5The History of MeadMead is thought to be the oldest alcoholic beverages know to man.The history of mead may go back more than 8,000 years.The oldest known meads were created on the Island of Crete. Wine had not yet been created. Mead was the drink of the Age of Gold, and the word for drunk in classical Greek is methismenos or honey-intoxicated.
6The History of MeadThe earliest archaeological evidence for the production of mead dates to around 7000 BC. Pottery vessels containing a mixture of mead, rice and other fruits along with organic compounds of fermentation were found in Northern ChinaThe English word mead derives from the Old English meodu, meaning fermented honey drink
7The History of MeadLegend has it that the word honeymoon is derived from an ancient tradition of sending a newly married couple off to seclusion for a month with much mead, to ensure their best chance to start a family quickly. Mead has been, and still is, considered the drink of love.
8LegalNew Jersey Statute §33:1-75 allows for the production of wine or malt alcoholic beverages in the home by persons over the age of 21, not to exceed 200 gallons per year, free from state excise tax. A requirement for New Jersey home beer and wine makers to obtain a state permitto practice their hobby waseliminated in January 2012.
9A fermented drink made with honey, water and yeast also known as MUST What is Mead?A fermented drink made with honey, water and yeast also known as MUST
10What is Mead?There are 4 main types of ingredients that are most commonly used:FruitVegetablesSpices, Herbs and PlantsOther Foods such as molasses, maple syrup or chocolate
11Mead Styles: Sack Mead - a sweeter Mead, with more honey Melomel - with fruit or fruit juiceMetheglin - with spicesand extractsA short list .. There are a lot more ..
12Mead Styles Acerglyn - with maple syrup Morat - with mulberries Pyment - with bothhoney and grapesHippocras – withhoney, grapes, and spices
13Mead StylesCyser - honey and apples or apple cider (apple juice in Europe) Can also be made with peach, cherry or pear ciderBraggot - honey and malt, sort of a Mead-beerOxymel - Mead mixed with wine vinegar
14Mead StylesRhodomel - honey with Attar, a rose petal distillate, or rose petalsCapsicumel - honey with chile peppers
15Mead StylesT'ej –with honey, water and hops. It is the national drink of Ethiopia, and has a unique taste
16Supplies you will need…. Starter Winemaking Equipment: $74.99 (8200 pg. 68)Winemaking Equipment Kit Instructional DVD7.9 gallon plastic fermenter with lid6 gallon glass carboy, Stopper, AirlockBottle brush, Hydrometer8 ounces of Easy Clean No-Rinse CleanserPlastic plunger corker30- #8 X 1 3/4" straight corksRacking cane,5 feet of siphon tubingBottle fillerShut-off clamp
17Supplies you will also need…. Brew Pot – 3 gallonLong Handled SpoonThermometerMix-Stir Agitator RodYeast NutrientYeast EnergizerAcid BlendBentoniteFlocculentBottles (ask your friends)Most importantly… Recipes!We use a Candy ThermometerColor of bottles – TOM
19Supplies you will also need…. Corrado’s in PattersonCorrado's Home Beer and Winemaking Center offers everything you need to become a skilled wine or beer maker! Come see our state-of-the art equipment, supplies, and wine & beer paraphernalia! Talk with one of our knowledgeable staff-members about making beer or wine in your very own home!
20Terminology and Calculations Specific Gravity (S.G.) –This is used to determine how much sugar is present in the Must/Mead. The higher the SG, the more sugar is present.Final Gravity (F.G.) – The measurement of the specific gravity when all fermentation has ceased. The lowest that can be reached is
21Terminology and Calculations Alcohol by Volume (ABV) – The amount of alcohol in your Mead, given as a percentage of the total volume. Most wines are around the 11% to 12% ABV, but it is possible to ferment up to 20% to 22%.pH or Acidity – The amount of acid in your Must will determine the health of the yeast. A solution of honey in water will usually have a natural pH of around 3.7 to 4.6. The optimal pH for yeast is around 3.7 for best results.
