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17-803/17-400 ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS 17-803/17-400 Electronic Voting Session 3: Punched-Card Systems Michael I.

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Presentation on theme: "17-803/17-400 ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS 17-803/17-400 Electronic Voting Session 3: Punched-Card Systems Michael I."— Presentation transcript:

1 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS / Electronic Voting Session 3: Punched-Card Systems Michael I. Shamos, Ph.D., J.D. Institute for Software Research International Carnegie Mellon University

2 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Student Projects Internet voting review Verifiability without paper Voter privacy assessment Code hiding –Can code be hidden undetectably? Alternative voting systems –ATM, lottery Secure software distribution –Assure that software inside voting machines is genuine Voting security standards –What should they look like?

3 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Qualification/Certification The Federal Election Commission (FEC) published voluntary standards for voting systemsstandards Many states have made the standards mandatory How to test against them? The National Association of State Election Directors (NASED) has authorized a small number of Independent testing authorities to qualify voting systemsNASED After qualification, most states have a certification process to verify that the system satisfies state law

4 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Qualification/Certification Problems The FEC standards are inadequate for software security The ITAs operate in secret –Dont publish their testing protocols –Dont publish their findings, just whether a system passed The ITAs are paid by the vendors State certifications are cursory, usually not performed by experts

5 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Help America Vote Act of 2002 Payments to states to replace paper and level machines: $3 billion Establishes Election Assistance CommissionElection Assistance Commission Reforms the standards process (National Institute of Standards and Technology)National Institute of Standards and Technology Provisional voting Statewide registration systems Complaint procedure

6 Punch Card Voting Will be used by about 14% of the U.S. in 2004 Will be used in 69 of 88 counties in Ohio (PA only has 67 counties) Began in the 1960s with the IBM Porta-Punch By 2000 was used in 37% of the U.S., until Florida

7 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Votomatic Punched-Card System SOURCE: DOUG JONESDOUG JONES

8 Votomatic Punched-Card System

9 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Votomatic Punch-Card System VOTING BOOTH BALLOT FRAME VOTING STYLUS BALLOT SEALS VOTING SETUP

10 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Punched Card (14%) CHAD POSITIONS 4, 20, 60, 82, 117 ARE PUNCHED NO CANDIDATE NAMES ON CARD STUB FOR WRITE-INS REGISTRATION HOLES HOLES NOT ALWAYS RECTANGULAR

11 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Punched Card (14%) SOURCE: MICHIGAN SOSMICHIGAN SOS

12 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Votomatic Punched-Card System SOURCE: NEW YORK TIMES

13 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Issues Cards Human Factors Card Handling Readers Ballot Definition Recounts –What constitutes a vote?

14 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Card Manufacture Card stock –Humidity Prescored cards –Dies: depth, location of scoring

15 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Ballot Frames Card registration Stylus Punch pressure SOURCE: PETER SHEERINPETER SHEERIN

16 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Ballot Frames Rubber backing Chad jams SOURCE: PETER SHEERINPETER SHEERIN

17 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Chads SOURCE: PETER SHEERINPETER SHEERIN

18 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Hanging Chad SOURCE: NEW YORK TIMES

19 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Datavote Uses a die to punch a clean hole Employed in a small fraction of punch card counties

20 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Human Factors Ballot pages Ballot review Spoiled ballot Overvoting Butterfly ballot No butterfly ballot may be used as an official ballot in any referendum, primary, or other election. N.C. Gen. Stat. § B

21 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Palm Beach County Butterfly Ballot SOURCE: SOUTH FLORIDA SUN-SENTINEL

22 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Buchanan Vote by County (Florida, 2000) GRAPH COURTESY OF PROF. GREG ADAMS CARNEGIE MELLON & PROF. CHRIS FASTNOW CHATHAM COLLEGE SOURCE: PROF. GREG ADAMSPROF. GREG ADAMS Broward (Fort Lauderdale) Miami-Dade Hillsborough (Tampa) Pinellas (St. Petersburg-Clearwater) Orange (Orlando) LINEAR FIT WITHOUT PALM BEACH, BROWARD, MIAMI-DADE (PURPLE ANNOTATIONS ADDED)

23 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Broward County Ballot Page SOURCE: BROWARD COUNTYBROWARD COUNTY

24 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Counting Punched Cards SOURCE: LOS ANGELES COUNTY

25 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Ballot Programming Inform the tabulation system of the correspondence between punch positions and candidate names

26 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Card Readers Manufacturer Reading the card changes the card Chads fall out, chads are replaced Role of chad teams

27 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Counting Punched Cards SOURCE: NEW YORK TIMES

28 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Recount When a ballot is handled, it can be changed The voters intent must be determined Suppose only one of four corners is detached. It is a vote? Dimpled chad, pregnant chad: how to count?

29 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS What Constitutes a Vote? Each State shall adopt uniform and nondiscriminatory standards that define what constitutes a vote and what will be counted as a vote for each category of voting system used in the State. HAVA, 42 U.S.C. § 15481(a)(6)42 U.S.C. § 15481(a)(6) TABLE PENNSYLVANIA

30 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Punched-Card Problems Cant see whom youre voting for Registration of card in ballot frame Must use stylus: no positive feedback on punch Hanging chad: chad that is partially attached to the card –How may corners? –Hanging chad causes count to differ every time Dimple: chad that is completely attached but shows evidence of an attempt to punch –Dimple can turn into a vote on multiple readings

31 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Q A &

32 Whats a Recount? Purpose: verify that the original tabulation was correct Three kinds of recounts: –A. Physical ballots exist: Count them again. –B. Computer records exist: Tabulate them again. –C. No physical ballots or computer records exist (e.g. lever machines): Read the counters again

33 17-803/ ELECTRONIC VOTING FALL 2004 COPYRIGHT © 2004 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Votomatic Punched-Card System


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