Presentation on theme: "What Is American Cuisine?. Melting pot - blending of different ethnic groups to form one culture The United States developed as a nation of immigrants."— Presentation transcript:
What Is American Cuisine?
Melting pot - blending of different ethnic groups to form one culture The United States developed as a nation of immigrants creating a melting pot of ethnic diversity Between 1820 and 1920 - around 33 million people immigrated to the US
To escape religious or political persecution In search of economic opportunity The New Colossus - Emma Lazarus Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to be free. Immigrants came
To avoid famine and starvation To find a better life for themselves and their families
Between 1880 and 1924 - two and a half to three million Jewish immigrants came from Eastern and Central Europe They shared a religion but not necessarily their nationality. The Jewish melting pot melded cooking traditions from many different countries, kosher dietary laws, and influences from their new home.
Immigrants prepared the recipes from their homeland, replacing traditional food items with available ingredients. People shared recipes with friends and neighbors, adopted all they liked, and added new recipes, ingredients, flavorings, and cooking techniques. Individuals altered the recipes and the cuisines fused.
They spoke their native language in both homes and businesses. They had easier access to the food products needed to prepare their native dishes. Immigrants settled into ethnic neighborhoods
First settled by the Dutch in 1624 and called New Amsterdam Served as the major embarkation port for European immigrants in the early years New York City
After 1820s - Jewish immigrants came 1840s - Irish came to escape Potato Famine Late 1800s to early 1900s - Italians settled on the east side Asians moved to Chinatown on the east side Puerto Ricans and Africans settled in Harlem
Immigrants from foreign countries People moved from rural areas in the Plains and Midwest to trade farming for urban living Drawn to jobs in factories, stockyards, slaughter houses, steel mills, or refineries One of the biggest Polish communities in the United States Chicago
Gold prospectors from the US and around the world Laborers to work on the railroad Factory workers Workers in agriculture Spanish missionaries San Francisco
By 1852 - twenty thousand Chinese immigrants lived there Many Japanese and other Asians came because of nearby fertile fields Even living outside the city, they came to Chinatown to purchase food and other goods
1853 - native Hawaiians were 97% of the population 1923 - native Hawaiians made up only 16% of the population Hawaii
Around 1820, Portuguese began arriving on whaling ships. They worked in Fishing industry Agriculture Dairy farms Ranches
To fill the need for cheap labor for the sugar and pineapple plantations, they brought 46,000 from China 180,000 from Japan 66,000 from the Philippines Many Portuguese and Puerto Ricans
Originally, many immigrated from Ireland Italy China Today, African Americans are 25% of the population. Boston
Largest Middle Eastern population in the United States African Americans make up 81.6% of the population Detroit
Capital of the Cuban American and Latin American population in the United States 60% of population is Hispanic Miami
Immigrants came for work in agriculture Many Mexicans crossed the border and settled in Los Angeles Sprawling city - Los Angeles covers more than 465 square miles Los Angeles
The pre-contact cooking styles of original inhabitants Based on indigenous ingredients native to the land (wild or cultivated) and indigenous cooking technology American examples: wild turkey, corn on the cob, squash, wild rice, cranberries, chilis
The European cooking styles of Americas earliest settlers while in their former homes Based on Old World ingredients and cooking technology English examples: roast beef, apple pie. Over time may lead to Regional Cuisine?
Indigenous group: the descendants of a lands original inhabitants First settlers: the earliest non- indigenous people to arrive in a region Colonists are sponsored by a nation to settle an unclaimed, unsettled land (English coming to America) Pioneers settle wilderness areas of their own nation (Virginia to N.Y or Pennsylvania) Second settlers come later: often called immigrants
Positive interaction between indigenous groups and first settlers typically leads to a blending of cuisines: the resulting new coking style is called a hybrid cuisine. Indian Pudding : British Hasty Pudding (wheat) using corn meal (Indian flour) To replace scarce wheat. It was then flavored with molasses or maple syrup for sweet pudding or drippings of salted meat for savory. In time it evolved into a resoundingly sweet dish.
Based on indigenous foods and colonial domesticates (Old World foods successfully raised in the new colony) New England-style cornbread (Old World wheat flour and American cornmeal) Roast stuffed turkey (Old World wheat bread and American-origin turkey)
A regional cuisine is a unified style of cooking common to most of the people living in a culinary region.
~ Defined by 3 criteria: Geography Homogenous food culture Defining dishes: That are unique and noteworthy
Unmistakably represents a particular culinary region Singular enough to be readily distinguished from the dishes of all other regions Examples: Chowder, Boston Baked Beans, Collard Greens Below : Southern Fried Chicken, a Plantation South defining dish
Land characteristics determine the success of agriculture, the source of most of our food. SOIL: rich, deep, plentiful, and properly managed soil is conducive to large-scale agriculture CLIMATE: determines which food plants and animals will grow in a particular area TOPOGRAPHY: affects climate and the use of farm machinery, and therefore affects agricultural success (grapes) PROXIMITY to other regions affects the exchange of ingredients and culinary ideas
For most pre-contact Native American cuisines: Ingredients: Game meats and fish The Three Sisters (corn, beans, squash) Cooking Methods: fire technology; stone, skin, earthenware
The Homeland Cuisine Colonists bring Old World cuisine to the new land Pioneers bring Colonial cuisine to the new land The Hybrid Cuisine Some first settlers embrace indigenous ingredients and cooking methods, creating a new and vibrant hybrid cooking style. Other first settlers reject most indigenous ingredients and create a cooking style based primarily on colonial domesticates (Old World Foods Successfully Raised in the New World= Transplanted Cuisine)
Ingredients and cooking methods introduced by immigrants are often more exciting and complex than those of the existing regional cuisine. The culinary impact of immigrants often changes the destiny of a regions cuisine.
Economic viability is the point at which a region can support its own population with the revenues from its goods and services. The population has moved from subsistence to affluence. A sizable upper class has disposable income to spend on dining. Home cooks have leisure time to prepare complex dishes. Chefs are paid high salaries to create culinary masterpieces. Diners are experienced and educated, and can afford expensive restaurants. Economic viability generates travel and trade, which enrich the cuisine with new ingredients and ideas.
A foreign cuisine is a national or regional cuisine practiced outside its homeland. Remains virtually unchanged, because immigrants are able to obtain authentic ingredients. After about 1970, global trading made ingredients available from other world regions. Examples: Chinatowns in N.Y. and San Francisco, Indian, Thai, Korean.
A national cuisine is a unified style of cooking common to most of a countrys population. Americas national cuisine emerged in the late 1800s as a result of improved transportation and the emergence of national media.