Represents Topic A – Represents Audience P – Represents Process

71 71 Prewriting Activity Write About It!!! 1. Prepare your paper for a quick-write T = Topic A = Audience P = Process 2. Choose a topic from your list. 3. On the count of three, you will write as much as you can about that topic without stopping.

72 72 First Draft There is one golden rule for this step of the process Never Fall in Love With Your First Draft! This is a learned attitude that will increase as the students have more experience with the writing process. During this step, the ideas and thoughts begin to take form.

73 73 First Draft Tips Tips for writing a first draft Decide on your mode of writing (poem, story, song, screen play, report), Write the date on each page, Write on one side of the paper only, Skip lines, and Do not erase (ALL thoughts are worthy!).

74 74 Revisions This is the most challenging step for young writers. You will hear, I like it just the way it is. I dont want to change anything. Im done! Modeling is extremely important here. They will do what you do. ALWAYS write with your students. They will take more risks and stretch if they see youve done it and its safe.

75 75 Take C.A.R.E. Of Your Writing C = Change A = Add R = Rearrange E = Eliminate

76 76 Editing After the author has made any desired changes to the content, the writing must be polished. Depending on the writers audience and purpose, the extent of editing will be up to you. One good rule to follow If the writing will be viewed by more than four people, and/or will be posted, it should be perfect. This doesnt mean every writing piece needs to be perfect.

77 77 Editing Do not ignore spelling, grammar, or sentence structure. Use these errors to guide future learning steps.

78 78 Self-Edit Checklist 1. Circle each capital letter in green. 2. Circle each punctuation mark in red. 3. Underline each sentence in alternating colors of purple and orange. 4. Read backwards to catch spelling errors. Circle mistakes or unsure spellings in black.

79 79 Publishing This is the most important part of the process. The author will decide on the final presentation for his or her writing. Computers are great for this! Publishing is a time to share and celebrate the authors successes.

80 80 What is TAKS? Students must pass TAKS in order to graduate from high school. 4 th grade is the 1 st year for the writing test. T = Texas A = Assessment of K = Knowledge & S = Skills

81 81 TAKS For TAKS testing, the student is expected to write for a specific purpose. This purpose is achieved through a single mode, or method of organization.

82 82 TAKS Purposes Purpose 1. Persuasive – The writer presents reasons in support of a point of view with the intention of influencing a particular audience. 2. Informative – The writer selects facts so that information can be conveyed. 3. Expressive – The writer expresses thoughts and feelings about an event or object.

83 83 TAKS Writing Modes Mode 1. Narrative – The writer sequences events in a particular order. 2. Descriptive – The writer uses language to portray features and qualities of an idea or thing. 3. Classificatory – The writer groups elements on the basis of their characteristics. 4. How to – The writer gives instructions/directions, listing steps on how to complete a task.

84 84 TAKS Grading Criteria & Objective The TAKS written composition is evaluated using a process called focused holistic scoring. The evaluation is holistic because the writing is considered as a whole. It is focused because it is evaluated based on specific criteria. These criteria correspond to the first four objectives.

85 85 TAKS Objectives 1. The student will respond appropriately in a written composition to the purpose/audience specified in a given topic. 2. The student will organize ideas in a written composition on a given topic. 3. The student will demonstrate control of the English language in a written composition on a given topic. 4. The student will generate a written composition that develops, supports, and elaborates the central idea stated in a given topic.

86 86 TAKS Grading Criteria & Objective Each composition is evaluated by two trained readers. Each reader assigns the composition a grade from 1-4 (1 being the lowest and 4 being the highest). If the readers scores do not match, a third reader evaluates the writing. If the third readers score matches one of the initial scores, that grade is given. If the third reader assigns a different score, the writing is given to the director for resolution.

87 87 TAKS Grading Criteria & Objective **Errors in spelling, punctuation, and run on sentences do not count against the writer, UNLESS fluency of the story is hindered and comprehension is lost. This might change in newer test versions.

88 88 The 5 Author Must-Haves No matter what mode of writing is being used, the following 5 aspects are needed in every type of writing. 1. Hook Your Reader 1. The writer is the fisherman, the reader is the fish. 2. Hook your reader with an interesting lead that grabs the readers attention and makes him want to read on.

89 89 The 5 Author Must-Haves 2. Show Not Tell 1. Dont say, The lady screamed. Bring her out and let her scream!!! 2. Elaboration is the crucial difference between a 3 and a 4 paper.

90 90 The 5 Author Must-Haves 3. Vivid Verbs 1. Instead of said try: yelled, cried, whispered. 2. Instead of went try: skipped, sauntered, hopped.

91 91 The 5 Author Must-Haves 4. Specific, Specific, Specific 1. Instead of ice cream try: Bluebell Homemade Vanilla. 2. Instead of jeans try: Levis 501s.

92 92 The 5 Author Must-Haves 5. No Gaps 1. Be a wet spaghetti noodle… the story should flow easily and not break apart. 2. Imagine the reader as a monkey in the jungle trying to get from tree to tree. As the writer, YOU must provide the vines for the monkey to get from tree to tree (or event to event).

93 93 Stages of Development

94 94 Specific Idea When it rains, you can play board games (like Monopoly and Jeopardy) because everyone at home is in the mood for something quiet. (Your brothers and sisters are just as bored as you are so when the games come out, everyone is ready for something different.) Extended Idea Somewhat Extended Developed

95 95 Holistic Scoring How are compositions evaluated? Holistic scoring focuses on the students ability to compose for a specific purpose. The students writing should be considered as a whole to see if the general purpose is conveyed. The scoring process used is similar to the Texas Assessment of Knowledge & Skills (TAKS).

96 96 Holistic Scoring First drafts and/or final compositions may be evaluated. First draft compositions receive only a score for content. Final or revised drafts may have two scores; one for content and one for using the conventions of grammar, usage, and mechanics. Both content scores and convention scores are based on a specific set of evaluation criteria and range from 0-4.

97 97 Scoring Content Holistic scoring focuses on the students ability to compose for a specific purpose. The students writing should be considered as a whole for the general idea conveyed. Specific characteristics to look for are as follows:

98 98 Holistic Scoring Scale Score 0 Off topic Blank paper Foreign language Illegible/incoherent Copied prompt Did not write enough to score

99 99 Holistic Scoring Scale Score 1 Attempts to address audience Brief / vague Unelaborated Wanders on / off topic Lack of language control Poor or no organization Wrong purpose / mode

100 100 Holistic Scoring Scale Score 2 Correct purpose, mode, audience Some elaboration Some specific details Gaps in organization Limited language control

101 101 Holistic Scoring Scale Score 3 Correct purpose, mode, audience Moderately well elaborated Organized (but possible brief digressions) Clear, effective language

102 102 Holistic Scoring Scale Score 4 Correct purpose, mode, audience Effective elaboration Consistent organization Clear sense of order/completeness Fluent

103 103 TAKS Modes & Key Words Classificatory Compare Good / Bad Alike / Different Similarities / Differences

104 104 TAKS Modes & Key Words Descriptive Describe Tell What You See How To How to give Instructions / Directions Steps

105 105 TAKS Modes & Key Words Narrative Story Tell All About What Happened Tell What Happened Next Composition = write a paper (this word may confuse some writers)

106 106 TAKS Composition Sample: Opening the Door Imagine that you have found a key to a strange door. Write a story for your classmates. Tell what happens when you unlock the door and step inside.

107 107 TAKS Composition Sample: TV Programs Think of your two favorite television programs. Write a composition for your teacher in which you tell how these two programs are alike and how they are different. Use as many details as you can.

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