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Chapter 16 Salads and Dressings
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Recognize the different purposes salads serve on a menu
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Salads on the Menu Purposes salads serve on the menu –Appetizer salads –Main course salads –Salad bars
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Appetizer Salads Traditionally, appetizer salads served as a –light and refreshing lead-in to the main course –quick and easy way to satisfy diners while entrées are being prepared
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Main Course Salads Chefs create lighter entrées by pairing chicken, seafood, or meat with salad greens May combine hot and cold elements on same plate
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Salad Bars Common in American casual dining and fast-food restaurants Diners enjoy the variety, choice, and ability to create custom salads The use of low cost ingredients and minimal labor costs are appealing to restaurant operators
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Salad Bars A successful salad bar –offers a large variety of attractively displayed ingredients –is designed for easy access –maintains food at proper temperatures
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Classify the different types of salads
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Types of Salads Three types of salads include –simple salads –composed or plated salads –bound and marinated salads
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Simple Salads A simple salad should include a variety of flavors, colors, and texturessimple salad
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Simple Salads When dressing a simple salad, –any type of dressing can be used –dress the salad just before serving –serve dressing on the side
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Composed or Plated Salads Composed salads are popular main course menu itemsComposed salads Four parts of a composed salad include –base –body –dressing –garnish
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Composed or Plated Salads Base –Lettuce leaves or a bed of cut greens –Acts as backdrop for other ingredients Body –Main ingredient of salad –Could be greens, a marinated or bound salad, meat, fish, or poultry
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Composed or Plated Salads Dressing –Compatible with other ingredients –Adds moisture and flavor Garnish –Adds color and texture to finished presentation
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Bound and Marinated Salads Chefs use combinations of various cooked foods to create bound salads and marinated saladsbound saladsmarinated salads These salads provide an opportunity to use up leftover foods creatively
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Recognize common salad greens
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Common Salad Greens Iceberg Lettuce –Most popular variety in U.S. –Long shelf life –Crisp leaves, round shape, tightly packed head –Mild, sweet, refreshing flavor
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Common Salad Greens Romaine Lettuce (Cos) –Crisp ribs surrounded by tender leaves –Elongated head with round-tipped leaves
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Common Salad Greens Escarole (Broad Leaf Endive) –Loose, relatively crisp head; flat leaves with curly tips –Slightly bitter flavor
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Common Salad Greens Curly Endive (Curly Chicory) –Crisp ribs; narrow leaves with curly edge –Bitter flavor; provides contrasting flavor and texture in lettuce mixtures
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Common Salad Greens Belgian Endive (Witloof Chicory) –Tightly packed, elongated head with pointed tip –Bitter flavor with slight sweetness
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Common Salad Greens Leaf Lettuce (Green Leaf Lettuce) –Used in salads or as liner for plates and platters –Mild flavor
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Common Salad Greens Red Leaf Lettuce (Red- Tipped Lettuce) –Same texture and flavor as green leaf lettuce –Often included in salad mixes for contrasting color
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Common Salad Greens Boston Lettuce (Butterhead) –Soft green cup- shaped leaves –Loose head with creamy-colored inner leaves –Popular as salad base and in mixed salads
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Common Salad Greens Bibb Lettuce (Limestone Lettuce) –Developed in Kentucky –Similar color and texture to Boston lettuce, but smaller head –One head is often served as single portion
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Common Salad Greens Spinach –Smaller, tender leaves are best for salads –Purchased in bunches or cello pack, packaged in plastic bags –Remove fibrous stems and wash several times to remove dirt and grit
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Common Salad Greens Watercress –Classic plate garnish for red meats –Remove thick stems before serving –Peppery flavor
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Common Salad Greens Radicchio –Italian variety of chicory –Bitter flavor –Small amounts added to mixed greens for contrasting color
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Common Salad Greens Mesclun –Often purchased ready-to-use –Attractive variety of textures, colors, and flavors
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Common Salad Greens Sprouts –Grown from seeds or beans soaked in water –Alfalfa, bean, radishes, and mustard are most popular types –Grown in high moisture, high temperature environment conducive to bacterial growth
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Explain various factors involved when buying lettuce
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Buying Lettuce Subject to great fluctuations in quality and price Usually packed 24 heads to a case Actual cost of the lettuce is affected by the amount of waste
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Buying Lettuce Ready-to-Eat Greens –Greens are prewashed and precut –More expensive than other greens –No prep time and little or no waste for the operation –Must be rotated and used quickly
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Execute the preparation of salad greens
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Preparing Salad Greens Greens that are not ready-to-eat must be prepared before use Steps for preparing salad greens include –cutting –washing –drying
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Trim and remove the core Trim any wilted or discolored leaves Remove thick fibrous stems from leafy greens Cut (or tear) into bite- sized pieces
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Washing Cut greens are placed in a sink or large container filled with cold water Greens should float freely
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Washing Stir the greens to loosen dirt and sand, which sinks to the bottom Remove greens from the water and drain
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Drying To remove excess water from washed salad greens –drain in a colander or perforated hotel pan –use a salad spinner (best method)
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technique: Preparing Salad Greens 1.Remove any wilted outer leaves. 2.Cut away any rusted or discolored parts, especially the leaf tips. 3.Remove the core or stem of the salad green. 4.Cut the lettuce or greens into bite-sized pieces. 5.Wash greens by submerging them in cold water. 6.Drain in a salad spinner.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Compare and contrast the three salad dressingssimple vinaigrette, mayonnaise, and emulsified dressing
