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Beware of mirages. Mirage There are many checklists, assessments and hierarchies of skills we can use to guide interventions & identify the communicative.

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Presentation on theme: "Beware of mirages. Mirage There are many checklists, assessments and hierarchies of skills we can use to guide interventions & identify the communicative."— Presentation transcript:

1 Beware of mirages

2 Mirage There are many checklists, assessments and hierarchies of skills we can use to guide interventions & identify the communicative abilities of people with severe communicative impairments

3 PROBLEM: Communication is too complex a process to task analyse….. ? The complexity of communication learning and performance Hewett 2006 ? ? ? ? …..because it is not a linear process

4 while changes in the way someone communicates can be identified and reported on…. While changes In the way someone communicates can be identified and reported on…. …the changes, refinements or elaborations that indicate an individual learners increased communicative involvement simply cannot be predicted because it is not a linear process

5 5 6 45321 A visual representation of conventional, structured intervention or teaching first teach this then this and so on 7 From: Hewett, D. (2006) The most important and complicated learning: thats what play is for! ICAN, Talking Point, March. www.talkingpoint.org.uk assessments were never designed as recipes for teaching

6 Often the ticks dont correspond with the person anyway!!!! successful interaction often depends on – familiarity, – observation, – inferences made about the learners – pre or proto-symbolic utterances – bodily movements, – changes in muscle tone – other subtle cues Hostyn, I & Maes, B [2009]Interaction between persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and their partners: A literature review Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 2009; Early Online, 1–17

7 7 ? ? ? ? ? ? input/output ? ? ? Styles of intervention that emphasise outcome subtly invite practitioners to assume that learning is occurring …. because they can see the performance of communication [Mirage] Styles of intervention that emphasise outcome subtly invite practitioners to assume that learning is occurring …. because they can see the performance of communication [Mirage]

8 8 ? A visual representation of the complexity of communication learning and performance ? ? ? ? ? input/output ? ? ? From: Hewett, D. (2006) The most important and complicated learning: thats what play is for! ICAN, Talking Point, March. www.talkingpoint.org.uk Communication is something which elaborates and diversifies with use. Communication is something which elaborates and diversifies with use.

9 9 ? A visual representation of the complexity of communication learning and performance ? ? ? ? ? input/output ? ? ? From: Hewett, D. (2006) The most important and complicated learning: thats what play is for! ICAN, Talking Point, March. www.talkingpoint.org.uk The manner in which communication develops reflects the complex in which is it is learned

10 In a sense were trapped by our own history of assuming we can teach communication by instruction ?

11 Links between role perceptions of professionals and styles of interaction Staff in ID contexts 2 main camps; providers who engage in predominantly instrumental relationships based on meeting needs meaning makers who consider their role is to understand their clients moods and gestures and to try to create meaning within a relationship with them. Clegg, J. A., Standen, P. J., & Jones, G. (1996). Striking the balance: A grounded theory analysis of staff perspectives. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35, 249–264.

12 providers ; predominantly instrumental relationships based on meeting needs The majority of communication interventions by professionals with learners at very early stages of communication, are focussed on providing the learner with the means to express needs and wants and by inference, requests. Light Parsons & Drager [2002] Theres more to life than cookies :Developing interactions for social closeness with beginning communicators who use AAC in Reichle Beukelman & Light [eds] Exemplary Practices for Beginning Communicators, Implications for AAC. Baltimore ; Brookes Publishing Interventions to illicit expressions of needs and wants are relatively straightforward...... easy to implement and to measure. Reichle York & Sigafoos (eds) (1991) Implementing augmentative and alternative communication : Strategies for learners with severe disabilities Baltimore: Brookes Publishing]

13 providers ; predominantly instrumental relationships based on meeting needs It is undeniably important for learners to gain the skills to request and indicate preferences, however, theres more to life than cookies Light Parsons & Drager [2002] Theres more to life than cookies :Developing interactions for social closeness with beginning communicators who use AAC in Reichle Beukelman & Light [eds] Exemplary Practices for Beginning Communicators, Implications for AAC. Baltimore ; Brookes Publishing

14 The use of symbols and pictographs to augment the communication of learners who already demonstrate symbol use is a logical and well established practice however…. ….using symbols and pictographs with pre-symbolic and pre-intentional communicators is highly questionable. Even as a least-worst intervention or one that immerses the learner in a mirage of an exchange, The use of symbols and pictographs to augment the communication of learners who already demonstrate symbol use is a logical and well established practice however….