22Terminology and Calculations Acid blend is a blend of the three most common acids found in fruit: citric, malic and tartaric. It’s typically used in wines that are naturally lacking in acid, which typically results in a flat tasting wine. Acid Blend adds liveliness to the wine and helps to bring out its fruity flavors. Having a proper level of acidity will help establish a vigorous fermentation.Mouth feel
26Keep good records Recipe Name Process: Prep method (including times, amounts, temperatures, acid level, processes and observations)Brew Date – __/__/__ Batch Size – ___ gal. Honey Varietal – ______ S.G. goal – 1.___ %ABV goal – __%Continued notes and comments (additions, aerations, rackings etc.) up to bottling and tasting notes.Ingredients: __Lbs. Honey __gal. Liquid (water/apple cider etc.) __Lbs. Other ingredients __oz. DAP/Energizer __oz. Yeast etc.Using a standard brewlog will help tremendously with keeping things organized.Brewing is an Art but it is also an Exact Science
27The Process Determine the recipe Gather the ingredients, supplies & additivesPrepare & sanitize, sanitize, sanitize!All measurements are byweight, not volume
28The Process Some of our favorite recipes: Natural Sack Mead Clove MetheglinFall Spice MetheglinMulberry MoratRocky Mountain Red MetheglinRoyal Metheglin
30The ProcessWeigh the honey into your brew pot using equal amounts of honey to water ratio.Heat to 145 degrees for8 minutes.We use 14 lbs for 5 gallons145 for 8 minutes - Reference:Talk about Watersource
36The ProcessPour the heated honey into the bucket. Fill to the 6 gallon mark.
37The ProcessRemember honey is a natural antibiotic so we add yeast energizer, yeast nutrient andacid blend.
38The ProcessAfter the mixture has cooled to about 68º, take your initial Specific Gravity reading with your Hydrometer.This will tell you what your potential alcohol will be
39The ProcessStir in any additives such as flowers or oak chips.
40The Process Pitch the yeast. We use a yeast starter made from orange juice.
41The ProcessFirmly cover the primary fermenter, secure air lock and wait for the fermentation.Store 65-75º (max)
42The ProcessIn 1-2 days fermentation should begin and after about a week, the initial fermentation should appear stop.Then rack off into a carboy,recap, put in a cool darkLocation. In about 1 weekTake a S.G. reading. If 1.000Or less we go onto the nextStep. If not, wait a fewmore days and take anotherreading.Store not more than 75º Remember – Sterilize!
43The ProcessOnce the S.G. reading is or less then with your drill and your Mix-Stir Agitator Rod and whip the mead vigorously. Do not over-whip.During fermentation – yeast CO2 binds with small particulates. Degassing force CO2 out and settles in a couple of weeks.Don’t over whip, foam will make a mess!
44The Process You can also add preservatives such as Sorbate and a chemical like Metabisulfite to insure that the fermentation process will not continue in your bottles.
45The Process Then add your flocculent. Popular flocculents are: IsinglassSparkolloidMix well, add water to within 1 inch of the airlockReinsert Airlock, put in cool darkplace. Wait 2 weeks.Flocculants are used to clarify quicker Otherwise it could take up to a year or more to clarify
47Bottling When you are ready to bottle: Take a final Hydrometer reading, compare the values to determine alcohol content.Clean & sanitize your bottles:One 6 gallon carboy will yield about 3 cases of standard750 ml wine bottles.
48Bottling When you are ready to bottle: Using a racking cane, fill & corkeach bottle.Finally, Label & apply shrink caps.
54Credits & Sources Books Making Wild Wines & Meads: 125 Unusual Recipes Using Herbs, Fruits, Flowers & More by Vargas & GullingBrewing Mead, Wassail! In Mazers of Mead by Brewers Publications – Boulder Colorado
55What will your next recipe bee? Other ConsiderationsLarge or Small batchWhat will your next recipe bee?Questions???
56The Finished Product Enjoy! Other Methods, SNA Staggered Nutrient AdditionsWassail (Old English wæs hæl,literally 'be you healthy')Enjoy!