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Salad Dressings Salad dressing should enhance the flavor of the salad Three basic types of salad dressing include –simple vinaigrette –mayonnaise –emulsified dressing
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Simple Vinaigrettes The secret to a good vinaigrette is balancing the fat, acid, and seasoningsvinaigrette Oil provides the palate with a supple mouthfeel and acts as flavor carrier Vinegar cuts the fat, adds another taste sensation, and prevents the oil from coating the palate
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Simple Vinaigrettes To achieve the desired balance, a 3:1 ratio of oil to vinegar is often used When working with a stronger vinegar, most chefs change the ratio to 4 or 5:1 Because vinegar and oil separate, simple vinaigrette must be stirred immediately before service
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Mayonnaise and Emulsified Dressings Simple vinaigrette separates because it is a temporary emulsionemulsion An emulsion can be stabilized with egg or egg yolks to prevent separation
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Mayonnaise and Emulsified Dressings When making mayonnaise, the tiny drops of oil become suspended in the water from the vinegar and eggmayonnaise Proteins from the egg yolk keep the oil and water from separating Mayonnaise is often used as a base for dressings and cold sauces
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technique: Preparing Mayonnaise Preparation of mayonnaise and emulsified dressings can be done by hand, with an electric mixer, or in a food processor. 1.Place egg yolks, mustard, and vinegar in a bowl and whip to combine them well.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technique: Preparing Mayonnaise 2.While constantly whipping the yolk mixture, add the oil in a thin stream.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technique: Preparing Mayonnaise 3.Continue to whip and add oil until all the oil is incorporated.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technique: Preparing Mayonnaise 4.Adjust consistency by thinning with a small amount of water or lemon juice if needed. 5.Season with salt and pepper. Adjust acidity with additional vinegar or lemon juice if needed. 6.Refrigerate immediately.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Mayonnaise and Emulsified Dressings One egg yolk to one cup of oil is the standard proportion for making mayonnaise Mustard and vinegar are often added to taste
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Mayonnaise and Emulsified Dressings Emulsified dressings are made with the same technique used for creating emulsions Herbs, spices, and cheese are common ingredients in emulsified dressings Emulsified dressings are usually thinner than mayonnaise because of added liquid or the use of whole eggs
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Ingredients for Dressings Ingredients commonly used in dressings include –oil –vinegar –mustard There is a range of choices for each of these ingredients, which allows chefs to customize dressings
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Ingredients for Dressings Oils –High quality oil is essential for making a good vinaigrette, mayonnaise, or dressing –Oils are classified as neutral or flavored –Neutral oils are flavorless and interchangeable in recipes –Flavored oils are extracted from ingredients that contribute their unique flavor
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Ingredients for Dressings Vinegars –Originally made from fermented barley juice, wine, or apple cider –Today, they are made from different types of wine, fruits, or herbs
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Ingredients for Dressings Vinegars –Most vinegars are diluted to five percent acid –Naturally fermented wine vinegars usually contain six to seven percent acid –Citrus juice can also be used as an acid in vinaigrettes
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Ingredients for Dressings Mustard –Its sharp flavor counters the richness of the oil –Helps to emulsify mayonnaise and emulsified dressings –Dry or prepared mustards can be used –Used in small amounts because of its strong flavor
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Recall standard procedures that will ensure both sanitation and quality in salad preparation
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sanitation and Quality in Salad Preparation Thoroughly wash all salad ingredients Keep salad ingredients well chilled Refrigerate dressings containing egg or dairy products at or below 41°F (5°C) Chill salad plates before plating
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sanitation and Quality in Salad Preparation Use gloves or utensils to handle salad ingredients Mix tossed salads with dressing as close to service as possible Dont overdress salads
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Name the different purposes salads serve on a menu –Appetizer salad –Main course salad –Salad bar
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review What are the three main types of salad? –Simple salads –Composed or plated salads –Bound and marinated salads
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Name the steps used to prepare salad greens –Cutting –Washing –Drying
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review What are the three types of salad dressings? –Simple vinaigrette –Mayonnaise –Emulsified dressing
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review What is the proportion of oil to vinegar chefs use when making a simple vinaigrette? –Three parts oil to one part vinegar
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review What is the proportion of egg yolk to oil chefs use when preparing mayonnaise? –One egg yolk to one cup oil
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Name the three ingredients generally used in all dressings –Oil –Vinegar –Mustard
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Salad Green Identification Belgian endive (Witloof chicory)Romain lettuce (Cos)
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Salad Green Identification SproutsSpinach
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Salad Green Identification Bibb lettuce (Limestone lettuce) Iceberg lettuce
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Salad Green Identification Curly endive (Curly chicory)Leaf lettuce (Green leaf lettuce)
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Salad Green Identification Escarole (Broad leaf endive) Red leaf lettuce (Red-tipped lettuce)
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Salad Green Identification Boston lettuce (Butterhead)Radicchio
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Salad Green Identification MesclunWatercress
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glossary bound salad. A salad composed of cooked items that are mixed with mayonnaise. composed salad. A finished salad that has ingredients assembled in a particular arrangement, also known as plated salad. emulsion. A mixture of two liquids that dont naturally mix.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glossary marinated salad. A salad composed of cooked foods mixed with a vinaigrette. mayonnaise. A cold sauce that is an emulsion of oil and vinegar stabilized with egg yolk and mustard. mesclun. A mixture of baby lettuces, sometimes referred to as spring mix or field greens.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glossary simple salad. A term used to classify a salad of greens and various raw vegetables such as cucumbers, carrots, tomatoes, and others. vinaigrette. A mixture of oil and vinegar used to dress salads.
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