15 15 Proto-imperative initiations to achieve Behavioural regulation ie request object or action ie request object or action initiations to achieve ; Joint attention ie used to direct anothers attention to an object, an event or a topic [Wetherby & Prizant 1992] ie used to direct anothers attention to an object, an event or a topic [Wetherby & Prizant 1992] Social interaction or social closeness [Light Parsons Drager 2002] ie used to attract or maintain anothers attention to oneself ie used to attract or maintain anothers attention to oneself [Wetherby & Prizant 1992] [Wetherby & Prizant 1992] Proto-declarative Wetherby, A. M., & Prizant B. M. [1992] Profiling young childrens communicative competence In S.Warren &J Reichle [Eds] Causes and Effects in Communication and Language Intervention. Baltimore : PH Brookes Bates, E., Benigni, L., Bretherton, I., Camaioni, L. and Volterra V. [1979] The Emergence of Symbols: Cognition and communication in infancy. New York: Academic Press Bates, E., Camaioni, L., & Volterra,V. [1975] The acquisition of performatives prior to speech Merril-Palmer Quarterly 21 [3], 205-226 Bates, E., OConnel, B. & Shore, C. [1987] Language and communication in infancy. In J. Osofsky [ed] Handbook of infant development [p 147-203] New York:Wiley. Bates, E. & Snyder, L.,[1987] The cognitive hypothesis in language development. In I.Uzgiris & J Hunt [eds.] Infant performance and experience [pp168-204] Urbana: University of Illinois Press Followed by..and probably depends on

16 Bates, E., et al [1979] The Emergence of Symbols: Cognition and communication in infancy. New York: Academic Press Stephenson, J. & Lightfoot, K. [1996 ]. Intentional communication and graphic symbol use by students with severe intellectual disability. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education [see page 53] suggest the use of symbols emerges only once proto-declaratives* are established * [ proto-declaratives: initiations to achieve social closeness / joint attention]

17 Level of complexity and therefore emergence Do / get this Hows it going? Symbolic understanding

18 Carter, M., & Iacono, T., [2002] 'Professional judgments of the intentionality of communicative acts', Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 18:3, 177 - 191 …… frequent production of intentional communicative acts appears to precede the emergence of symbolic communication.... eg attempts to coordinate goal and other

19 Learners actions will indicate their readiness for symbols to be introduced including: alternating gaze between a goal and listener, persistence in signalling until the goal is reached, changing the quality of the signal until the goal is met, using a signal that is ritualised or has a conventional form within a specific context, awaiting a response from the receiver, terminating the signal when the goal is achieved, and indicating satisfaction if the goal is met or dissatisfaction if it is not met Iacono, Carter, and Hook (1998) ;Wetherby and Prizant (1989) Harding [1984],

20 trial based exchanges using symbols with learners who are pre-symbolic [ mirage 2] simplifying a learning situation or communicative act by stripping it down to the level of what is observable, the meaning of the actions can be confused and the nature of the activity can easily be lost By apparently

21 .... a much more complex problem Alternating glance [eg eyepoint] ….is a relatively simple task for a learner, involving glances between two venues - ie the target item and the listener …but when we insert a symbol or pictograph into the situation We add an additional venue, which requires the learner to coordinate a triple focus of attention.... Questioning trial based exchanges using symbols with learners who are pre-symbolic

22 Interactions to express needs and wants focus on the target object or action........ not on the partner (Light 1988 cited in Light Parsons & Drager 2002).

23 once the object or action is attained... the communication usually ends. (Light 1988 cited in Light Parsons & Drager 2002).

24 providing this type of intervention addresses several issues; – purposeful teaching, – obvious evidence; – straightforward data. interventions to build skills in expressing needs and wants have formed the centre piece of AAC programmes for people who are beginning communicators. making meaning Interventions to promote interaction and social closeness are less straightforward may be more complex to develop Because they rely on participants being able to sustain the interaction through the active engagement or involvement of both participants Light Parsons & Drager [2002] Theres more to life than cookies :Developing interactions for social closeness with beginning communicators who use AAC in Reichle Beukelman & Light [eds] Exemplary Practices for Beginning Communicators, Implications for AAC. Baltimore ; Brookes Publishing

25 Learner acts/performs task [request] Learner receives reward Learner enjoys reward Learner acts/performs task [request] Learner receives reward Learner enjoys reward Learner acts/performs task [request] Learner acts/performs task [request] Learner receives reward Learner receives reward Learner enjoys reward Learner enjoys reward Learner acts/performs task [request] Learner acts/performs task [request] Learner receives reward Learner receives reward Learner enjoys reward Learner enjoys reward Learner acts/performs task [request] Learner receives reward Learner enjoys reward Trial *1 Trial *2 Trial *3 Trial *4

26 Learner acts/performs task [request] Learner receives reward Learner enjoys reward Learner acts/performs task [request] Learner receives reward Learner enjoys reward Learner acts/performs task [request] Learner receives reward Learner enjoys reward Learner acts/performs task [request] Learner receives reward Learner enjoys reward Learner acts/performs task [request] Learner receives reward Learner enjoys reward Learner acts/performs task [request] Learner receives reward Learner enjoys reward Learner acts/performs task [request] Learner receives reward Learner enjoys reward Learner acts/performs task [request] Learner receives reward Learner enjoys reward Operant conditioning Skinner, B.F. (1953). Science and human behaviour. Oxford, England: Macmillan. STOP PRESS Increased frequency of performance does not indicate increased learning

27 purposeful involvement in the process of communication usually relying on a community of practice to moderate progress observable behavioural responses & extrinsic performance outcomes. usually relying on predictive goals, decided by one person ?

