Presentation on theme: "American Regional Cuisine"— Presentation transcript:
1American Regional Cuisine What Is American Cuisine?
2History“Melting pot” - blending of different ethnic groups to form one cultureThe United States developed as a nation of immigrants creating a melting pot of ethnic diversityBetween 1820 and around 33 million people immigrated to the US
3Immigrants came To escape religious or political persecution In search of economic opportunityThe New Colossus- Emma Lazarus“Give me your tired, your poor,Your huddled masses yearning to be free.”Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, With conquering limbs astride from land to land; Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame. "Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!"” cries she With silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”
4Immigrants came To avoid famine and starvation To find a better life for themselves and their families
5Between 1880 and two and a half to three million Jewish immigrants came from Eastern and Central EuropeThey shared a religion but not necessarily their nationality.The Jewish melting pot melded cooking traditions from many different countries, kosher dietary laws, and influences from their new home.
6Immigrants prepared the recipes from their homeland, replacing traditional food items with available ingredients.People shared recipes with friends and neighbors, adopted all they liked, and added new recipes, ingredients, flavorings, and cooking techniques.Individuals altered the recipes and the cuisines fused.
7Immigrants settled into ethnic neighborhoods They spoke their native language in both homes and businesses.They had easier access to the food products needed to prepare their native dishes.
8New York CityFirst settled by the Dutch in 1624 and called New AmsterdamServed as the major embarkation port for European immigrants in the early years
9After 1820s - Jewish immigrants came 1840s - Irish came to escape Potato FamineLate 1800s to early 1900s - Italians settled on the east sideAsians moved to Chinatown on the east sidePuerto Ricans and Africans settled in Harlem
10Chicago Immigrants from foreign countries People moved from rural areas in the Plains and Midwest to trade farming for urban livingDrawn to jobs in factories, stockyards, slaughter houses, steel mills, or refineriesOne of the biggest Polish communities in the United States
11San Francisco Gold prospectors from the US and around the world Laborers to work on the railroadFactory workersWorkers in agricultureSpanish missionaries
12By 1852 - twenty thousand Chinese immigrants lived there Many Japanese and other Asians came because of nearby fertile fieldsEven living outside the city, they came to Chinatown to purchase food and other goods
13Hawaii 1853 - native Hawaiians were 97% of the population native Hawaiians made up only 16% of the population
14Around 1820, Portuguese began arriving on whaling ships. They worked in Fishing industryAgricultureDairy farmsRanches
15To fill the need for cheap labor for the sugar and pineapple plantations, they brought 46,000 from China180,000 from Japan66,000 from the PhilippinesMany Portuguese and Puerto Ricans
16Boston Originally, many immigrated from IrelandItalyChinaToday, African Americans are 25% of the population.
17Detroit Largest Middle Eastern population in the United States African Americans make up 81.6% of the population
18MiamiCapital of the Cuban American and Latin American population in the United States60% of population is Hispanic
19Los Angeles Immigrants came for work in agriculture Many Mexicans crossed the border and settled in Los AngelesSprawling city - Los Angeles covers more than 465 square miles
20Indigenous CuisinesThe pre-contact cooking styles of original inhabitantsBased on indigenous ingredients native to the land (wild or cultivated) and indigenous cooking technologyAmerican examples: wild turkey, corn on the cob, squash, wild rice, cranberries, chilis
21Old Word CuisinesThe European cooking styles of America’s earliest settlers while in their former homesBased on Old World ingredients and cooking technologyEnglish examples: roast beef, apple pie.Over time may lead to Regional Cuisine?
22History Creates Cuisine Indigenous group: the descendants of a land’s original inhabitantsFirst settlers: the earliest non-indigenous people to arrive in a regionColonists are sponsored by a nation to settle an unclaimed, unsettled land (English coming to America)Pioneers settle wilderness areas of their own nation (Virginia to N.Y or Pennsylvania)Second settlers come later: often called immigrants
23Hybrid CuisinePositive interaction between indigenous groups and first settlers typically leads to a blending of cuisines: the resulting new coking style is called a hybrid cuisine.Indian Pudding: British Hasty Pudding (wheat)using corn meal (Indian flour) To replace scarcewheat. It was then flavored with molasses ormaple syrup for sweet pudding or drippings ofsalted meat for savory.In time it evolved into a resoundingly sweet dish.
24Hybrid CuisineBased on indigenous foods and colonial domesticates (Old World foods successfully raised in the new colony)New England-style cornbread (Old World wheat flour and American cornmeal)Roast stuffed turkey (Old World wheat bread and American-origin turkey)
25Understanding Regional Cuisines A regional cuisine is a unified style of cooking common to most of the people living in a culinary region.
26Regional Cuisines Geography Homogenous food culture ~ Defined by 3 criteria:GeographyHomogenous food cultureDefining dishes: That are unique and noteworthy
27A Defining Dish Unmistakably represents a particular culinary region Singular enough to be readily distinguished from the dishes of all other regionsExamples: Chowder, Boston Baked Beans, Collard GreensBelow: Southern Fried Chicken, a Plantation South defining dish
28Characteristics of the Land Land characteristics determine the success of agriculture, the source of most of our food. SOIL: rich, deep, plentiful, and properly managed soil is conducive to large-scale agriculture CLIMATE: determines which food plants and animals will grow in a particular area TOPOGRAPHY: affects climate and the use of farm machinery, and therefore affects agricultural success (grapes) PROXIMITY to other regions affects the exchange of ingredients and culinary ideas
29The Food Culture of the Indigenous People For most pre-contact Native American cuisines:Ingredients: Game meats and fishThe Three Sisters (corn, beans, squash)Cooking Methods: fire technology; stone, skin, earthenware
30The Food Culture of the First Settlers The Homeland CuisineColonists bring Old World cuisine to the new landPioneers bring Colonial cuisine to the new landThe Hybrid CuisineSome first settlers embrace indigenous ingredients and cooking methods, creating a new and vibrant hybrid cooking style.Other first settlers reject most indigenous ingredients and create a cooking style based primarily on colonial domesticates (Old World Foods Successfully Raised in the New World= Transplanted Cuisine)
31Foods and Cooking Techniques Brought by Immigrants Ingredients and cooking methods introduced by immigrants are often more exciting and complex than those of the existing regional cuisine. The culinary impact of immigrants often changes the destiny of a region’s cuisine.
32Economic ViabilityEconomic viability is the point at which a region can support its own population with the revenues from its goods and services.The population has moved from subsistence to affluence.A sizable upper class has disposable income to spend on dining.Home cooks have leisure time to prepare complex dishes.Chefs are paid high salaries to create culinary masterpieces.Diners are experienced and educated, and can afford expensive restaurants.Economic viability generates travel and trade, which enrich the cuisine with new ingredients and ideas.
33Foreign Cuisines in America A foreign cuisine is a national or regional cuisine practiced outside its homeland.Remains virtually unchanged, because immigrants are able to obtain authentic ingredients. After about 1970, global trading made ingredients available from other world regions.Examples: Chinatowns in N.Y. and San Francisco, Indian, Thai, Korean.
34America’s National Cuisine A national cuisine is a unified style of cooking common to most of a country’s population. America’s national cuisine emerged in the late 1800s as a result of improved transportation and the emergence of national media.