28 Training Enrichment

29 problem individuals who spend extended spans of time engaged in limited [eg request ] encounters, where they achieve finite results …… [in recognisable set piece interactions] ……..may be expected to orient to those types of encounter as the immediately profitable type of interactive strategy.

30 communication drink please snack please go out it is red go home lunch box finished ! apparently growing wisdom People learn to communicate through learning to make goal oriented requests

31 actually….

32 To a person with only a hammer, every problem looks like a nail Reason J [1990] Human Error Cambridge University Press

33 33 …. parents.[ ie…or the communicative partners ] get to the level on which their children [ or the learners] are operating and move ahead with them at a rate which shows remarkable sensitivity to their childrens progress …[p162] Bruner.J.,[1981] The social context of language acquisition. Language and Communication Vol 1 No 2/3, pp 155-178 ….analysis of the parental contribution to successful communication learning

34 34 Bruner.J.,[1981] The social context of language acquisition. Language and Communication Vol 1 No 2/3, pp 155-178 ….analysis of the parental contribution to successful communication learning ….formats have game-like or playful quality …along with a rule structure that evolves within them

35 " much of what we talk about to each other is simply the hot air of companionship.... Mostly, most of us simply like to be with other people and enjoy each other,... laugh, be companions" Hewett. D [2011]

36 One of the main functions of human communication is to accrue the sense of wellbeing which arises from it [Hewett 2011] Enjoyment…… banter…… gossip….. small talk…. One of the main functions of human communication is to accrue the sense of wellbeing which arises from it [Hewett 2011] …the crucial bridge between ourselves and others – we can only be known through our communication Burton & Dimbleby 1995 Between Ourselves: An Introduction to Interpersonal Communication: London:Arnold

37 communication Goal oriented Do shops open on Sunday arvo? your turn to empty the dishwasher Could I have my wallet back? What time is the next train? say hi to John social Waaaaaaaaasssssup its a hot day again! Look at that driving! youre looking well Nice runners! tch….footie players!!! what have you been up to? Goal oriented do the shops open on Sunday arvo? your turn to empty the dishwasher Could I have my wallet back? What time is the next train? say hi to John

38

39 FUNCTIONAL GOAL/OUTCOME ORIENTED communication between professionals & people with severe-profound intellectual disabilities 39 Enjoyment…… banter…… gossip….. small talk….

40 Listen…….. AT RECESS IN CORRIDORS IN CLASSROOMS task oriented, goal directed to achieve an instrumental outcome staff member leading and directing

41 Interventions promoting …joint attention or social closeness are frequently neglected.. yet these types of interaction are critical to social and emotional development and to the development of a sense of social belonging Light Parsons & Drager [2002] Theres more to life than cookies :Developing interactions for social closeness with beginning communicators who use AAC in Reichle Beukelman & Light [eds] Exemplary Practices for Beginning Communicators, Implications for AAC. Baltimore ; Brookes Publishing

42 Communications where what is said is less important than the fact that something is said at all Pearce [1989] Communication and the Human Condition. Chicago Southern Illinois Univ Press Utterances that….have exclusively social bonding functions …. ….especially at opening and closing of social- verbal encounters Senft [2009] Phatic Communication in Ostman, Verschueren [eds] Culture and Language use (p226-233) Amsterdam; J.Benjamins Phatic communication; Conversational speech used to communicate sociability more than information

43 43

44 Phatic communication; ….serves to establish bonds of personal union between people brought together by the mere need of companionship and does not serve any purpose of communicating ideas Malinowski [1923] Cited by D Hewett New Perspectives on Intensive Interaction IN PRESS See also Burton & Dimbleby [1995] 1995 Between Ourselves: An Introduction to Interpersonal Communication: London:Arnold …the crucial role of communication in establishing and maintaining a sense of self Adler & Rodman [2006] ………….sense of identity comes from the way we interact with other people

45 QUALITY OF LIFE J.OBrien Presence The right to take part in community life and to live and spend leisure time with other members of the community. Participation The right to experience valued relationships. Control The right to express choices, in ones life. Competence The right to learn new skill and participate in meaningful activities with whatever assistance is required. Respect The right to be valued and not treated as a second-class citizen.

46 PRESENCE PARTICIPATION CONTROL COMPETENCE RESPECT

47 Quality of life 47 Enjoyment…… banter…… small talk gossip….. having a laugh


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